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Introduction to Permaculture Day One at Earthwise November 2010
 

Introduction to Permaculture Day One at Earthwise November 2010

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Day one of an introduction to Permaculture course held at the Earthwise Community centres in Subiaco, Western Australia.

Day one of an introduction to Permaculture course held at the Earthwise Community centres in Subiaco, Western Australia.

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    Introduction to Permaculture Day One at Earthwise November 2010 Introduction to Permaculture Day One at Earthwise November 2010 Presentation Transcript

    • An Introduction to Permaculture: Day OneBrooke ’Sparkles’ Murphy and Harry Wykman 17th and 18th of July, 2010 1 / 77
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture IntroductionsPrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources* 2 / 77
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture Sparkles and The Wicked ProblemsPrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources* 3 / 77
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomy PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of People Permaculture Ethics and Indigenousy Fair SharePermaculture In WisdomHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 4 / 77Resources
    • Permaculture EthicsIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomy PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 5 / 77Resources
    • Care of EarthIntroductionsSparkles and The q Story: M ASANOBUWicked Problems F UKUOKAPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomy PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 6 / 77Resources
    • Care of EarthIntroductionsSparkles and The q Story: M ASANOBUWicked Problems F UKUOKAPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom q Soily PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 6 / 77Resources
    • Care of EarthIntroductionsSparkles and The q Story: M ASANOBUWicked Problems F UKUOKAPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom q Soily PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of People q Stewardshipy Fair SharePermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 6 / 77Resources
    • Care of EarthIntroductionsSparkles and The q Story: M ASANOBUWicked Problems F UKUOKAPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom q Soily PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of People q Stewardshipy Fair SharePermaculture InHistory q Living ThingsCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 6 / 77Resources
    • Care of EarthIntroductionsSparkles and The q Story: M ASANOBUWicked Problems F UKUOKAPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom q Soily PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of People q Stewardshipy Fair SharePermaculture InHistory q Living ThingsCheck InPermaculture "If permaculture is a philos-Principles 1-3 ophy, then it is a pragmatic,Plants down-to-earth one, whichPlant Tour takes the ecological limits ofThe Seven F’s our power and intelligence asPrinciples 4-6 foundations for anything weSoil and Composting do." — Holmgren [2002, p6]GuildsReferences and 6 / 77Resources
    • Care of EarthIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomy Permaculture "The question which must be addressed . . . isEthicsy Care of Earth not how to care for the planet, but how to carey Care of People for each of the planet’s millions of small piecesy Fair Share and parcels of land, each one of which is inPermaculture InHistory some precious and exciting way different fromCheck In all others." — W ENDELL B ERRY, Culture andPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 Agriculture, 1977PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 7 / 77Resources
    • Care of PeopleIntroductionsSparkles and The q Story: J OSÉ M ARÍAWicked Problems A RIZMENDIARRIETAPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomy PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 8 / 77Resources
    • Care of PeopleIntroductionsSparkles and The q Story: J OSÉ M ARÍAWicked Problems A RIZMENDIARRIETAPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom q Personal Responsibilityy PermacultureEthics (for overconsumption /y Care of Earth own needs)y Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 8 / 77Resources
    • Care of PeopleIntroductionsSparkles and The q Story: J OSÉ M ARÍAWicked Problems A RIZMENDIARRIETAPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom q Personal Responsibilityy PermacultureEthics (for overconsumption /y Care of Earth own needs)y Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistory q Non-material well-beingCheck In (enjoying the simplePermaculturePrinciples 1-3 things)PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 8 / 77Resources
    • Care of PeopleIntroductionsSparkles and The q Story: J OSÉ M ARÍAWicked Problems A RIZMENDIARRIETAPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom q Personal Responsibilityy PermacultureEthics (for overconsumption /y Care of Earth own needs)y Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistory q Non-material well-beingCheck In (enjoying the simplePermaculturePrinciples 1-3 things)PlantsPlant Tour q New ways of being to-The Seven F’s getherPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 8 / 77Resources
    • Fair ShareIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomy PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 9 / 77Resources
    • Fair ShareIntroductionsSparkles and The q Example: The N YUN -Wicked Problems GAR people past andPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous presentWisdomy PermacultureEthicsy Care of Earthy Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 9 / 77Resources
