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Patent 3 Patent 3 Document Transcript

  • FORM 2 THE PATENT ACT1970 (39OF1970) AND THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 (See section10, rule13) COMPLETE SPECIFICATION Title of Invention: “A unique process for recovery of Low Viscous-Low Suphur-High Pour Point -Fuel Oil by converting wasted tyres”. APPLICANT: a) Name: b) Nationality: Indian c) Address: [1]
  • PREAMBLE OF INVENTION: The fallowing specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed. FIELD OF THE INVENTION: The invention relates generally to processes for economically recovering carbonaceous materials from used vulcanized articles. More specifically it relates to an economical pyrolysis process for recovering carbon black, fuel oil, fuel gas and steel from discarded tires. BACKGROUND OF INVENTION: Passenger cars and trucks are normally wear out millions of tires each year. Disposal of these used tires has become a major environmental problem. A high proportion (25%- 35%) of the weight of a used tire consists of carbon black reinforcing of the rubber in both the tread and sidewalls. This carbon black is prepared by conventional carbon black production processes and comprises individual particles one micron or less in diameter. Fifty to sixty percent (50%-60%) of the weight of a discarded tire is butadiene-styrene copolymer rubber. Tires also contain certain amounts of oil and significant quantities of steel wire and/or fiberglass or polyester cord. All of these components are expensive and require large amounts of energy in their manufacture. A process that would allow economic recovery of these materials from the huge [2]
  • stocks of used tires piling up around the country would be very desirable. Unfortunately, the very characteristics that makes tires long-lasting and safe on the road, i.e., durability, resistance to puncture and slicing, and resistance to decomposition at moderate temperatures, combine to make tires exceptionally difficult to recycle. The prior art teaches that rubber can be pyrolyzed in the absence of air at temperatures of between 842° and 1112° Fahrenheit in laboratory equipment to produce oil, gas and a solid residue that is carbonaceous in nature. Large electrically heated sink reactors and Dewar flasks have been used for obtaining test data. The prior art also teaches some pilot plants that were built to carry tire processing schemes into the commercial world. Circulating heated ceramic balls have been used as a direct source of reaction heat. The balls are heated externally, mixed with rubber feed chips, discharged, screened, reheated and recycled. These reactions take place substantially at atmospheric pressure. Other pilot plants have been designed which make the carbonaceous solid phase of tire pyrolysis into fuel briquets. These fuel briquets are much less valuable than the carbon black produced by the present invention. Still other batch pilot plants have been built in which the tires are indirectly heated through the tray walls of multi-tray reactors to temperatures of between 1400° and 1600° Fahrenheit. At [3]
  • these temperatures, heavy oils and tar products can be recycled for further cracking to improve carbon black yields. Other batch and continuous type process plants have been built that depend on indirect heating through the walls of a jacketed screw reactor from a high temperature molten salt heat sink. These reactors do not have hollow shafts nor hollow flights and have far less heat transfer area than the present invention. When heating rubber as for instance chips for tires, the rubber at certain temperature, usually 400°-500° F. start to devulcanize and one gets a soft slicky phase which adheres to most known heat transfer surfaces reducing heat transfer and making a continuous operation difficult. The present invention overcomes this difficulty with a novel approach which is not taught in the prior art. It is extremely difficult to physically break tires apart to obtain individual rubber particles free of reinforcing materials. Commercially available tire disintegrators include slicing machines, hammer mills, debeaders and manglers that have been adapted to tire reduction from other industries. The recent introduction of steel reinforcing in both passenger and truck tires has greatly increased the difficulty and expense of sufficiently disintegrating a tire to convert it into a useable pyrolysis feed stock. [4]
