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Winter Canola in Oklahoma by Brian Caldbeck, M.Sc.
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Winter Canola in Oklahoma by Brian Caldbeck, M.Sc.

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If you have any questions on this presentation, please contact Brian Caldbeck, Independent Agronomic Consultant at brian.caldbeck@caldbeckconsulting.com

If you have any questions on this presentation, please contact Brian Caldbeck, Independent Agronomic Consultant at brian.caldbeck@caldbeckconsulting.com

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  • 1. Winter Canola in Oklahoma Specific Considerations for Winter Canola in the States Climate, Soils and existing Crop RotationsCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 2. Winter Canola : Components of Yield Phase 1: Plant Population Density WATER YIELD NUTRIENTS Phase 2: Number of Pods / Plant Number of Seeds / Pod Individual Seed WeightCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 3. Nutrient and Water Needs for 45 bu. /ac. 2250 lb./ac. Winter Canola (approx) Water (inches/ac.) Nutrients (lb./ac.) Total: 9” to 11 ” from rain N: 120 -140 (3lb./bu. YG) or soil reserves. P & K Removal Basis 25% in fall (6 to 8 leaf) 75% in spring. P2O5: 30 to 35 (NRCS) April 10th to June 10th K: 27 to 30 (NRCS) 1/10th “ to 15/100th “ per day or 6 to 8 inches water (start of flowering to maturity)Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 4. Relative Water Requirements or Transpiration Coefficient Ranges • Corn: 2500 to 3000 gal. / bu. (56lb) • Winter Canola: 4900 to 5300 gal. / bu. (50lb.) ( 75% in spring) • Winter Wheat: 4900 to 5300 gal. / bu. (60 lb.) (75% in spring)Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 5. Climatological Data OklahomaCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 6. Winter Canola: A Biomass and Oil Production Facility For high yields, winter canola exerts huge demands on moisture. 6 to 8“ equivalent in 65 -75 days from beginning of flowering to maturity 70 -90 lb. accumulation of total dry matter / day (30 lb. seed / day) in a 45 bu./ac. crop plus high rates of oil biosynthesis. With optimal nutrients, water, temperatures and high yield potential genetics dry matter formation and seed yield can double over numbers aboveCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 7. Winter Canola Root Structures Compacted Soil Loamy Sand with Silty Loam with Clay loam , ideal Poor structure minimal water good fertility and root environment, Devoid of oxygen nutrient and oxygen permeability for good infiltration of in subsoil storage capacity water and oxygen water and aerated sub-soilCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 8. SOIL TYPES versus Plant Available Field Capacity “ Water (Estimates) Sand Sandy Loam Silty Clay Clay Sandy Silt Sand Loam Effective Root Zone " 24 28 40 44 40 Plant available field capacity " 2.2 5.2 6.8 6.6 5.6 Range " 1.2 to 3.3 4.4 to 5.7 6.8 6.0 to 7.5 5.6Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 9. Plant Population Density as influenced by Seeding/Planting Operations VIABLE PLANTS / AC. PLANTS / AC.Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 10. PRIMARY CHALLENGE TO SUCCESS OF WINTER CANOLA T DELTA T 80-90°F Southern US Regions vs. 30-50 °F Spring Canola RegionsCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 11. Establishing Winter Canola in Oklahoma Winter Wheat Stubbles Conventional or Min-Till No-Till• Accelerate wheat straw • Chemical Fallow degradation ↓allelopathy • Moisture retention /• Encourage weed/volunteer accumulation in profile seed bank • Very difficult to establish germination/reduction viable stand in heavy wheat residue even with no-till• Water table/salinity wheat drills; allelopathy• Incorporation of fertility, • Burning residue counter- manure, litter or lime productive to soil fertility and• Stale seedbed eliminates carbon balance of the crop for excessive soil disturbance processors. resulting in optimum depth • Better depth control / control and consolidation consolidation