    • Fair ShareIntroductionsSparkles and The q Example: The N YUN -Wicked Problems GAR people past andPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous presentWisdomy PermacultureEthics q Share beyond our im-y Care of Earth mediate circley Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 9 / 77Resources
    • Fair ShareIntroductionsSparkles and The q Example: The N YUN -Wicked Problems GAR people past andPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous presentWisdomy PermacultureEthics q Share beyond our im-y Care of Earth mediate circley Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistory q Ecological investmentCheck In (trees, biological capac-PermaculturePrinciples 1-3 ity)PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 9 / 77Resources
    • Fair ShareIntroductionsSparkles and The q Example: The N YUN -Wicked Problems GAR people past andPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous presentWisdomy PermacultureEthics q Share beyond our im-y Care of Earth mediate circley Care of Peopley Fair SharePermaculture InHistory q Ecological investmentCheck In (trees, biological capac-PermaculturePrinciples 1-3 ity)PlantsPlant Tour q Social investment (so-The Seven F’s cial structures and en-Principles 4-6 terprise)Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 9 / 77Resources
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture Permaculture In HistoryPrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources* 10 / 77
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture Check In: What is Permaculture BrainstormPrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources* 11 / 77
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture Permaculture Principles 1-3Principles 1-3y Why Principles?y Principle 1y Principle 2y Principle 3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources 12 / 77
    • Why Principles?IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked Problems q They are abstract and theoreticalPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3y Why Principles?y Principle 1y Principle 2y Principle 3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources 13 / 77
    • Why Principles?IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked Problems q They are abstract and theoreticalPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 3 ie. not limited in time (history) or space (geography,Permaculture InHistory place)Check InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3y Why Principles?y Principle 1y Principle 2y Principle 3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources 13 / 77
    • Why Principles?IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked Problems q They are abstract and theoreticalPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 3 ie. not limited in time (history) or space (geography,Permaculture InHistory place)Check In 3 they are therefore transferable between places andPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 timesy Why Principles?y Principle 1y Principle 2y Principle 3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources 13 / 77
    • Why Principles?IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked Problems q They are abstract and theoreticalPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 3 ie. not limited in time (history) or space (geography,Permaculture InHistory place)Check In 3 they are therefore transferable between places andPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 timesy Why Principles?y Principle 1y Principle 2 q Facilitate adaptation to continuous changey Principle 3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources 13 / 77
    • Why Principles?IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked Problems q They are abstract and theoreticalPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 3 ie. not limited in time (history) or space (geography,Permaculture InHistory place)Check In 3 they are therefore transferable between places andPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 timesy Why Principles?y Principle 1y Principle 2 q Facilitate adaptation to continuous changey Principle 3Plants q Facilitate critical thought (not commitment to particularPlant Tour strategies, or even a particular set of principles)The Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources 13 / 77
    • Principle 1: Observe and interact 14 / 77
    • Principle 1: Observe and interact 14 / 77
    • Principle 1: Observe and interactq We need to know about natural systems - active observation and ex- change are necessary for thisq Emphasis on subtle, slow moving and small (deeply counter cultural) 14 / 77
    • Principle 1: Observe and interactq We need to know about natural systems - active observation and ex- change are necessary for thisq Emphasis on subtle, slow moving and small (deeply counter cultural) 14 / 77
    • /home/harry/Documents/Business/P
    • Principle 2: Catch and store energy 17 / 77
    • Principle 2: Catch and store energy 17 / 77
    • Principle 2: Catch and store energyq Power Principle 1 17 / 77
    • Principle 2: Catch and store energyq Power Principle 1q Build biological assets (theoretically limitless capacity) 17 / 77
    • Principle 3: Obtain a yield 20 / 77
    • Principle 3: Obtain a yield 20 / 77
    • Principle 3: Obtain a yieldq Power Principle 2 — overemphasised in industrial society 20 / 77
    • Principle 3: Obtain a yieldq Power Principle 2 — overemphasised in industrial societyq Necessary positive feedback (yield) and negative feedback (competi- tion) 20 / 77
    • /home/harry/Documents/Business/Peac
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture PlantsPrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 24 / 77