  • Aside from the purely physical problems associated with breaking down used tires before they can be pyrolized, the prior art also teaches that vapors produced from tire pyrolysis are loaded with dusty unburned rubber and carbon black particles. These particles plug vapor lines, coolers, condensers, and generally gum up equipment. Further, some of the heavier hydrocarbons driven off during pyrolysis is composed of tar and pitch. These high melting point fractions solidify quickly, especially in the presence of dust and fiber glass and again generally gum up downstream processing equipment. If the tires are wet, as happens when they are washed with water to remove accumulated dust and mud, the water vapor distills and forms emulsions with the heavy oils and tars. Tire pyrolysis oils are also contaminated with metals and solids carryover. This causes them to have greatly reduced value as fuel oils. The high degree of metallic impurities also causes significant problems to be associated with the use of these hydrocarbons for fuel. The present invention overcomes the physical difficulties of the prior art in making clean oils and overcome the problems with the condensation of the vapors. Solid phase pyrolysis reaction produces taught by the prior art include partially decomposed rubber, carbon black particles, fiberglass, steel wires, metallic oxide ashes and dust. The prior art has never taught any [5]
  • satisfactory way of converting this conglomerate carbonaceous mixture into a clean fuel. It is even more difficult to convert such a mixture of components into saleable carbon black, which would yield much greater economic returns. Because of these difficulties and the environmental restraints placed on such recovery processes, the prior art does not teach a pyrolysis system for the conversion of vehicle tires to saleable carbon black and hydrocarbons. To produce commercial carbon black from tires, one has to use a very controlled temperature of the pyrolysis process. Haphazard changes or systems where the temperature cannot be well controlled will lead to intolerable variances in the fuel oil produced. The present invention overcomes this difficulty in a novel way not taught by the prior art. It is an objective of the present invention to teach a method of and manufacture apparatus for pyrolyzing used tires economically into commercial quantities of oil and fuel gas. It is yet another objective of the present invention to teach a method of pyrolyzing used tires that is energy efficient fuel having low viscosity and and sulphar content and also generates all the fuel gas necessary to operate the [6]
  • process within environmental regulations from the process itself. It is yet another object of the present invention to teach a method and teach apparatus for pyrolyzing used tires economically and commercially saleable Low Viscous/Low Sulphur Fuel oil and Carbon Black. PRIOR ART: In existing method as given in patent application no. 6221329, wherein A process and system for the recovery of desirable constituent materials from vehicle tire pieces through pyrolysis. The system includes a pyrolysis section that is divided into a plurality of individual heating zones. Each of the heating zones is heated to a distinct operating temperature that is independent from the operating temperature of the remaining heating zones. Vehicle tire pieces are fed into the infeed end of the pyrolysis section by a rotatable feed cylinder that includes a screw-like flight extending from the inner wall of the feed cylinder. As the feed cylinder rotates, the flight directs the supply of vehicle tire pieces into the infeed end of the pyrolysis section. The pyrolysis section includes a rotary kiln that is divided into the plurality of heating zones. The vehicle tire pieces are fed through the plurality of heating zones in the rotary kiln from the infeed end of the rotary kiln to the discharge end of the rotary kiln, such that the tire pieces are pyrolyze... [7]
  • In another existing method as given in patent application no. 4463203, wherein A process for the preparation of fuel oil, fuel gas and pyrolysis coke by heating to a temperature of 600.degree.-700.degree. C. a mixture of rubber, synthetic resin, brown coal and bentonite. In another existing method as given in patent application no. 4648328, wherein This invention relates to an apparatus and process for the pyrolysis of used vehicular tires. The apparatus includes a reaction chamber supported internally of an insulated casing and heated by heating means interposed between the chamber and the casing. Tire fragments are introduced into and removed from the reaction chamber through airlock mechanisms to prevent the ingress of ambient air as the fragments are conveyed through the chamber by a chain and flight conveyor scraping any accumulated solids from the chamber and the conveyor. All portions of the apparatus contacting the pyrolysis reaction products are clad with a layer of aluminum oxide to prevent corrosion. The process includes shredding the used tires, preheating the tire fragments if desired, passing the fragments through the reaction chamber, separating solid and gaseous products, recycling a portion of the gaseous product to the heating means, and recoving salable gas, oil and carbon products. In another existing method as given in patent application no. 4235676, wherein An elongated tube is maintained at a temperature of about 1100.degree. F. throughout its length. Organic waste material such as shredded rubber automobile tires or industrial plastic waste or residential trash which preferably has metal and inorganic matter removed there from, is moved through the tube at a [8]