  • 12. ALLELOPATHY WHEAT RESIDUE LEACHATES INHIBIT CANOLA GERMINATION AND GROWTH S.E. Bruce1, J.A. Kirkegaard1, S. Cormack2 and J. Pratley2. 1CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT, 2601. 2 Farrer Centre, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678. ABSTRACT Aqueous extracts of undecomposed residues of 2 wheat varieties (cv. Janz and Swift) were tested for their effect on the germination and radicle growth of lupins, oats and canola. Overall, the wheat residues were more toxic to canola than the other species although varietal differences were also evident. Both wheat cultivars caused greater inhibition of radicle growth of the canola cultivars than the other species. Extracts of Janz were more toxic to canola cv. Oscar germination than the other species while Swift was more toxic to oats cv. Echidna germination. These observations may explain the poor emergence and vigour of canola sown into wheat straw. Selection of canola varieties tolerant to wheat stubble phytotoxins may be possible for increasing the yield potential of canola crops in a wheat-canola rotation. 10th Intl. Rapeseed Congress, Canberra Australia, 1999CALDBECK CONSULTING ©
  • 13. Seeding Winter Canola with Wheat Seeders Single or Double Disc Openers Narrow Seed Distribution 0.5 to 1.0” vs. Shovel/Sweep Openers 4” to 6” Seed Spread (Northern Plains) Wheat seeders in OK primarily designed to seed in excess of 50 lb. seed per acreCALDBECK CONSULTING ©
  • 14. Winter Canola: Seeds per lb. VariationsCALDBECK CONSULTING ©
  • 15. LINEAR DISTRIBUTIONOF SEEDS, FIXED WEIGHT PER ACRECaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 16. Fluted Roller Metering Mechanisms Geared down to very low rpm resulting in “Dumping” of multiple seeds down seed tube Bunching of Small Seed Fluted metering rollerCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 17. DRILLINGORSPILLING??SPACING ISSUEFURTHER MAGNIFIEDWITH SMALLERSEEDCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 18. Poor uniformity in Emergence, Pounding Rain on structure less soilCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 19. “Throwing” Seed at a Poor Seedbed!!Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 20. Intra Row Clustering of Plants: Seeding on a “lbs. per acre basis”
  • 21. Winter Canola: Yield Elasticity versus Harvested Plant Population Seeded at 3.2 lb. seed / ac. Seeded at 5.0 lb. / ac. Hybrid Sitro: 70k seeds/lb. Hybrid Sitro 70k seeds/lb. Yield 60 bu./ac. Yield 60 bu.ac Commercial Winter Canola ProductionCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 22. Over-seeding Winter Canola is counter-intuitive • Manifestation of non-regular linear distribution of plants within the canopy which is proven to decrease yields (Huehn, 1998) • Greater than optimal fall stands create severe inter- plant competition; this has been demonstrated to reduce the yield potential of the remaining viable spring plants by 50 to 100% (Stoy 1983) • Excessive or non-regular density influences crown height which in turn influences plant viability and stand lossCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 23. Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 24. Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 25. Hypocotyl Extension or Elevated Crown ruptured by Spring freeze/thaw cyclesCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 26. Healthy Plant: Identical Conditions, Frozen Soil Surrounding Stem Preventing Physical Rupturing.Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 27. Accu-Sul Elemental SulfurCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 28. Treated Winter Canola Seed Blended with Tiger 90 Accu-SulCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 29. John Deere Seeder with Retrofitted Small Seed AttachmentNote: The large box on this seeder was being used to meter a Urea:MAPstarter blend into the 7.5” rows.
