Citing & referencing explained3 PARTS• STATEMENT – e.g. idea, finding, conclusion taken from a source• CITATION – in the body of your text – indicates idea taken from a source (i.e. that not your own idea) – abbreviated form – refers reader to reference list• REFERENCE – full details of source used – end of your text (usually) – allows reader to find source / verify what you say, if necessary
Statements Citations in body of text (in-text citation) abbreviated pointers to full referenceAllow reader to:• know when you are stating an idea, fact or text that is not your own• find full details of the source in your reference list
Reference end of text full bibliographic detailsAllows reader to :• see breadth & depth of reading• locate sources• verify if necessary
What is a citation style?Hundreds of different stylesAuthor/date (e.g. Harvard) (Handelman and Levin, 2008) Handelman, G. J. & Levin, N. W. (2008) Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms. Heart Failure Reviews, 13(4), 393-404.Numeric (e.g. Vancouver) (1)  1. Handelman G J, Levin NW. Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms. Heart Failure Reviews 2008;13(4):393-404.Journal specific e.g. British Medical Journal 1 1. Handelman GJ, Levin NW. Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms. Heart Failure Reviews 2008;13(4):393-404.Check with your lecturer / tutor which style to useUse one style consistently throughout paper
Reference list / bibliographyTerms often used interchangeably- a list of what you’ve read at the end of a piece of workReference list Full details of all documents cited (mentioned) in the textBibliography Full details of all documents cited (mentioned) in the text and/or Full details of other (background) reading - not cited usually for larger pieces of workCheck with your School on terminology and what is required
Avoiding Plagiarism Words/ideas, etc = intellectual property Theft = penalties Using someone else’s work, words or ideas and passing them off as your own e.g. from - • published material e.g. book • unpublished e.g. dissertation / thesis • semi-published / grey literature – e.g. company reportsThe pancreas produces insulin • material from a web pagein response to an increase in • radio / tv programmesblood glucose. • cutting & pasting / quoting / paraphrasingThe pancreas creates insulina result of heightened blood Detection: vocabulary, style & fluency, Turnitinglucose.Elevated blood glucose causesthe pancreas to release insulin. HWU Student Guide to Plagiarism http://www.hw.ac.uk/registry/resources/PlagiarismGuide.pdf
Academic writingRead widely - proportionate to assignment - appropriate sourcesShow your reading - evaluate and discuss other authors’ ideas - show your understanding of the literature - attribute your sourcesEvaluate / formulate your own response / conclusionUse work of others to support your own opinions I believe that genetically modified yeasts will play a major role in the continuing advancement of brewing technology. Studies by Linko (2009) and Young (2010) illustrate the technical advantages of genetically modified yeasts . Their significance has also been noted by Jones (2008).Add weight to your discussionPotential for better academic writing & dissertationHear an academic’s opinion
QUIZPaul Robeson Library (n.d.) How to avoid plagiarism: An online tutorial [Online]. Available at:http://library.camden.rutgers.edu/EducationalModule/Plagiarism/ (Accessed: 26 September, 2011)
When to citeUsing someone else’s work, words or ideas from e.g. • published material e.g. book • unpublished e.g. dissertation / thesis • material from a web pageText • quoting • paraphrasingStatistics • if not your own e.g. In 2006, 20% of people in the UK lived below the poverty line.Tables, graphs, diagrams, images •unless you created these yourselfRadio, TV programmes, etc
When not to citeYour own opinions / ideas / thoughts / conclusions e.g. I believe that television can play a positive role in children’s education. Baker (2006) presents convincing evidence that children’s recall is greater for visually presented facts and these findings have been supported by Morton (2007). It could be argued that television is a key contributor to children’s learning. Jones (2006), for example, suggests that children absorb information more efficiently when presented in audio-visual form.
When not to citeCommon knowledge e.g. David Cameron is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. However, each subject will have its own common knowledge e.g. Mitochondria are found in cells If in doubt – ask your tutorDon’t cite if you don’t need to! Try not to pepper your work with unnecessary citations in an effort to get extra marks.Never cite something you haven’t read.