  • uniform rate of speed in the absence of air and/or oxygen, with the material being churned or tumbled as by means of a screw conveyor. The vapors and gases which are produced and/or liberated within the tube are quickly removed there from by means of a vacuum of from about four inches to about six inches of mercury, with the vapors being condensed and the gases separated there from. The char or residue which is a black, powdery, carbon-type material is also recovered. In another existing method as given in patent application no. 5157176, wherein A preferred embodiment of the process and apparatus for recycling used automobile rubber tires is described in which small pieces of rubber tires are progressively fed into a vertical reactor of the counter-flow type in which the material progressively descends downward through the reactor with process gases passing upward through the downwardly descending material to decompose and volatilize the rubber material. At the lower portion of the vessel, oxygen-bearing gas is injected into the reactor to burn a portion of the rubber carbon to generate hot combustion gases that ascend upwardly to pyrolitically decompose the rubber pieces, and to volatilize such material. The amount of oxygen is controlled in an oxygen-deficient manner to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone at a temperature of less than 500.degree. F. The gases and volatilized rubber materials and oils are removed from the [9]
  • reactor at a temperature of approximately 350.degree. F. At an elevation below the top... In another existing method as given in patent application no. 5208401, wherein Commercially valuable chemicals are separated from tire-derived pyrolytic oils by subjecting the pyrolytic oils to a fractional distillation at a temperature of up to about 204.degree. C. under atmospheric pressure to isolate at least one commercially valuable chemical selected from the group consisting of paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Particularly valuable chemicals which can be extracted from tire- derived pyrolytic oils are benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene and dl-limonene. In another existing method as given in patent application no. 3996022, wherein Heretofore waste rubber, a substantial amount of it in the form of used automobile tires, has been buried, burned, or otherwise disposed of in manners and by means totally inconsistent with good ecological practices and considerations. Now, such waste or scrap rubber, both natural and synthetic, can readily be converted in the presence of molten acidic halide Lewis salt catalysts to useful products, including fuels comprising a naptha-like oil, a burnable solid carbonaceous material, and a mixture of gases. The most promising salts are zinc chloride, tin chloride, and antimony iodide. Also, an extremely active catalyst can be [10]
  • prepared by adding up to about 60 percent by weight of sodium chloride to the zinc chloride catalyst. The burnable carbonaceous material has been shown to be a carbon black of moderate quality and is believed to be suitable for reuse in tires if blended with high-quality fresh carbon black. In another existing method as given in patent application no. 3978199, wherein Carbon black is recovered from vulcanized waste rubber such as automobile tires or other articles by reacting pieces of the rubber with an aromatic oil solvent in a stirred reactor at 500.degree.-700.degree.F temperature and about 25-100 psig pressure for 0.5-2 hours residence time. The resulting solids-liquid mixture is processed to remove solids, and the resulting solid product is then dried, screened and chemically treated to recover the carbon black in dry powder form. The remaining solvent oil is also recovered and a portion reused in the process. In another existing method as given in patent application no. 5976484, wherein A method and device is provided which is capable of producing gasified substance and solid-shaped carbonized substances from solid-shaped wastes such as waste tyres by a series of heating, dry distillation and splitting decomposition. After discharging out from the bottom of a splitting decomposition reactor, the solid-shaped carbonized substances are subject to a [11]
