Background Breakthrough TechnologyEmission – g CO2 / km Current LPG /CNG Carbon Petrol Evolution Diesel Low Carbon Hybrids Fuel Cells Ethanol + H2 Zero Bio fuels Carbon Time Time Now 10/15-years
What is a Hybrid? Electric driveline + energy storeDownsize engine Reduced fuel consumption ££££££ £ Reduced emissions Recover free braking energy
Hybrid Benefits Customer Concerns• Low emissions – Global warming – CO2 • Added cost and weight – Local air quality – NOx, particulates • Relatively immature technology• Better fuel economy • Training & maintenance requirements• Smooth acceleration and performance • High voltage concerns• Quieter operation • Battery life• More reliable than alternative fuels
Energy StoreParallel HybridRetains mechanical drive between engine Controller Motor/generator and axleElectrical motor / generator blended in to assist acceleration and retardation Engine GearboxAs used in Enviro500 with the Allison Wheels hybrid drive Energy StoreSeries HybridNo mechanical link between engine and Controller axleEngine drives a generator, electric motor Engine connected to axle WheelsAs used in Enviro200 & Enviro400 with the BAE Systems Hybridrive Generator Motor
HybriDrive ® family of products Current system supports: • In-line (T-drive) • V-drive • Transverse 1-speed gearbox 11-16 Ton 120 kW motor GVWR 140 kW generator TB100Legacy system 1-speed gearbox 1-speed 160 kW motor 16-22 Ton gearbox 200 kW generator GVWR 190 kW motor TB200 120 kW generator 1-speed gearbox 290 kW motor 230 kW generator 22-26 Ton Transverse GVWR mount (only) TB300Modular, scalable hybrid propulsion for the complete model range
Lithium-ion energy storage systemFeatures Benefits• Best power and energy density of any • Improved regen and thus fuel economy commercially available solution • At least 10 percent improvement over hybrids• Nano-phosphate technology lead-acid batteries (NYC results)• Lower weight • Safe, no thermal runaway• Design life — 6+ years • No battery conditioning• Ambient air-cooled • Extended brake life• Supports future options • Longer battery life decreases total life-cycle cost• Full electric accessories (engine-off idle) • Does not require air-conditioning to cool batteries• EV mode for zero-emission zones • Quieter (less braking)• Redundant design • Path to zero-emission technology • Better reliability and performanceRATINGS• Power: 200 kW Nominal (Scalable)• DC bus output voltage: 600 Nominal• Operating Temperature: 520C (125oF) – < -10oC (20oF) heating packageSIZE• Height: 10 inches (254 mm) Single-air cooled• Width: 41 inches (1041 mm) enclosure• Length: 84 inches (2135 mm) 84 x 41 x 10 inches• Weight: 800 lb. (365 kg) 16 individual modulesCOOLANT - Ambient Air each at 18lbs Long-life, light weight, advanced battery system for improved fuel economy 8
ADL Philosophy• Maximise brake energy recovery• Load following - not through the battery• Emulate conventional driving characteristics• Charge neutral• Onboard equalisation• Turn-key systems with supplier support
2009 - Enviro400H built in partnership with BAE Systems - Turnkey approach - Reliable, well supported and exceeding performance targets2002- Enviro200H integrated with avariety of hybrid componentry- Unreliable and poorly supported bysupply partners
BAE Systems Worldwide Hybrid Experience• Fleet – Serving bus manufacturers worldwide – Shipped 3,000th propulsion system in June 2010 – Major fleets in New York City, San Francisco, Houston, Seattle, Toronto, Ottawa, London, Manchester and Oxford• Usage – Surpassed 320 million fleet km in July 2010 – 1 million passengers trips daily – 1 billion passenger trips cumulative• Public benefits – 45 million litres saved cumulative – Release of 100,000 tonnes of CO2 prevented cumulative
ADL Hybrid Performance to 1st May 2011• 12off E400H in service with 3 operators for 28months in London Field Trials• 5off E200H in service for 23months in London• 30off E400H in Manchester for 8 months• 26off E400H in Oxford for 9 months• 1off E400H in Thames Travel for 7 month• 20off E400H in London United for 5 months• 6off E400H in Reading for 5 months• 10off E400H in Metroline for 5 months• 8off E400H in EYMS for 1 month• 17off E400H in GAG Oxford for 1 month• 5off E200H Delivered to SPT• New Enviro350H prototypes built for Spain and Australasia 135 hybrids in service 216 in production programme with further orders anticipated
ADL Hybrid Performance to 1st May 2011• 1,636,215miles in-service in London operation• 1,088,642m in service in Stagecoach Oxford• 747,130miles in service in Manchester• 91,740miles in service in Reading• 14,555miles in Hull• 14,280 hybrid miles per day Total of over 3.5 million hybrid miles to date Europe’s best selling hybrids!
ADL Hybrid Performance to 1st May 2011• 30% fuel consumption improvement target has been met• ADL E400 Hybrids are Low Carbon Emitting Bus compliant at Euro 4 & 5 – fitted with EEV engine• Better than 97% vehicle availability achieved on E400H• Very positive customer feedback for hybrid drive system• 6.8 tonnes of CO2 saved every day• Over 633,000litres of fuel saved to date1711 Tonnes of CO2 saved to date!
ADL Next Steps• Further fuel savings are now possible – Stop / Start – Electrification of accessories – Topographical sensing software – Driver & Vehicle Monitoring
Next Steps• Hybrid drivelines opens up new chassis layout possibilities• Enviro 350H developed for Europe – Exclusively a hybrid – Unique packaging – Less saloon intrusion• 12 sold to Barcelona• Also sold also into Australasia & Scotland in RHD format
Achieving 30% Fuel Consumption Saving Government Subsidies?£ ? Time