    • Which Principle is That?IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 25 / 77
    • Which Principle is That?IntroductionsSparkles and The Obtain a YieldWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 25 / 77
    • Which Principle is That?IntroductionsSparkles and The Obtain a YieldWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 25 / 77
    • Why Plants?Introductions Permaculture is not just organic gardening or alternativeSparkles and TheWicked Problems agriculture but plants have a priviledged place inPermaculture Ethics permaculture systems.and IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 26 / 77
    • Why Plants?Introductions Permaculture is not just organic gardening or alternativeSparkles and TheWicked Problems agriculture but plants have a priviledged place inPermaculture Ethics permaculture systems.and IndigenousWisdomPermaculture In Why?HistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 26 / 77
    • Why Plants?Introductions Permaculture is not just organic gardening or alternativeSparkles and TheWicked Problems agriculture but plants have a priviledged place inPermaculture Ethics permaculture systems.and IndigenousWisdomPermaculture In Why? — Photosynthesis.HistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 26 / 77
    • Why Plants?Introductions Permaculture is not just organic gardening or alternativeSparkles and TheWicked Problems agriculture but plants have a priviledged place inPermaculture Ethics permaculture systems.and IndigenousWisdomPermaculture In Why? — Photosynthesis.HistoryCheck In "Solar energy (in the form of visible light) is usedPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 by plants to transform water and carbon dioxidePlants from the atmosphere into carbohydrates by they Which Principle isThat? photosynthetic process. These carbohydrates arey Why Plants? the start of the chemical energy supply chainy Perennial andAnnual that provides for the needs of all other livingy nectar things, as well as (indirectly) creating the fossily honeyy polinator support fuels of coal, oil and gas." [Holmgren, 2002, p31]y pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 26 / 77
    • Perennial and AnnualIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture In What’s the Difference?HistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 27 / 77
    • Guild Functions: Beneficial Insect Nectary PlantsIntroductions FennelSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator support q Member of the Apiaceae family (with parsley, carrot, dilly pest-confusing etc.), a family famous for their usefulness at attractingy fertility beneficial insect, in particular those with small mouthy ground covery weed barrier parts like hover flies and parasitic wasps.y Plants and HumanServices 28 / 77
    • Guild Functions: Honey PlantsIntroductions Bush Basil q great bee plantSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q very attractive hedge orand IndigenousWisdom standard plantPermaculture InHistory q has potential to be aCheck In pest-confuser alsoPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 29 / 77
    • Guild Functions: Pollinator Support PlantsIntroductions Lemon Balm q Generalist nectary plantSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom q Can be used as aPermaculture InHistory ground cover — has aCheck In clumping habit so manyPermaculture plants are requiredPrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectary honeyy polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 30 / 77
    • Guild Functions: Aromatic Pest-confusing PlantsIntroductions ThymeSparkles and TheWicked Problems q Aromatic pest-confuserPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom q Nectary plantPermaculture InHistory q Ground CoverCheck InPermaculture q Culinary UsePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle is q Thyme is valued for itsThat? antiseptic and antioxi-y Why Plants?y Perennial and dant properties, it is anAnnual excellent tonic and isy nectary honey used in treating respira-y polinator support tory diseases and a va-y pest-confusingy fertility riety of other ailmentsy ground cover [Fern, 2006]y weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 31 / 77
    • Guild Functions: Fertility PlantsIntroductions Italian Alder q nitrogen fixerSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q drought tolerantand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture In q ~10 m highHistoryCheck In q Semi evergreen in PerthPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle is q fast growingThat?y Why Plants? q good windbreaky Perennial andAnnualy nectar Martin Crawford uses thisy honeyy polinator support tree extensively throughouty pest-confusing his forest garden.y fertility Photo by John Colwill 2010y ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 32 / 77
    • Guild Functions: Ground Cover PlantsIntroductions Apple Mint q Jacke and ToensmeierSparkles and TheWicked Problems give apple mint a ratingPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous of ’2 stars’ (highest) asWisdom a ground cover becausePermaculture InHistory of its thick cover.Check InPermaculture q Also pest-confuserPrinciples 1-3Plants q like many other mem-y Which Principle isThat? bers of this genus, is of-y Why Plants? ten used as a domes-y Perennial andAnnual tic herbal remedy, be-y nectar ing valued especially fory honeyy polinator support its antiseptic propertiesy pest-confusing and its beneficial effecty fertilityy ground cover on the digestiony weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 33 / 77