  • series of treatments: water washing, magnetic separating, alkaline cleaning and acid pickling (treatment) to separate out iron wire and to remove heavy metal-bearing ash contents. The carbonized substances are next pulverized to the desired particle size so that highly purified carbon black is formed. Subsequently, the carbon black granules are led into an activation furnace and are heated and activated at the atmosphere of steam being passed in to produce powder particulate activated carbon. On the other hand, from the gasified substance produced by-products of the combustible oil and gas are respectively formed. This... In another existing method as given in patent application no. 6271427, wherein The invention relates to a method for the recovery of carbon and combinations of hydrocarbons from discarded tyres or similar polymeric material by pyrolysis, using a reactor (3) in which the material is placed in a preferably largely fragmented condition, whereby the material is heated to pyrolysis temperature by the recirculation of previously formed and heated pyrolysis gas which is led through the material and where the pyrolysis gas obtained in this way is brought to condense to condensable products in a condenser (8) connected to the reactor. In order to improve the possibilities of control of the process of pyrolysis, a [12]
  • reactor is used with an inlet (6) and an outlet (7) so that a gas can be led through the reactor (3) passing over the polymeric material which is placed in it, whereby at least a part of the pyrolysis gas which does not condense in the condenser (8) is heated to a predetermined temperature and is led by recirculation in a circuit through the reactor for... In another existing method as given in patent application no. 5158983, wherein The present invention is directed to a process for the conversion of waste plastics and scrap rubber to a high quality synthetic crude oil which can be separated by fractionation into gasoline, diesel fuel and gas oils suitable as a feedstock to a catalytic cracker. The process generally includes the steps of heating the plastic scrap and scrap automotive tires in a hydrogen atmosphere at moderate temperatures and pressures. It has also been determined that the polymeric waste material must be present in combination with the scrap automotive tires to attain conversion of the scrap automotive tires to liquid hydrocarbon. In another existing method as given in patent application no. 5095040, wherein Old rubber tires are physically shredded and a sized fraction of the shreds is fed into a heated rotating stainless steel tube in which the temperature is carefully controlled so that the shreds are [13]
  • converted to a char and a No. 4 oil product both of which are separately recovered. In another existing method as given in patent application no. 5286374, wherein An economic and safe process includes a catalytic cracking of the rubber tires and rubber products in the presence of mica catalyst selected from muscovite, sericite and biotite at a reaction temperature of 230.degree.-400.degree. C. under a pressure of 1-2.5 atmospheres for forming mixed oils, carbon black, gaseous products, and other residual products. In another existing method as given in patent application no. 4740270, wherein A process for the treatment of used rubber tires by vacuum pyrolysis in a reactor to produce liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons and a solid carbonaceous material is disclosed. According to the invention, the pyrolysis of the tires is carried out at a temperature in the range of about 360.degree. C. to about 415.degree. C., under a sub-atmospheric pressure of less than about 35 mm Hg and such that gases and vapors produced in the reactor have a residence time of the order of a few seconds. The process according to the invention enables one to increase the yield of the liquid hydrocarbons and lower the yields of the gaseous hydrocarbons and solid carbonaceous material, and to thereby produce hydrocarbon oils in substantially [14]
  • maximum yield. These hydrocarbon oils have a high calorific value and are thus suitable for use as heating fuel. OBJECT OF THE INVENTION: It is therefore, an objective of this invention is to manufacture process of carbon black, fuel oil, fuel gas and steel from used tires. Most particularly the said invention has unique raw material conveying through pneumatic conveying system, as soon as it reaches the jacketed feeding hopper where the raw material powder is Pre-Heated to 150 Degree Celcius. According to this system preheating chambers can also be used as a main Pyrolysis reactor and the Jacketed Screw Conveyors used as the main reactors in the earlier occasion can be operational as a carbon black powder coolers and conveyors. STATEMENT OF THE INVENTION: [15]
  • The present invention is basically a process of recovery of Low Viscous /Low sulphar fuel oil by converting the wasted tyres. However, waste tyre, a substantial amount of it in the form of used automobile tires, has been burnt, or otherwise disposed of in manners and by means totally inconsistent with good ecological practices and considerations. Now, such waste or scrap rubber, both natural and synthetic, can readily be converted in the presence of Calcium Carbonate and Magnesium Oxide catalysts mixture to useful products, including fuels comprising a naphtha-like oil, a burnable solid carbonaceous material, and a mixture of gases. The burnable carbonaceous material has been shown to be a carbon black of moderate quality and is believed to be suitable for reuse in tires if blended with high-quality fresh carbon black. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION: The present invention is directed to retrieving from the 500 million plus automobile tires and the like which are [16]
