Understanding Git
—
How not to lose your HEAD
Sebastian Neuser
HaSi e.V.
2013-09-26
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
Who am I?
I am a student of applied computer science (subject: electrical
engineering) at the University of Siegen.
I work...
Terms and conditions
This presentation aims to provide an overview of the (imho)
most important parts of Git ; it is just ...
What is Git?
$ whatis git
git (1) - the stupid content tracker
Git is more than a simple version control system – its
desi...
What is Git not?
Git is very unlike centralized VCS (CVS, subversion, . . . ).
Git is (against popular belief) neither ver...
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
Object types
There are four elementary object types in Git:
blob ; a file.
tree ; a directory.
commit ; a particular state ...
Object types – detailed
A blob is simply the content of a particular file plus some
meta-data.
A tree is a plain text file, ...
The SHA-1
The Secure Hash Algorithm is a 160 bit cryptographic hash
function used in TLS, SSH, PGP, . . .
Every object is ...
Combining hashes and objects
commit
9967ccb
commit
57be356
tree
a910656
tree
41fe540
blob
80146af
blob
50fcd26
blob
d54292...
References
master (as well as every other ref) is a text file which
contains nothing more than the hash of the latest commi...
References – visualized
commit
9967ccb
commit
57be356
tree
a910656
tree
41fe540
blob
80146af
blob
50fcd26
blob
d542920
blo...
The staging area
The staging area is kind of an intermediate layer between the
working directory and the repository, also ...
The index – Shell example
The Git plumbing command git ls-files parses the index file
and shows its contents:
$ git ls-file...
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
Creating or cloning a repository – Creating
Initializing a repository:
$ git init demo
Initialized empty Git repository in...
Creating or cloning a repository – Cloning
$ git clone git@github.com:haggl/dotfiles.git
Cloning into dotfiles...
remote: ...
Staging and committing files – Staging
Staging a new or changed file or folder:
$ git stage <path>
Staging parts of a change...
Adding and committing files – Manipulating files
Discarding all changes to a file or directory:
$ git checkout <path>
Renamin...
Adding and committing files – Committing
Simple commit, directly specifying the message:
$ git commit -m’<message>’
Showing...
Displaying information – Index and working directory
Showing a summary of the working directory and the index:
$ git statu...
Displaying information – Index and working directory
Showing the diff of a specific commit:
$ git show <commit>
Showing the...
Handling branches
Creating a branch pointing to HEAD:
$ git branch <branch name>
Creating a branch pointing to a specific c...
Handling branches – continued
Renaming a branch:
$ git branch -m <old name> <new name>
Letting a branch point to a specific...
Stashing
Saving the current working directory and index state into
commits and revert the changes to match HEAD:
$ git sta...
Working with remote repositories – Management
Adding a remote repository:
$ git remote add <name> <url>
Renaming a remote ...
Working with remote repositories – Downstream data flow
Updating all refs from all remote repositories, downloading the
nec...
Working with remote repositories – Upstream data flow
Pushing a branch to a remote repository:
$ git push <remote> <branch>...
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
Commit guidelines – Do
Conventions regarding the commit message:
1 The first line is a short (≤ 50 characters) description ...
Commit guidelines – Do not
Don’t make commits which leave the working directory in a
broken state!
Don’t commit files that ...
Topic branches
Aside from really small changes like cosmetics in comments,
whitespace issues and so on you should normally...
Rebasing
A rebase essentially does the following:
1 Save all commits that are in the current branch but not in the
target ...
Rebasing – visualized (starting point)
dcc1a52
mergeme
0e74e93
89f8555
master
HEAD
a5edb85
rebaseme
$ git merge mergeme
Me...
Rebasing – visualized (after merge)
dcc1a52
mergeme
0e74e93
89f8555
f9ee4d3
master
HEAD
a5edb85
rebaseme
$ git checkout re...
Rebasing – visualized (after rebase)
dcc1a52
mergeme
0e74e93
89f8555
f9ee4d3
master 0f2eb73
rebaseme
HEAD
Sebastian Neuser...
Rebasing – onto master
When you are done with your work on a topic branch, but the
master-branch was updated in the meanti...
Pull/Merge requests
In most cases you will not be allowed to push to the main
repository (in GitLab: the master branch) di...
Typical workflow – Clone or pull
1 Clone or update the refs of the remote repository:
Clone:
$ git clone <remote url>
$ git...
Typical workflow – Commit and push
2 Work on your topic branch:
[... some vimmin’ ...]
$ git add <changed files>
$ git stat...
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
Pros
Very fast
Creating a new repository is trivial
The repository uses little space
Branching and merging is easy
Rebase ...
Cons
Sometimes strange behaviour when working with different line
endings (CRLF, LF)
Inability to check out only parts of a...
