Citing & referencing
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Citing & referencing

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Citing & referencing Citing & referencing Presentation Transcript

  • Citing & Referencing Autumn 2013
  • Today’s class • What? • Why? • When? • How? • FAQs and common mistakes. • Getting more help.
  • WHAT?
  • Citing & referencing explained Three parts … 1. Statement, i.e., your writing – idea, finding, conclusion taken from a source. 2. Citation – in the body of your text. – indicates that idea has been taken from a source (i.e., not your own idea). – refers reader to reference list.
  • 3. Reference – full details of source used. – usually at end of your text. – allows reader to find source and verify what you say, if necessary.
  • Statements Citations: • in body of text (in-text citation). • abbreviated pointers to full reference.
  • Allows reader to: • see breadth and depth of reading. • locate sources. • verify if necessary.
  • Referencing ... 0% 0% 0% 0% 1. I’ve never done referencing before. 2. I’ve done a bit of referencing, but not with an author-date system like Harvard. 3. I’ve used Harvard/author-date a bit, but I’m not confident. 4. I’ve used Harvard a lot.
  • WHY?
  • Why do you need to reference? • It’s part of academic writing – academic research builds on existing knowledge. • Shows that you’ve read, understood, and can use other researchers’ observations. • Enables the reader to find more information. • School guidelines require it/markers expect to see it. • Avoids plagiarism: – passing off someone else’s writing, ideas or research as your own.
  • • German government minister responsible for universities accused of plagiarising her PhD thesis. • Ideas from others not referenced. • Uni withdrew her qualification. • Awarded PhD in 1980; had to resign in 2013.
  • WHEN?
  • When to cite • Using someone else’s work, words or ideas from: – published material, e.g., book. – unpublished material, e.g., dissertation/thesis. – material from a web page, etc. • Quoting or paraphrasing. • Statistics (if not your own findings). • Tables, graphs, diagrams, images (unless you created these yourself). • Radio, TV programmes, etc.
  • When not to cite • Common knowledge: – e.g. David Cameron is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. • However, each subject will have its own common knowledge: – e.g. mitochondria are found in cells • If in doubt – ask your tutor for advice. • Never cite something you haven’t read.
  • To cite or not? • Back up your opinions using citations: I conclude that television can play a positive role in children’s education. Baker (2006) presents convincing evidence that children’s recall is greater for visually presented facts and these findings have been supported by Morton (2007). It could be argued that television is a key contributor to children’s learning. Jones (2006), for example, suggests that children absorb information more efficiently when presented in audio-visual form.
  • Charles Darwin is arguably England’s best known scientist. N eeds a citati... D oes notneed ... D on’tknow . 0% 0%0% This does not need a citation. The student writer is offering her own thought on Darwin. “Arguably” helps to identify this statement as a personal opinion. However, it would be good academic practice to support this assertion with evidence from your reading. 1. Needs a citation. 2. Does not need a citation. 3. Don’t know.
  • Charles Darwin is so much a part of British culture that the postal service gave him his own postage stamp in 2009. N eeds a citati... D oes notneed ... D on’tknow . 0% 0%0% This does need a citation. This fact that Darwin was the subject of a postage stamp in 2009 is not “common knowledge”. It is a fact that would have to be researched. 1. Needs a citation. 2. Does not need a citation. 3. Don’t know.
  • According to one scholar . . . . . “in cognitive psychology, the human mind is conceived of as a structured system for handling information. . .”. N eeds a citati... D oes notneed ... N otsure. 0% 0%0% This does need a citation The writer is using a direct quote from another source. This quote itself is correctly identified by the use of quotation marks. However, bibliographic information is required so that other researchers can verify the source of the quote. 1. Needs a citation. 2. Does not need a citation. 3. Not sure.
  • Many studies discuss the effect of training and experience on the psychobiology of brain plasticity. Needsacitati... Doesnotneed ... Notsure. 0% 0%0% This does need to be cited with not just one citation but many. The writer is referring a number of studies so would need to tell the reader which studies the information was taken from. 1. Needs a citation. 2. Does not need a citation. 3. Not sure.
  • HOW?
  • What is Harvard Referencing? • “Author-date” referencing system. • Lots of different versions of Harvard: –Heriot-Watt Library guidelines online at http://www.hw.ac.uk/is/docs/Harvardguide.pdf –If your lecturer/course handbook tells you to do something different, follow their guidance.