  • annually discarded in this country and abroad, a hydrocarbon fuel substitute with a liquid oil equivalent of over 800 million gallons per year to help meet this nation's energy needs and at the same time to improve its physical environment. Additionally, the conversion process herein disclosed also recovers a residual material consisting primarily of carbon black, which may be recycled into new tires, thereby further reducing the demand for natural gas from which carbon black is now made. These desirable objectives, as well as many others, are obtained in the present invention by means of a process wherein relatively large pieces of scrap rubber including whole tire carcasses are shredded and the powder of 30 mesh size is pre dried and in the first pyrolysis chamber it is mixed with mixture of Catalyst, whereby the resulting extremely rapid reaction produces the following three basic products: The first product is a mixture of non codensable hydrocarbon gases; the second product is a low-sulfur fuel oil; and the third product is a carbonaceous residue. According to the present invention it has been observed that the amounts of these three products. Yields of the oil run as high as 60 percent under conditions that dictate that on a scale of commercial size expectations for the amounts of these products should be 45% oil by weight (about 1.5 gallons per tyre), 45 percent carbonaceous residue, and about 10 percent gases. The oil [17]
  • product meets the requirements of a No. 2 fuel oil without further treatment. For purposes of operating the process, the heating values in the gaseous product from the present invention are quite sufficient to provide the necessary makeup heat for maintenance and continuance of the reaction, and finally and equally importantly, the present process proceeds rapidly with rubber introduced into the catalyst. Thus, a process has been developed which can recover very rapidly the hydrocarbon values of used tire carcasses and the like which operate in a time period of a matter of minutes. If even shorter times are required, or desirable, the reaction proceeds in a matter of seconds on diced pieces of waste tire. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION: Disposed vehicle tyres and other rubber materials have in recent times become a major environmental problem partly because such material is in itself not simply biodegradable and thus currently requires extremely large stores and dumping areas, and partly because combustion of the material to ash in special combustion plants forms environmentally dangerous substances such as sulphur- containing acids and other gases which smell of fuel. [18]
  • Since the material of which the tyre is composed itself contains a large fraction of substances which are valuable for the petrochemical industry, it has proved interesting to find efficient methods for recovering these valuable substances. Tyres consist of, among other things, approximately 35% carbon black as reinforcement in the walls and wearable surface of the tyre, approximately 60% styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) and considerable amounts of oil, together with cord in the form of steel wire and/or glass fibre polyester. All of these substances are valuable and expensive to produce by conventional methods from current raw materials. On the other hand, unfortunately, the substances which are elements of the tyre material and which give the tyre its desirable properties are also primarily those substances that make the possibilities of efficiently recycling the tyre more difficult. The present invention now proposes a new and novel apparatus and process for the pyrolysis of used vehicular tires. The pyrolysis reactor possesses several unique characteristics which solve the problems of continuous pyrolysis of shredded tire fragments on a continuing, commercially viable basis. Process: [19]
  • Generally the wasted tyre is shredded into smaller cubes, after the removal of bead wire, steel wire, and nylon cord. The shredded pieces undergo further size reduction through set of pulverizes and once the size is brought out to 30 mesh size through a unique pneumatic conveying system. Automatically it reaches very quickly the jacketed feeding hopper where the raw material powder is Pre- Heated to 150 Degree Celcius. Due to gravity it passes through an Air Lock System and gets inside the First stage of Pyrolysis. Reactor having Jacketed, Finned, Screw Conveyor system. The Jacket is externally insulated using Ceramic fiber wool. (The temperature range is in between 300 to 400 degree celcius.).The catalyst and Hydrocarbon cracking solutions are dosed through a metering device. The evolving mixture of hydrocarbon gases have been sucked out of the reactor using a blower and the hot mixture of hydrocarbon gases pass through a cyclone filter, where all the solid particles are separated and then passes through a shell and tube condenser, where the condensable Hydrocarbon gases are condensed to form oil and non condensable gases are scrubbed through a packed column scrubber and [20]