    • Guild Functions: Weed Barrier PlantsIntroductions Vetiver GrassSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plantsy Which Principle isThat?y Why Plants? q Vetiver has very fibrous roots which penetrate veryy Perennial andAnnual deeply. As a result, vetiver excludes weeds, is usedy nectar extensively in tropical areas in erosion control and isy honeyy polinator support drought tolerant. It is a great mulch plant.y pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 34 / 77
    • Plants and Human ServicesIntroductions Microclimate Creation and "The net coolingSparkles and TheWicked Problems Beauty effect of a young,Permaculture Ethicsand Indigenous healthy tree isWisdom equivalent to tenPermaculture InHistory room-size air con-Check In ditioners operatingPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 20 hours a day."Plants [Lancaster, 2007,y Which Principle is p. 285]That?y Why Plants?y Perennial andAnnualy nectar q Not least, plants makey honey places livable.y polinator supporty pest-confusingy fertilityy ground covery weed barriery Plants and HumanServices 35 / 77
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture Plant TourPrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResources* 36 / 77
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture The Seven F’sPrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 37 / 77
    • Which Principle is That?IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 38 / 77
    • Which Principle is That?IntroductionsSparkles and The Obtain a YieldWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 38 / 77
    • Which Principle is That?IntroductionsSparkles and The Obtain a YieldWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 38 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: The Seven F’sIntroductions The Seven F’s provide a good framework for considering theSparkles and TheWicked Problems variety of plant-derived yields.Permaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 39 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: The Seven F’sIntroductions The Seven F’s provide a good framework for considering theSparkles and TheWicked Problems variety of plant-derived yields.Permaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 1. food,Permaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 39 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: The Seven F’sIntroductions The Seven F’s provide a good framework for considering theSparkles and TheWicked Problems variety of plant-derived yields.Permaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 1. food,Permaculture InHistory 2. fuel,Check InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 39 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: The Seven F’sIntroductions The Seven F’s provide a good framework for considering theSparkles and TheWicked Problems variety of plant-derived yields.Permaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 1. food,Permaculture InHistory 2. fuel,Check InPermaculture 3. fiber,Principles 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 39 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: The Seven F’sIntroductions The Seven F’s provide a good framework for considering theSparkles and TheWicked Problems variety of plant-derived yields.Permaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 1. food,Permaculture InHistory 2. fuel,Check InPermaculture 3. fiber,Principles 1-3Plants 4. fodder,Plant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 39 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: The Seven F’sIntroductions The Seven F’s provide a good framework for considering theSparkles and TheWicked Problems variety of plant-derived yields.Permaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 1. food,Permaculture InHistory 2. fuel,Check InPermaculture 3. fiber,Principles 1-3Plants 4. fodder,Plant TourThe Seven F’s 5. fertilizer, andy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 39 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: The Seven F’sIntroductions The Seven F’s provide a good framework for considering theSparkles and TheWicked Problems variety of plant-derived yields.Permaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 1. food,Permaculture InHistory 2. fuel,Check InPermaculture 3. fiber,Principles 1-3Plants 4. fodder,Plant TourThe Seven F’s 5. fertilizer, andy Which Principle isThat?y Plants and 6. "farmaceuticals," andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 39 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: The Seven F’sIntroductions The Seven F’s provide a good framework for considering theSparkles and TheWicked Problems variety of plant-derived yields.Permaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdom 1. food,Permaculture InHistory 2. fuel,Check InPermaculture 3. fiber,Principles 1-3Plants 4. fodder,Plant TourThe Seven F’s 5. fertilizer, andy Which Principle isThat?y Plants and 6. "farmaceuticals," andHumansy food 7. funy fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 39 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: FoodIntroductions ChestnutSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 40 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: FuelIntroductions LeucaenaSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 41 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: FiberIntroductions New Zealand FlaxSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 42 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: FodderIntroductions TagasasteSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 43 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: FertiliserIntroductions Comfrey According to Jacke andSparkles and TheWicked Problems Toensmeier [2005], ComfreyPermaculture Ethics is a ’3 star’ dynamic accumu-and IndigenousWisdom lator Because it covers thePermaculture InHistory main plants