Keep a note!• To cite and reference correctly you need the bibliographic details of sources used e.g.books Author surname, Initial/s Publication date / year Title Place of publication Publisher Page number/s information taken from• Different sources require different details e.g. websites author date title URL date accessed
Book• Author surname/s, first name/s or initial/s • Wooldridge, J.M.• Year of publication • 2006• Title of the book • Introductory econometrics: a modern approach• Edition • 3rd edition• Place of publication • Mason• Name of publisher • Thomson South Western• Page number/s information taken fromIn-textWooldridge(2006) indicates that….It has been shown by Wooldridge that… (1)Reference list / bibliographyWooldridge, J.M. (2006) Introductory econometrics: a modern approach. 3rd edn.Mason: Thomson South Western. (author date)• Wooldridge, J.M. Introductory econometrics: a modern approach. 3rd ed. Mason: Thomson South Western; 2006. (numeric)
Journal Article• Author surname/s, first name/s or initial/s • Palombo, V.J.• Year of publication • 2009• Title of the article • Designing marketing channels for global expansion• Title of the journal • Marketing Management Journal• Volume number • 19• Issue /part number •2• Page numbers • 64-71• Page number/s information taken from In-text Palombo (2009) gave a useful summary… Palombo (1) gave a useful summary… Reference list / bibliography Palombo, V.J. (2009) ‘Designing marketing channels for global expansion’, The Marketing Management Journal, 19 (2), pp.64-71. (Author date) 24. Palombo,V.J. Designing marketing channels for global expansion. The Marketing Management Journal 2009; 19(2): 64-71. (Numeric)
e-journal Article• Author surname/s, first name/s or initial/s • Bezemer, D.J.• Year of publication • 2010• Title of the article • Understanding financial crisis through accounting models• Title of the journal • Accounting, Organizations and Society• Volume number • 35• Issue /part number •7• Page numbers • 676-688• Name of online collection • Science Direct and URL of collection • www.science direct.com OR• DOI • 10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002 could use with resolver prefix http://dx.doi.org/ • http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002• Date accessed • 10 October 2010http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002
e-journal ArticleIn-textBezemer (2010) gave a useful summary…Reference list / bibliographyBezember,D.J. (2010) ‘Understanding financial crisis through accounting models’, Accounting,Organizations and Society, 35 (7), pp. 676-688, Science Direct [Online]. Available at:http://www.sciencedirect.com (accessed: 10 October 2010). (Author date)Bezember,D.J. (2010) ‘Understanding financial crisis through accounting models’, Accounting,Organizations and Society, 35 (7), pp. 676-688, [Online] DOI: 10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002(accessed: 10 October 2010). (Author date)Bezember,D.J. (2010) ‘Understanding financial crisis through accounting models’, Accounting,Organizations and Society, 35 (7), pp. 676-688, [Online]. Available at:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002 (accessed: 10 October 2010). (Author date)
e-journal ArticleIn-textBezemer(1) gave a useful summary…Reference list / bibliographyBezember,D.J. Understanding financial crisis through accounting models. Accounting,Organizations and Society [internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Oct 10]; 35 (7): 676-688. Available from:http://www.sciencedirect.com. (Numeric)Bezember,D.J. Understanding financial crisis through accounting models. Accounting,Organizations and Society [internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Oct 10]; 35 (7): 676-688. Available from:doi: 10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002 .(Numeric).Bezember,D.J. Understanding financial crisis through accounting models. Accounting,Organizations and Society [internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Oct 10]; 35 (7): 676-688. Available from:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002. (Numeric)
Secondary ReferencingReferring to a piece of work you read about in another source (when you havenot read the original work)Reference list / bibliographyOnly list Palombo (2009) - the source you actually readIn text citationPalombo (2009) cites the work of Keller and Kotler (2006) who suggest that expansioninto foreign markets is generally not a preferred option for organisations with a strongdomestic customer base.Palombo (2009, citing Keller and Kotler 2006) notes that expansion into foreign markets isgenerally not a preferred option for organisations with a strong domestic customer base.As suggested by Keller and Kotler (2006), expansion into foreign . . . . (cited inPalombo, 2009)Keller and Kotler (2006, cited by Palombo 2009) suggest that expansion into foreign …It has been suggested that expansion into foreign. . . (Keller and Kotler 2006, in Palombo2009)
Common mistakesIncorrect• For example, in author-date• putting author initials in the citations – e.g. It has been argued that . . . (Smith, 2009) (D. Smith, 2009)• Not inverting the author’s surname/initial/s in reference list Smith, D. (2009) – D. Smith (2009)Incomplete• Citing in text and leaving out of reference list (& vice versa)• Insufficient detail in referencesInconsistent• Date in citation doesn’t correspond with date in references• Mix of formatting e.g. journal in italics or bold
Note Taking• Be systematic and thorough• Note down all the (bibliographic) details you need to cite & reference correctly e.g. remember . . . . . • author initials as well as surnames • chapter title and author if an edited book • page number you get quotes / information from • date you accessed websites / electronic materials• Make sure you can tie your notes to your source
Desk-top – computer lab PCsCan’t access from home or hallsMost suitable for research (PhD) levelstudents and staffIT provide training for PG and staffWeb-based, online accessAccess from home or halls‘Lite’ version - most suitable forundergraduate studentsLibrary provides help and adviceRegister using campus network PC:www.myendnotweb.comRegister from home/halls:
Its all Latin to me…You may have seen the following - • op. cit. opere citato in the work cited • ibid. ibidem in the same place • et al. et alii and othersThese are used in some numeric stylesReference list• Thomson, M. (2005) ‘Tourism revenues: an economic perspective, International Journal of Tourism 43 (2), pp. 45-50• Handelman, G. J. & Levin, N. W. (2008) Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms. Heart Failure Reviews, 13, 393-404.• Smith, A. & Jones, J.(2005) ‘Fluctuations in tourism – the economic impact’, Journal of Tourism 12 (1), pp. 23-36.• Du, J., et al. (2008) ‘Economic institutions and FDI location choice: Evidence from US multinationals in China’, Journal of Comparative Economics, 36(3), pp.412-429.• Ibid., p. 413• Thomson, M. op.cit., p.46.