  • the purified gas is utilized as fuel for the burner located in our Hot Air Generator. Once the first pyrolysis step is completed the partially converted material passes through the second stage pyrolysis reactor through an Air Lock System where the temperature of reaction is maintained throughout between 400 to 500 degree Celcius. The evolving hydrocarbon gases have been sucked out of the reactor using a blower and the hot m`oture of hydrocarbon gases pass through a cyclone filter, where all the solid particles are separated and then passes through a shell and tube condenser, where the condensable Hydrocarbon gases are condensed to form oil and non condensable gases are scrubbed through a packed column scrubber, and the purified gas is utilized as fuel for the burner located in our Hot Air Generator. Other reactors where the main body of the reactor rotates like a cement kiln, wherein the agitation inside will too little due to improper material size and rate of heat transfer will be less. Consuming lot of heat energy30% more heat energy. [21]
  • Moreover feeding cannot be continuous. Also the carbon black removal will be consuming lot of time and huge production loss. Few other conventional designs have vertical reactors having an agitator. Here the feeding of non uniform raw material sizes is a big challenge and every time the lid has to be manually opened and closed. It is not safe to open the lid for every batch since entrapped air inside the reactor may cause explosion. Inside the present reactor Agitation given to the waste tyre powder is the maximum due to the revolving Paddles fixed on the Rotating Screw. The Heat Transfer Coefficient rate is the maximum. Due to that agitation not only the Catalyst is uniformly mixed but also the rate of pyrolysis .is increased. This design is unique where in preheating chambers can also be used as a main Pyrolysis reactor and the two sets of Jacketed Screw Conveyors used as the main reactors in the earlier occasion can be operational as a carbon black powder coolers and conveyors. The first aim of the present invention is therefore to achieve a method which improves the best opportunities for controlling the process of pyrolysis and which makes [22]
  • it possible to recycle significant components such as carbon black and condensed oils from discarded tyres in a more efficient way and with a higher quality. To be more precise, what is aimed at is a method which makes it possible to control the pyrolysis process based on a schedule which is predetermined, using parameters set depending on economically reducing the size of raw material as a result the cost of size reduction does not exceed 0.07 US$ /kg which is used and on which final product is desired, and the method according to the invention is based in principle on the introduction of tyre material for continuous treatment in the reactor, that heating of the reactors are carried out using a hot air heated by the scrubbed non-condensable gas evolving from the pyrolysis reaction.The composition and relative amount of the pyrolysis gas which is produced by the reactor is measured, whereby the information obtained is used to control and regulate the process. A second aim of the invention is to make the handling of the processed tyre waste continously, and in this way make it possible to rapidly and simply exchange the material through the pneumatic conveying sysrem. [23]
  • The current invention is not limited to that described above and shown in the figure, but can be changed and modified in a number of ways within the scope of the concept of the invention as stated in the following claims. ABSTRACT The present invention relates to a method and process for the recovery of Low viscous /low sulphur fuel oil, carbon black and fuel gas conversion of wasted tyres or similar polymeric material by pyrolysis. Discarded tyre is shredded into smaller cubes, after the removal of bead wire, steel wire, and nylon chord. The shredded pieces undergo further size reduction through set of pulverize and once the size is brought out to 30 mesh size through a unique pneumatic conveying system.and passed on to a specially manufactured Finned Jacketted, Screw Conveyors.The heat energy required for the pyrolysis reaction is supplied by a hot air generator fuelled by the non-condensable gases evolving from the pyrolysis reaction. [24]