nutrients, N, P, KCheck In and Ca. It covers:PermaculturePrinciples 1-3 q K — PotassiumPlantsPlant Tour q P — PhosphorusThe Seven F’sy Which Principle is q Ca — CalciumThat?y Plants andHumans q Cu — Coppery foody fuel q Fe — Irony fibrey foddery fertiliser q Mg — Magnesiumy farmaceuticalsy fun 44 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: "Farmaceuticals"Introductions Yarrow Yarrow has a high reputa-Sparkles and TheWicked Problems tion and is widely employedPermaculture Ethics in herbal medicine, adminis-and IndigenousWisdom tered both internally and ex-Permaculture InHistory ternally. It is used in the treat-Check In ment of a very wide rangePermaculture of disorders but is particularlyPrinciples 1-3 valuable for treating wounds,Plants stopping the flow of blood,Plant Tour treating colds, fevers, kidneyThe Seven F’sy Which Principle is diseases, menstrual pain etcThat?y Plants and [Fern, 2006]Humansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 46 / 77
    • Plants and Human Yields: FunIntroductions ElderSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sy Which Principle isThat?y Plants andHumansy foody fuely fibrey foddery fertilisery farmaceuticalsy fun 47 / 77
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture Principles 4-6Principles 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6y Principle 4y Principle 5y Principle 6y The Structure ofthe PrinciplesSoil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 48 / 77Resources
    • Principle 4: Apply self-regulation andaccept feedback 49 / 77
    • Principle 4: Apply self-regulation andaccept feedback 49 / 77
    • Principle 4: Apply self-regulation and accept feedbackq Checks Power Principles 49 / 77
    • Principle 4: Apply self-regulation and accept feedbackq Checks Power Principlesq Natural systems: Self-restraint avoids forceful negative feedback (eg. effects of climate change) 49 / 77
    • Principle 5: Use and value renewableresource and services 52 / 77
    • Principle 5: Use and value renewableresource and services 52 / 77
    • Principle 5: Use and value renewable resource and servicesq Neither limited environmentalism (value only) nor industrial (use only) — using and valuing preserves 52 / 77
    • Principle 5: Use and value renewable resource and servicesq Neither limited environmentalism (value only) nor industrial (use only) — using and valuing preservesq Resources (eg. timber) and services (eg. shade or heat) 52 / 77
    • Principle 6: Produce no waste 55 / 77
    • Principle 6: Produce no waste 55 / 77
    • Principle 6: Produce no wasteq Internal efficiency 55 / 77
    • Principle 6: Produce no wasteq Internal efficiencyq Maintenance as a subversive activity 55 / 77
    • The Structure of the PrinciplesIntroductions Principles 1 - 6Sparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6y Principle 4y Principle 5y Principle 6y The Structure ofthe PrinciplesSoil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 58 / 77Resources
    • The Structure of the PrinciplesIntroductions Principles 1 - 6Sparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q Self-relianceand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6y Principle 4y Principle 5y Principle 6y The Structure ofthe PrinciplesSoil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 58 / 77Resources
    • The Structure of the PrinciplesIntroductions Principles 1 - 6Sparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q Self-relianceand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistory Principles 7 - 12Check InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6y Principle 4y Principle 5y Principle 6y The Structure ofthe PrinciplesSoil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 58 / 77Resources
    • The Structure of the PrinciplesIntroductions Principles 1 - 6Sparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q Self-relianceand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistory Principles 7 - 12Check InPermaculture q InterdependencePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6y Principle 4y Principle 5y Principle 6y The Structure ofthe PrinciplesSoil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 58 / 77Resources
    • The Structure of the PrinciplesIntroductions Principles 1 - 6Sparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q Self-relianceand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistory Principles 7 - 12Check InPermaculture q InterdependencePrinciples 1-3Plants q Standing BackPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6y Principle 4y Principle 5y Principle 6y The Structure ofthe PrinciplesSoil and CompostingGuildsReferences and 58 / 77Resources
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture Soil and CompostingPrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 59 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Which Principle is That?IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 60 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Which Principle is That?IntroductionsSparkles and The ProduceWicked Problems No WastePermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 60 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Which Principle is That?IntroductionsSparkles and The ProduceWicked Problems No WastePermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 60 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • SoilIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture In What do we know about soil?HistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 61 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductions Soil is primarily made up ofSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q minerals,and IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 62 