Final thoughts
You should definitely cherish personal ~/.gitconfig and
~/.gitignore configuration files.
Git aliases are a re...
Further information
Though it may be not that easy to read, man is still your
friend.
The interactive Git cheatsheet.
The ...
Thank you for your attention!
Questions?
Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
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Understanding GIT

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Git ist eine freie Software zur verteilten Versionsverwaltung von Dateien - Alles klar? Nein? haggl wird uns erklären, was das bedeutet. Er wird uns in seinem Vortrag sämtliche Basic-Funktionen zeigen, so dass am Ende jeder das Programm einsetzen kann.

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Understanding GIT

  1. 1. Understanding Git — How not to lose your HEAD Sebastian Neuser HaSi e.V. 2013-09-26 Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  2. 2. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  3. 3. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  4. 4. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  5. 5. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  6. 6. Who am I? I am a student of applied computer science (subject: electrical engineering) at the University of Siegen. I work for os-cillation GmbH, where in most projects Git in conjunction with GitLab is used for version control and project management (issue tracking, wikis, . . . ). I have been using Unix-like operating systems for about ten years now, currently Debian is my system of choice. I am trying to use as few proprietary software as possible and you should too! Although Saint IGNUcius said ”vi vi vi is the editor of the beast”, I use vim extensively and with passion. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  7. 7. Terms and conditions This presentation aims to provide an overview of the (imho) most important parts of Git ; it is just scratching the surface! Shell code is highlighted $ echo like this. like this. Lines beginning with a $ are input, others are output. The presentation is based on Git version 1.7. I tend to talk fast! Please complain if it’s too fast. Feel free to ask questions any time. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  8. 8. What is Git? $ whatis git git (1) - the stupid content tracker Git is more than a simple version control system – its designers use the term source code management. Git is free software. Git is used in some of the biggest (free and) open source projects (Linux, KDE, Qt, . . . ). Git was initially written by Linus himself, because Linux needed a new VCS and he felt he could write something better than anything in existence in less than two weeks. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  9. 9. What is Git not? Git is very unlike centralized VCS (CVS, subversion, . . . ). Git is (against popular belief) neither very complex nor especially hard to learn. Git is not well suited for huge repositories! Git is not an excuse for not making any backups. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  10. 10. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  11. 11. Object types There are four elementary object types in Git: blob ; a file. tree ; a directory. commit ; a particular state of the working directory. tag ; an annotated tag (we will ignore this one for now). commit commit tree tree blob blob blob blob ... Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  12. 12. Object types – detailed A blob is simply the content of a particular file plus some meta-data. A tree is a plain text file, which contains a list of blobs and/or trees with their corresponding file modes and names. A commit is also a plain text file containing information about the author of the commit, a timestamp and references to the parent commit(s) and the corresponding tree. All objects are compressed with the DEFLATE algorithm and stored in the git object database under .git/objects. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  13. 13. The SHA-1 The Secure Hash Algorithm is a 160 bit cryptographic hash function used in TLS, SSH, PGP, . . . Every object is identified and referenced by its SHA-1 hash. Every time Git accesses an object, it validates the hash. Linus Torvalds: ”Git uses SHA-1 in a way which has nothing at all to do with security. [...] It’s about the ability to trust your data.” If you change only a single character in a single file, all hashes up to the commit change! Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  14. 14. Combining hashes and objects commit 9967ccb commit 57be356 tree a910656 tree 41fe540 blob 80146af blob 50fcd26 blob d542920 blob 50fcd26 Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  15. 15. References master (as well as every other ref) is a text file which contains nothing more than the hash of the latest commit made on the branch: $ cat .git/refs/heads/master 57be35615e5782705321e5025577828a0ebed13d HEAD is also a text file and contains only a pointer to the last object that was checked out: $ cat .git/HEAD ref: refs/heads/master Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  16. 16. References – visualized commit 9967ccb commit 57be356 tree a910656 tree 41fe540 blob 80146af blob 50fcd26 blob d542920 blob 50fcd26 master HEAD Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  17. 17. The staging area The staging area is kind of an intermediate layer between the working directory and the repository, also called the index. It is a binary file containing a virtual working tree state used to compose commits. Upon commit, the (virtual) tree of the staging area is tagged with meta data (author name, timestamp, parent, . . . ) and thus turned into an actual commit. It is possible to circumvent the staging area and not use it at all, but doing so neglects some of Git’s greatest features. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  18. 