  • Citations • Citations are pointers in your writing telling the reader you got your information from somewhere else: – According to Smith (1985) the inter-war period was critical in the development of … – Early work on bridge construction showed metal welding was important (Smith 1893, Jones and Phillips 1902) … – A recent survey (Gordon 2011) found …
  • Reference list • A list of all the sources you have cited your assignment. – given at the end of your work. – in alphabetical order by author/editor. – not separated into types of information (not books, then journals, then websites.) • Note: a bibliography lists all of the sources you have read to help write your assignment, not just those cited in the text. – Bibliography and/or reference list? Ask your tutor!
  • Other referencing styles • Harvard is an example of “author-date” referencing. • Some subjects use “numeric” referencing, where you use a number for the citation. • Lots of versions of numeric referencing. Reference list is typically in the order your citations appear in your writing (not alphabetical.) • Principles of when and where you reference are the same for Harvard and numeric.
  • HARVARD - BOOKS
  • Books • Will need: – author(s)/editors(s). – name of book. – year of publication (not year of printing). – name of company that published book. – place the publisher is based.
  • • Citation: – Author(s)/editor(s) surname and year of publication. – … it has been shown (Ransom 2002) …. – OR … Ransom (2002) has shown … • Reference list: – Author(s)/Editor(s) surname and initials (date of publication) Title, edition if not first, Place of publication: Publisher. – Ransom, D. (2002) The no-nonsense guide to fair trade, Oxford: New Internationalist.
  • Author(s)/Editor(s) surname and initials (date of publication) Title, edition if not first, Place of publication: Publisher. Naylor, J. (2004) Management, 2nd ed.,Harlow: Pearson Education.
  • HARVARD – JOURNAL ARTICLES
  • Journals • Will need: – author(s) of article. – title of article. – title of journal. – year of publication. – volume, part and page numbers. – (plus URL and date accessed for online articles).
  • Citing journal articles: paper • The new trend towards conservation was key in the preservation of Edinburgh Castle (Morris 2007). OR • Morris (2007) states that … • Morris, R.J. (2007) ‘The capitalist, the professor and the soldier: the re-making of Edinburgh Castle, 1850-1900’, Planning Perspectives, 22, 55-78. Name of author (not journal title) All page numbers (not just starting page)
  • Citing journal articles: online • PDF – reference like a normal paper journal article. • HTML (webpage) – include URL and date you visited page: – Midgley, S.L.W. and Olsen, M.K. (2012) ‘Spectral analysis of a four mode cluster state’, Laser Physics [online], 22(7), 1271-1274, available: http://www.springerlink.com/content/n37688347 8u74541/ [accessed 17 October 2012].
  • In text citation - which is correct? 0% 0% 0% 1. Successful management involves all members of a business, not just the managers (John Naylor 2004) 2. Successful management involves all members of a business, not just the managers (Naylor 2004) 3. Successful management involves all members of a business, not just the managers (2004 - Naylor)
  • Journal article – which is correct? 0% 0% 0% 1. Krams, I., Berzins, A., Krama, T., Wheatcroft, D. and Rantala, M.J. (2009) Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277(168), 513-518. 2. Krams, I., Berzins, A., Krama, T., Wheatcroft, D. and Rantala, M.J. (2009) ‘The increased risk of predation increases cooperation’, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277(168), 513-518. 3. Krams, I., Berzins, A., Krama, T., Wheatcroft, D. and Rantala, M.J. (2009) ‘The increased risk of predation increases cooperation’, Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
  • HARVARD - WEBSITES
  • Websites • Will need: – website’s address (URL). – website name. – title of page or article. – date of publication. – date you accessed the website. – (page numbers if given, e.g., PDF reports).