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductions Soil is primarily made up ofSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q minerals,and IndigenousWisdom q water ,Permaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 62 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductions Soil is primarily made up ofSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q minerals,and IndigenousWisdom q water ,Permaculture InHistoryCheck In q gases, andPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 62 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductions Soil is primarily made up ofSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q minerals,and IndigenousWisdom q water ,Permaculture InHistoryCheck In q gases, andPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 q living and decayingPlants organic matter .Plant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 62 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductions Soil is primarily made up ofSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics q minerals,and IndigenousWisdom q water ,Permaculture InHistoryCheck In q gases, andPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 q living and decayingPlants organic matter .Plant TourThe Seven F’s Ideally, these parts will bePrinciples 4-6 formed into a crumb, allow-Soil and Composting ing the retention of watery Which Principle is and nutrient while maintain-That?y Soil ing sufficient space for ex-y Soil Types change of gasses, includingy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pH oxygen.y Soil Life 62 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6 Soils are broadly classifiedSoil and Compostingy Which Principle is by the size and relativeThat?y Soil amount of their componenty Soil Types parts.y Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 63 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked Problems q sands are those soilsPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous where particles be-Wisdom tween 2-0.05mm;Permaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6 Soils are broadly classifiedSoil and Compostingy Which Principle is by the size and relativeThat?y Soil amount of their componenty Soil Types parts.y Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 63 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked Problems q sands are those soilsPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous where particles be-Wisdom tween 2-0.05mm;Permaculture InHistory q silts are 0.05-Check InPermaculture 0.002mm;Principles 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6 Soils are broadly classifiedSoil and Compostingy Which Principle is by the size and relativeThat?y Soil amount of their componenty Soil Types parts.y Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 63 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked Problems q sands are those soilsPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous where particles be-Wisdom tween 2-0.05mm;Permaculture InHistory q silts are 0.05-Check InPermaculture 0.002mm;Principles 1-3Plants q clays are less thanPlant Tour 0.002mm.The Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6 Soils are broadly classifiedSoil and Compostingy Which Principle is by the size and relativeThat?y Soil amount of their componenty Soil Types parts.y Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 63 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Types: Parts and ParticlesIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked Problems q sands are those soilsPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous where particles be-Wisdom tween 2-0.05mm;Permaculture InHistory q silts are 0.05-Check InPermaculture 0.002mm;Principles 1-3Plants q clays are less thanPlant Tour 0.002mm.The Seven F’s q a loam is formed byPrinciples 4-6 Soils are broadly classified around 20% clay, 40%Soil and Compostingy Which Principle is by the size and relative silt and 40% sand.That?y Soil amount of their componenty Soil Types parts.y Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 63 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Nutrients: MacronutrientsIntroductionsSparkles and The q Nitrogen (N) is required for vegetative growth,Wicked Problems chorophyll production and protein formation.Permaculture Ethicsand Indigenous Nitrogen deficiency is indicated by chlorosis (yellowingWisdom of leaves) and stunted development.Permaculture InHistoryCheck In 3 Sources of Concentrated Nitrogen include animalPermaculture manures, green manures / mulches and blood andPrinciples 1-3 bone.PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 64 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Nutrients: MacronutrientsIntroductionsSparkles and The q Nitrogen (N) is required for vegetative growth,Wicked Problems chorophyll production and protein formation.Permaculture Ethicsand Indigenous Nitrogen deficiency is indicated by chlorosis (yellowingWisdom of leaves) and stunted development.Permaculture InHistoryCheck In 3 Sources of Concentrated Nitrogen include animalPermaculture manures, green manures / mulches and blood andPrinciples 1-3 bone.PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’s q Phosphorus (P) is required for flowering andPrinciples 4-6 reproduction, tissue ripening and hardinessSoil and Composting Phosphorus deficiency is indicated by reduced growthy Which Principle isThat? and dull green leaves.y Soily Soil Types 3 Sources of Concentrated Phosphorus include boney Soil Nutrientsy Soil pH meal, bird manures and powedered rock phosphate.y Soil Life 64 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Nutrients: MacronutrientsIntroductionsSparkles and The q Potassium (K) is required for drought tolerance, rootWicked Problems