18. The index – Shell example The Git plumbing command git ls-files parses the index file and shows its contents: $ git ls-files --stage 100644 d542920062e17fd9e20b3b85fd2d0733b1fb7e77 0 file0 100644 50fcd26d6ce3000f9d5f12904e80eccdc5685dd1 0 file1 $ echo File 2 > file2 $ git add file2 $ git ls-files --stage 100644 d542920062e17fd9e20b3b85fd2d0733b1fb7e77 0 file0 100644 50fcd26d6ce3000f9d5f12904e80eccdc5685dd1 0 file1 100644 4475433e279a71203927cbe80125208a3b5db560 0 file2 Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  19. 19. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  20. 20. Creating or cloning a repository – Creating Initializing a repository: $ git init demo Initialized empty Git repository in /home/haggl/demo/.git/ This command automatically creates a working directory and within it a repository (; the .git-directory) with a branch called master, which is checked out. Initializing a bare repository (for server-side operation): $ git init --bare bare.git Initialized empty Git repository in /home/haggl/bare.git/ This command creates only the repository itself and the master-branch. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  21. 21. Creating or cloning a repository – Cloning $ git clone git@github.com:haggl/dotfiles.git Cloning into dotfiles... remote: Counting objects: 488, done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (251/251), done. remote: Total 488 (delta 249), reused 434 (delta 202) Receiving objects: 100% (488/488), 86.36 KiB, done. Resolving deltas: 100% (249/249), done. This command creates a working directory, makes a full copy of the original repository and checks out the master-branch. It also sets up the remote repository you cloned from and names it origin. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  22. 22. Staging and committing files – Staging Staging a new or changed file or folder: $ git stage <path> Staging parts of a changed file or folder: $ git stage -p <path> Staging all changed files (not adding new ones!): $ git stage -u Removing a file from the index (; un-staging it): $ git reset HEAD <path> Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  23. 23. Adding and committing files – Manipulating files Discarding all changes to a file or directory: $ git checkout <path> Renaming a file or directory: $ git mv <old name> <new name> Removing a file: $ git rm <file> Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  24. 24. Adding and committing files – Committing Simple commit, directly specifying the message: $ git commit -m’<message>’ Showing a full diff in the commit message editor: $ git commit -v Overwriting the last commit (; HEAD) in case you messed up or forgot something: $ git commit --amend Committing all changes (but not new files!): $ git commit -a Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  25. 25. Displaying information – Index and working directory Showing a summary of the working directory and the index: $ git status Showing a diff between the working directory and the index: $ git diff Showing a diff between the index and HEAD: $ git diff --cached Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  26. 26. Displaying information – Index and working directory Showing the diff of a specific commit: $ git show <commit> Showing the commit log of the current branch: $ git log Commit log with a summary of each commit’s changed files: $ git log --stat Drawing a nice graph of all commits in all branches: $ git log --graph --oneline --decorate --all Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  27. 27. Handling branches Creating a branch pointing to HEAD: $ git branch <branch name> Creating a branch pointing to a specific commit: $ git branch <branch name> <commit> Checking out a branch: $ git checkout <branch name> Deleting a branch: $ git branch -D <branch name> Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  28. 28. Handling branches – continued Renaming a branch: $ git branch -m <old name> <new name> Letting a branch point to a specific commit: $ git branch -f <branch name> <commit> Merging a branch into HEAD: $ git merge <branch name> Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  29. 29. Stashing Saving the current working directory and index state into commits and revert the changes to match HEAD: $ git stash Listing all available stashes: $ git stash list Showing the diff of a particular stash: $ git stash show <stash> Applying and deleting a particular stash: $ git stash pop <stash> Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  30. 30. Working with remote repositories – Management Adding a remote repository: $ git remote add <name> <url> Renaming a remote repository: $ git remote rename <old name> <new name> Removing a remote repository: $ git remote rm <name> Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  31. 31. Working with remote repositories – Downstream data flow Updating all refs from all remote repositories, downloading the necessary objects and deleting obsolete remote refs: $ git remote update --prune Updating all refs from a specific remote repository and downloading necessary objects: $ git fetch <remote> Downloading objects and refs from a remote repository and merging a branch into HEAD: $ git pull <remote> <branch> Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  32. 32. Working with remote repositories – Upstream data flow Pushing a branch to a remote repository: $ git push <remote> <branch> Deleting a branch from a remote repository: $ git push <remote> --delete <branch> Overwriting a branch on a remote repository: $ git push -f <remote> <branch> WARNING: When you are collaborating with others you should not use this command, because it messes up their repositories due to changing hashes! Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  33. 33. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  34. 34. Commit guidelines – Do Conventions regarding the commit message: 1 The first line is a short (≤ 50 characters) description of what the commit is doing in imperative present tense. 2 Second line is blank. 3 Following lines describe the commit in more detail. Make small commits! The shorter your commit-diffs, the easier it will be to fix things later on. Commit early! Once you have committed a change, it’s safe. You can hide the sausage making later (before pushing, of course!) by amending the commit(s). Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  35. 35. Commit guidelines – Do not Don’t make commits which leave the working directory in a broken state! Don’t commit files that can be generated! Don’t commit configuration files that have to be adjusted on a per-workstation basis! Don’t commit large binaries unless it is absolutely necessary! Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  36. 36. Topic branches Aside from really small changes like cosmetics in comments, whitespace issues and so on you should normally never work on the master-branch but create a special so-called topic-branch. If you have an issue tracking system like the one on GitHub / in GitLab, it is reasonable to name the topic branches after the issue / ticket – perhaps with a token that identifies you: $ git branch sn/issue42 origin/master Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  37. 37. Rebasing A rebase essentially does the following: 1 Save all commits that are in the current branch but not in the target branch as diffs. 2 Rewind HEAD to the common ancestor of the two branches. 3 Apply all commits from the target branch. 4 Apply all saved diffs on the target branch in order. The resulting tree is exactly the same as if the two branches had been merged, only the commit history looks different. With an interactive rebase you can amend commits further down in the history, change commit messages and even rearrange commits. This is where the fun begins! ;-) Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  38. 38. Rebasing – visualized (starting point) dcc1a52 mergeme 0e74e93 89f8555 master HEAD a5edb85 rebaseme $ git merge mergeme Merge made by recursive. file7 | 2 +- file8 | 2 +- file9 | 2 +- 3 files changed, 3 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-) Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  39. 39. Rebasing – visualized (after merge) dcc1a52 mergeme 0e74e93 89f8555 f9ee4d3 master HEAD a5edb85 rebaseme $ git checkout rebaseme Switched to branch ’rebaseme’ $ git rebase master First, rewinding head to replay your work on top of it... Applying: Change contents of files 4 through 6. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  40. 40. Rebasing – visualized (after rebase) dcc1a52 mergeme 0e74e93 89f8555 f9ee4d3 master 0f2eb73 rebaseme HEAD Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  41. 41. Rebasing – onto master When you are done with your work on a topic branch, but the master-branch was updated in the meantime, it is best (and in some projects required) to rebase your work on top of the updated branch. $ git fetch origin $ git rebase origin/master It is generally a good idea to do this from time to time even if your work is not yet finished, because if merge conflicts occur, you can fix them while they are still easily manageable. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  42. 42. Pull/Merge requests In most cases you will not be allowed to push to the main repository (in GitLab: the master branch) directly. To contribute to a project, you have to 1 clone the main repository, 2 create a topic branch, 3 do your work on it, 4 if necessary rebase your work on the current branch head, 5 test your changes (!), 6 push the changes to your own public repository (in GitLab: the main repository) and 7 submit a so-called pull-request (in GitLab: merge-request) to let the maintainer know, that you have changes in your public repository, that you want her/him to merge. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  43. 43. Typical workflow – Clone or pull 1 Clone or update the refs of the remote repository: Clone: $ git clone <remote url> $ git branch <topic branch name> $ git checkout <topic branch name> Pull: $ git checkout master $ git pull origin master $ git branch <topic branch name> $ git checkout <topic branch name> Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  44. 44. Typical workflow – Commit and push 2 Work on your topic branch: [... some vimmin’ ...] $ git add <changed files> $ git status $ git commit -v Repeat . . . 3 Push: $ git fetch origin $ git rebase origin/master [... resolve conflicts if necessary ...] $ git push origin <topic branch name> Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  45. 45. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  46. 46. Pros Very fast Creating a new repository is trivial The repository uses little space Branching and merging is easy Rebase (!) SHA-1 ensures data integrity Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  47. 47. Cons Sometimes strange behaviour when working with different line endings (CRLF, LF) Inability to check out only parts of a repository Documentation (; man-pages) is partly quite technical and thus might not be overly helpful Possibility of data loss, if you do not know what you are doing Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  48. 48. Final thoughts You should definitely cherish personal ~/.gitconfig and ~/.gitignore configuration files. Git aliases are a really helpful (and powerful!) thing. It’s worth looking into it! git add -p gives you the opportunity to commit code that is not tested! So after doing that, you should git stash and test the tree you actually committed! When you git reset --hard or git rebase -i, at some point you will need git reflog, so you might as well look into it right away. As always: Think, before you hit Enter ! Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  49. 49. Further information Though it may be not that easy to read, man is still your friend. The interactive Git cheatsheet. The Git book. My personal dotfile repository containing (among other things you might find useful) my global Git configuration files. Linus’ talk about the advantages of a distributed VCS and why SVN users are stupid and ugly. https://startpage.com is an interface for the Google search engine, which doesn’t store information about you. Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
  50. 50. Thank you for your attention! Questions? Sebastian Neuser Understanding Git
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