  • Citing websites • “Kenway (2009) emphasizes …” OR • “A recent report (Kenway 2009) found …” • Kenway, P. (2008) Addressing in-work poverty [online], available: http://www.jrf.org.uk/ publications/addressing-work-poverty [accessed 21 January 2013] Important: include the date you visited the site
  • • No author on website: – “Vodafone’s policy (2010) states …” – Vodafone Group Plc (2010) Code of ethical purchasing [online], available: http://www.vodafone.com/start/responsibility/supply _chain/code_of_ethical_purchasing.html [accessed 21 January 2010]. • No date on website – use n.d. instead: – “A British Sky Broadcasting (n.d.) investigation found …”
  • OTHER TYPES OF MATERIAL: Examples in handout and http://www.hw.ac.uk/is/docs/ Harvardguide.pdf
  • FAQs
  • More than one author • Two or three: – Give all authors in citation, in the same order as on the item: • e.g., Companies that discriminate lose talent (Torrington, Hall and Taylor 2008). – Reference list: • Torrington, D., Hall, L. and Taylor, S. (2008) Human resource management, 7th ed., Harlow: Prentice Hall.
  • • Four or more: – Use et al. (“and others”) in the citation, but give all authors in reference list. • e.g. Solomon et al. (2006) suggest that … • [Not Solomon, Bamossy, Askegaard, and Hogg (2006) suggest that …] – Reference list: • Solomon, M., Bamossy, G., Askegaard, S. and Hogg, M.K. (2006) Consumer behaviour: a European perspective, 3rd ed., Harlow: Financial Times.
  • Page numbers in citations • “Ransom (2002, p.68-69) showed …” • Different departments have different guidelines. • Some only ask for page numbers when you are quoting. • Others want page numbers even if the information is in your own words. • SML – page numbers only needed for quotations. • Others - ??? Check your assignment guidelines or ask your tutor.
  • Quotes • Must make it clear that the words came from somewhere else. • Short quotes – use quotation marks: – According to Royle (2000, p.167) “the British state was strong because it was militarily effective and relatively efficient at raising taxes.” – According to Royle (2000, p.167) “the British state was strong because it was … relatively efficient at raising taxes.” • Ellipsis (three dots …) shows that you have removed words from the original text.
  • • Longer quotes - space above and below the quote, indent quote from left. According to Solomon et. al. (2006, p.177): The effectiveness of celebrities as communications sources often depends upon their perceived credibility. Consumers may not trust a celebrity’s motives for endorsing a product or they may question the star’s competence to evaluate the product’s claims. Therefore, it can be assumed ... • Don’t waste word count on quotes - more marks if you demonstrate understanding. • Useful when you need to show the exact wording, or if you are going to discuss the quote.
  • Secondary referencing • Use secondary referencing when your source refers to research done by someone else, and you’ve not read the original research. • E.g., book by Jones talking about work done by Smith: – According to Smith, cited in Jones (2008, p.17) … – OR Jones (2008, p.17) citing Smith notes that … – OR Smith’s landmark experiment ... (Smith cited in Jones 2008, p.17) • Jones would appear in your reference list – not Smith.
  • Common mistakes • Not having all the required information for your referencing. • Doing citations but forgetting reference list. • Not referencing information taken from elsewhere – very serious; could be accused of plagiarism. • Inconsistency – make sure all your references are in the same style. • Including author’s/publisher’s address – not needed.
  • Reference Management Software • Reference Management Software can assist you in writing references correctly. • Adds citations to your text and automatically creates a reference list. • Information Services runs Power Hours on using EndNote online.
  • Today’s Class • What? • Why? • When? • How? • FAQs and common mistakes. • Getting more help.
  • Useful book • Cite them right: the essential referencing guide by Richard Pears & Graham Shields • Slightly different version of Harvard, but gives good guidance.
  • Help with referencing • Subject Librarians: http://bit.ly/VQ0C6R – Mathematical & Computer Sciences, Built Environment - Sarah Kelly – Life Sciences - Marion Kennedy – Engineering & Physical Sciences, Petroleum Engineering - Kirsty Thomson – Management & Languages, Edinburgh Business School, Combined Studies - Catherine Ure • Library Enquiry Desk • libhelp@hw.ac.uk • http://www.hw.ac.uk/is/docs/Harvardguide.pdf
  • It’s all Latin to me… • et al. et alii and others • op. cit. opere citato in the work cited • ibid. ibidem in the same place Op. cit. and ibid. used in some numeric styles: 1. Thomson, M. (2005) ‘Tourism revenues: an economic perspective, International Journal of Tourism 43 (2), pp. 45- 50 2. Du, J., et al. (2008) ‘Economic institutions and FDI location choice: Evidence from US multinationals in China’, Journal of Comparative Economics, 36(3), pp.412-429. 3. Ibid., p. 413 4. Thomson, M. op.cit., p.46.