  • 30. No-Till Winter Canola (Wheat Seeders) Limited Success in Heavy Wheat Residue Limited Success in Heavy Corn Stalks Acceptable Performance in Bean Stubble (not a very common rotation) Silage Corn or Cotton StalksCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 31. Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 32. Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 33. Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 34. Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 35. Stems at Physiological MaturityCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 36. Vascular DamageCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 37. Planting Winter Canola With Row Crop Equipment • Depth Control • Residue management with Row Cleaners • Extensive Research on Row Width FlexibilityCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 38. TALL ORDERFOR AROW CROPPLANTER!Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 39. Plates Used In Vacuum Planter AssemblyCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 40. Strip-Till fb Planter in 2011 Wheat StubblesCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 41. Strip-Till in Winter Wheat StubbleCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 42. Strip-Till into Corn Stalks OKLAHOMA KANSASCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 43. Regular No-Till in Corn StalksCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 44. Twin Row: 7.5”/22.5” Courtesy: RUBISCO SEEDS LLC ©Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 45. Twin Row: 7.5”/22.5” Courtesy: RUBISCO SEEDS LLC ©Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 46. MAY OR SEPTEMBER??Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 47. 20” Row No-Till Winter CanolaCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 48. Additional Benefits of Row Cropping Winter Canola • Fertility Efficiency through Banding P & N • High output equipment: tight planting window • White Mold Management air/stalk diameter • Precise Seed rates matched to moisture/soils • Residue reflectance/moderation of soil temps • Moisture Conservation with No-Till • Superb Depth Control on Row UnitsCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 49. Planting Date and Plant Population 10/22/2009 10/15/2009Caldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 50. Winter Canola : Components of Yield Phase 1: Plant Population Density WATER YIELD NUTRIENTS Phase 2: Number of Pods / Plant Number of Seeds / Pod Individual Seed WeightCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 51. Phase 1 vs Phase 2 Yield Components Phase 1 Phase 2 • Building the Yield Potential • Preserving the Yield Potential • Strong Viable Plants • Number Pods / Plant • Extensive Root Systems • Number of Seeds / Pod • Uniform Distribution • Weight of Seeds • Residue Management • Optimal Nutrient Supply • Weed and Insect Mgt.Caldbeck Consulting ©
  • 52. “Constricting the Fuel Line” through a lag in rate of Photosynthesis Source (Leaf Area Index 3 to 4) High Metabolic Rates Potential for Significant Yield LossPhotosynthesis Sink40% due to shadingand reflection of lightuntil pods become lightactive Caldbeck Consulting ©
  • 53. Rate of Photosynthesis adjusts upwards as Pod Area Index increases resulting in stabilization of Yield PotentialCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 54. Evaluation of Winter Canola Germplasm
  • 55. Average of Plot Entries (3 years) 2006 2007 2008 OP 49.96 56.28 71.95 Hybrid 63.08 75.61 88.38 Plot 52.07 58.61 75.2 averageCaldbeck Consulting ©
  • 56. Genetics Hybrid Winter Canola Open-Pollinated Winter CanolaRUBISCO SEEDS LLC ©
  • 57. Heterosis or Hybrid Vigor In OK Winter Canola: Current StatusHybrids have demonstrated excellent yields inOklahoma State University Trials over multipleyears, frequently noted for their vigorous fallestablishment.Commercial adaptation of hybrids is just beginningas experienced farmers look toward increasing theprofitability of their winter canola enterprisesthrough increased bushels and higher seed oilcontents.
  • 58. Winter Canola Herbicide Research 2010-2011Caldbeck Consulting ©
  • 59. Winter Canola Herbicide Research 2011-2012 Courtesy: RUBISCO SEEDS LLC ©Caldbeck Consulting ©
  • 60. Variable Maturity: Soil Types, RollingCaldbeck Consulting ©
  • 61. Middle 1/3 of Pods on main stem: 90% Seeds Color changedCaldbeck Consulting ©
  • 62. Top Pods on Main Stem: 10% Seed Color ChangeCaldbeck Consulting ©
  • 63. Pre-Harvest Desiccation with Diquat @ 20 gpa carrier volumeCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 64. Direct Harvesting Desiccated Winter CanolaCaldbeck Consulting LLC ©
  • 65. Direct Harvesting with Vertical Side KnifeCaldbeck Consulting ©
  • 66. THANK YOU!WISHING YOU CONTINUED SUCCESS WITHOKLAHOMA WINTER CANOLA Caldbeck Consulting © Brian Caldbeck: Caldbeck Consulting LLC brian.caldbeck@caldbeckconsulting.com