  • CLAIMS: I/We Claim; 1. A unique process for recovery of Low Suphur/Low Viscous and fuel gas conversion of wasted tyres, the process comprising the steps of: a. wasted tyre is shredded into smaller cubes, after the removal of bead wire, steel wire, and nylon chord. The shredded pieces undergo further size reduction through set of pulverize and once the size is brought out to 30 mesh size. b. transferring the product pieces from a supply into a Air lock system and gets inside the First stage of Pyrolysis; it reaches the jacketed feeding hopper where the raw material powder is Pre-Heated to 150 Degree Celsius. c. transferring the product powder from the first heating zone to a second heating zone in the pyrolysis chamber; heating the product powder between 300.degree to 400.degree in the second heating zone, d. transferring the product powder from the second heating zone to a third heating zone to the catalyst and Hydrocarbon cracking solutions are dosed through a [25]
  • metering device, heating the product powder at a third temperature in the third heating zone, the third temperature being more than the second heating zone(between 400 to 500degree cel) the evolving mixture of hydrocarbon gases have been sucked out of the reactor using a blower and the hot mixture of hydrocarbon gases pass through a cyclone filter where fine particles of carbon black powder is separated from the evolving gases. 2. The process of claim number 1 where all the solid particles are separated and then pass through a shell and tube condenser, where the condensable hydrocarbon gases are condensed to form Low Viscous/Low Sulphur oil and non condensable gases are scrubbed through a packed column scrubber and the purified gas is utilized as fuel for the burner located in our hot air generator. 3. The process of claim number 1 where in once the first pyrolysis step is completed the partially converted material passes through the second stage pyrolysis reactor through an Air Lock System where the temperature of reaction is maintained throughout between 300 to 400 degree Celsius. [26]
  • 4. The process of claim number 1 wherein the tire powders are transferred into pneumatic conveying system by a rotatable feeding vane,radially formed along an inside wall of the feed valve, the flight being constructed to direct the tire powder from a first end of the feed hopper to a second end of the feed valve as the feed vane rotates. 8. The process of claim number 3 wherein the evolving hydrocarbon gases have been sucked out of the reactor using a blower and the hot mixture of hydrocarbon gases pass through a cyclone filter, where all the solid particles are separated and then passes through a shell and tube condenser, where the condensable hydrocarbon gases are condensed to form oil and non condensable gases are scrubbed through a packed column scrubber, and the purified gas is utilized as fuel for the burner located in our hot air generator. 9. The process of claim number 3 due to gravity it passes through an air lock system and gets inside the First stage of pyrolysis. Reactor having jacketed, finned, screw conveyor system. The Jacket is externally insulated using [27]
  • Ceramic fiber wool. (The temperature range is in between 300 to 400 degree Celsius.) 10. The process of claim number 2 wherein the other reactors where the main body of the reactor rotates like a cement kiln, where in the agitation inside will too little due to improper material size and rate of heat transfer will be less. Consuming lot of heat energy30% more heat energy. 11. The process of claim number 10 wherein preheating chambers can used as a main pyrolysis reactor and the sets of jacketed screw conveyors used as the main reactors in the earlier occasion can be operational as a carbon black powder coolers and conveyors. 12. The process of claim number 10 wherein inside these reactor agitation given to the waste tyre powder is the maximum due to the revolving paddles fixed on the Rotating Screw. The heat transfer coefficient rate is the maximum. Due to that agitation not only the catalyst is uniformly mixed but also the rate of pyrolysis is increased. [28]
  • 13) Any waste shredded material like Rubber, Tyre, Plastics, Rice husk, Alge , fed continuously through an extruder fixed at an angle in a Reactor filled with Lead material Kept at a temperature between 250 degree to 1000 degree Celsius, will be pyrolysed and the evolving hydrocarbon gases will pass through a condenser where condensable gases will be converted into fuel oil and non- condensable gases is passed through a gas generator to drive an alternator to generate power.The generating capacity will be in the range of 5kw to 5megawatt.The heating system of the reactor can be Infra Red Or Induction Heating . Otherwise we can use the Non condensable gas can be used to heatup the water circulated through a Boiler and generate steam inturn will drive the Turbine and generate Power from (5 K.Watt) to( 5 Mega Watt) [29]