growth and thick cell walls. Potassium deficiency is diffucultPermaculture Ethics to recognise though is sometimes indicated by yellowing ofand IndigenousWisdom leaf tips and edges and retarded growth.Permaculture InHistory 3 Sources of Concentrated Potassium include the ash ofCheck In young wood, bone meal, animal manures and liquidPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 seaweed.PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 65 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Nutrients: MacronutrientsIntroductionsSparkles and The q Potassium (K) is required for drought tolerance, rootWicked Problems growth and thick cell walls. Potassium deficiency is diffucultPermaculture Ethics to recognise though is sometimes indicated by yellowing ofand IndigenousWisdom leaf tips and edges and retarded growth.Permaculture InHistory 3 Sources of Concentrated Potassium include the ash ofCheck In young wood, bone meal, animal manures and liquidPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 seaweed.PlantsPlant Tour q Calcium (Ca) is essential in the production of cell walls.The Seven F’s Calcium deficiency is results in the most marked retardationPrinciples 4-6 of growth. Deficiencies in all other elements are very difficult to recognise, though some indications are given by whichSoil and Compostingy Which Principle is weed species grow readily in a particular soil.That?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 65 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Nutrients: MacronutrientsIntroductionsSparkles and The q Potassium (K) is required for drought tolerance, rootWicked Problems growth and thick cell walls. Potassium deficiency is diffucultPermaculture Ethics to recognise though is sometimes indicated by yellowing ofand IndigenousWisdom leaf tips and edges and retarded growth.Permaculture InHistory 3 Sources of Concentrated Potassium include the ash ofCheck In young wood, bone meal, animal manures and liquidPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 seaweed.PlantsPlant Tour q Calcium (Ca) is essential in the production of cell walls.The Seven F’s Calcium deficiency is results in the most marked retardationPrinciples 4-6 of growth. Deficiencies in all other elements are very difficult to recognise, though some indications are given by whichSoil and Compostingy Which Principle is weed species grow readily in a particular soil.That?y Soil q Sulfur (S) is required for protein formation.y Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 65 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Nutrients: Micronutrients or Trace ElementsIntroductionsSparkles and The q Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg) are essential inWicked Problems chlorophyll production. Magnesium deficiency is shownPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous in yellowing between the veins on older leaves.Wisdom Iron deficiency is shown most clearly in yellowingPermaculture InHistory between the veins on young leaves.Check InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 66 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Nutrients: Micronutrients or Trace ElementsIntroductionsSparkles and The q Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg) are essential inWicked Problems chlorophyll production. Magnesium deficiency is shownPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous in yellowing between the veins on older leaves.Wisdom Iron deficiency is shown most clearly in yellowingPermaculture InHistory between the veins on young leaves.Check InPermaculture q Other trace elements include Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn),Principles 1-3 Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Boron (B),Plants Chlorine (Cl), Aluminium (Al), Sodium (Na),Plant Tour Silicon (Si) and Cobalt (Co)The Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 66 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Nutrients: Micronutrients or Trace ElementsIntroductionsSparkles and The q Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg) are essential inWicked Problems chlorophyll production. Magnesium deficiency is shownPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous in yellowing between the veins on older leaves.Wisdom Iron deficiency is shown most clearly in yellowingPermaculture InHistory between the veins on young leaves.Check InPermaculture q Other trace elements include Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn),Principles 1-3 Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Boron (B),Plants Chlorine (Cl), Aluminium (Al), Sodium (Na),Plant Tour Silicon (Si) and Cobalt (Co)The Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6 Trace elements can be added through the use of a rock dust.Soil and Compostingy Which Principle is An example composition of a ’rock dust’ is:That?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 66 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil pHIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 67 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil pHIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’s Element Ideal pH RangePrinciples 4-6 Nitrogen 6.0 - 8.0Soil and Compostingy Which Principle is Potassium 6.0That?y Soil Phosphorus 6.5 - 7.5y Soil Types Most Others 5.5 - 7.0y Soil Nutrientsy Soil pH Earthworms >5y Soil Life 67 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil pHIntroductionsSparkles and The q pH is a measure of theWicked Problems concentration of hydro-Permaculture Ethicsand Indigenous gen ions.WisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’s Element Ideal pH RangePrinciples 4-6 Nitrogen 6.0 - 8.0Soil and Compostingy Which Principle is Potassium 6.0That?y Soil Phosphorus 6.5 - 7.5y Soil Types Most Others 5.5 - 7.0y Soil Nutrientsy Soil pH Earthworms >5y Soil Life 67 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil pHIntroductionsSparkles and The q pH is a measure of theWicked Problems concentration of hydro-Permaculture Ethicsand Indigenous gen ions.WisdomPermaculture InHistory q Each point on the scaleCheck In represents a change byPermaculture a factor of ten in acidity.Principles 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’s Element Ideal pH RangePrinciples 4-6 Nitrogen 6.0 - 8.0Soil and Compostingy Which Principle is Potassium 6.0That?y Soil Phosphorus 6.5 - 7.5y Soil Types Most Others 5.5 - 7.0y Soil Nutrientsy Soil pH Earthworms >5y Soil Life 67 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil pHIntroductionsSparkles and The q pH is a measure of theWicked Problems concentration of hydro-Permaculture Ethicsand Indigenous gen ions.WisdomPermaculture InHistory q Each point on the scaleCheck In represents a change byPermaculture a factor of ten in acidity.Principles 1-3PlantsPlant Tour q Soil nutrients becomeThe Seven F’s Element Ideal pH Range more or less available toPrinciples 4-6 Nitrogen 6.0 - 8.0 plants depending uponSoil and Composting the pH.y Which Principle is Potassium 6.0That?y Soil Phosphorus 6.5 - 7.5y Soil Types Most Others 5.5 - 7.0y Soil Nutrientsy Soil pH Earthworms >5y Soil Life 67 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Soil Life: Mycelia and MycoremediationIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture In Paul Stamets on MycoremediationHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 68 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Energy CyclingIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous Exercise: Shut Your SystemWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 69 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • Energy CyclingIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand Indigenous Exercise: Shut Your SystemWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and Compostingy Which Principle isThat?y Soily Soil Typesy Soil Nutrientsy Soil pHy Soil Life 69 / 77y Energy Cycling
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture A Very Brief Introduction to GuildsPrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsy Plants andEcosystemsy VideoReferences andResources* 70 / 77
    • Plants and Ecosystems: GuildsIntroductions Traditional Centered Per- or buffer adverseSparkles and TheWicked Problems maculture Guild environmental ef-Permaculture Ethicsand Indigenous "Guilds are made fects." — M OLLI -Wisdom SON [1988, p. 60]Permaculture In up of a close asso-History ciation of speciesCheck In clustered aroundPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 a central elementPlants (plant of animal).Plant Tour This assemblyThe Seven F’s acts in relationPrinciples 4-6 to the element toSoil and Composting assist in health,Guilds aid our work iny Plants andEcosystems management,y VideoReferences andResources* 71 / 77
    • Plants and Ecosystems: GuildsIntroductions More recent P ERMACULTURE writing has seen this definitionSparkles and TheWicked Problems expanded. Guilds are not seen as necessarily ‘centered’ butPermaculture Ethics include any beneficial interspecies interaction whichand IndigenousWisdom demonstrates either or both mutual support and resourcePermaculture InHistory sharing. J ACKE and TOENSMEIER [2005, 151] thatCheck In "mutual support guilds build social structure."PermaculturePrinciples 1-3Plants They continue, writing that these relationshipsPlant Tour ". . . can include such diverse interactions asThe Seven F’s pollination support, inhibition of competitors,Principles 4-6 physical support or vines, microclimateSoil and Composting modification, providing habitat for critical animals orGuildsy Plants and any number of other functions."Ecosystemsy VideoReferences andResources* 72 / 77
    • VideoIntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture In Farm for the Future: Martin Crawford’sHistory Forest GardenCheck InPermaculturePrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsy Plants andEcosystemsy VideoReferences andResources* 73 / 77
    • IntroductionsSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethicsand IndigenousWisdomPermaculture InHistoryCheck InPermaculture References and ResourcesPrinciples 1-3PlantsPlant TourThe Seven F’sPrinciples 4-6Soil and CompostingGuildsReferences andResourcesy References* 74 / 77
    • References and Resources References *Introductions ReferencesSparkles and TheWicked ProblemsPermaculture Ethics Ken Fern. Achillea millefolium - Plants For A Future databaseand IndigenousWisdom report, 2006. URLPermaculture In http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?AchilleHistoryCheck In David Holmgren. Permaculture : principles & pathwaysPermaculturePrinciples 1-3 beyond sustainability. Holmgren Design Services, HepburnPlants Vic., 2002. ISBN 9780646418445.Plant Tour Dave Jacke and Eric Toensmeier. Edible forest gardens:The Seven F’s Ecological vision and theory for temperate climatePrinciples 4-6 permaculture. vol. 1. Chelsea Green Pub. Co., White RiverSoil and Composting Junction Vt., 2005. ISBN 9781931498807.GuildsReferences andResources Brad Lancaster. Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands andy References Beyond (Vol. 2): Water-Harvesting Earthworks. Rainsource* Press, Tucson, July 2007. ISBN 0977246418. URL http://www.amazon.com/dp/0977246418. 75 / 77
    • CreditsThis document, authored by Harry Wykman in collaboration withBrooke ’Sparkles’ Murphy is licensed under a Creative CommonsAttribution 2.5 Australia License. q 35 Woolgar Way L OCKRIDGE, 6054 q (08) 9377 1258 or 0419662189 q harry@peacetreepermaculture.com.au q www.peacetreepermaculture.com.au 77 / 77