Web-page - example• Author/s • British Red Cross (surname and initials or organisation)• Year site published or last updated • 2008• Title of internet site • Open Gardens• URL • http://www.redcross.org.uk/index.asp?id=39992• Date accessed • 17 June 2008In-textThe Open Gardens scheme (British Red Cross, 2008)…The Open Gardens scheme (1) . . .Reference list / bibliographyBritish Red Cross (2008) Open Gardens. Available at:http://www.redcross.org.uk/index.asp?id=39992 (Accessed: 17 June 2008). (Author date)14. British Red Cross. Open Gardens [internet]. 2008 [Cited 17 June 2008] Available from: http://www.redcross.org.uk/index.asp?id=39992 (Numeric)
Book (multiple authors) - example• Author names: surname, first name or • Perman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvray, J., & Common, M. initial/s • 2003• Year of publication • Natural Resource and Environmental Economics• Title of the book • 3rd edition• Edition • Harlow• Place of publication • Pearson Education• Name of publisherIn-textIt has been argued that….(Perman et al., 2003) OR Recent research has proventhat… (1)Reference list / bibliographyPerman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvrary, J. & Common, M. (2003) Natural resource andEnvironmental Economics, Harlow, Pearson Education. (author,date)1. Perman, R., et al., Natural Resource and Environmental Economics. 3rd ed. 2003, Harlow: Pearson Education. (numeric)
Chapter in edited book - example• Author name/s – surname and first name (or first name • Watson, G., Londsdale, C., Cox, N., & Sanderson, J. initials) • 2007• Year of publication • Strategic supply chain management: the power of• Title of the chapter incentives• Editors’ name • Waters, D (Editor)• Title of the book • Global Logistics• Edition • 5th ed• Pages • pp. 91-106• Place of publication • London• Name of publisher • Kogan Page In-text In a recent study (Watson et al., 2007) it has been argued that... OR Watson has proven that . . . (1) Reference list / bibliography Watson, G., Lonsdale, C., Cox, N. & Sanderson, J. (2007) Strategic supply Chain management: the power of incentives. In Waters, D. (Ed.) Global Logistics. 5th ed. London,Kogan Page. (author,date) • Watson, G., et al., Strategic supply chain management: the power of incentives, in Global Logistics, D. Waters, Editor. 2007, Kogan Page: Londond. P. 91-106. (numeric)
Papers with the same author surname/year (author-date format)• Kirillin (2004) shows that first years find citing and referencing problematic. These results have been supported further by Kirillin (2004) and by other researchers in the field (Davids, 2005; Forbes, 2006).Kirillin, M. Y. & Myllyla, R. (2004) Referencing practice in first year undergraduates: a case study. Journal of Documentation, 6, 164-173.Kirillin, M. Y. & Myllyla, R. (2004) Plagiarism in first year student work. Journal of Information Literacy, 5, 192-199.
Papers with the same author surname/year (author-date format)• Kirillin (2004a) shows that first years find citing and referencing problematic. These results have been supported further by Kirillin (2004b) and by other researchers in the field (Davids, 2005; Forbes, 2006).• The reader must be able to know which reference you are referring to, therefore, the reference list must also have the same alphabetic character, e.g.Kirillin, M. Y. & Myllyla, R. (2004a) Referencing practice in first year undergraduates: a case study. Journal of Documentation, 6, 164-173.Kirillin, M. Y. & Myllyla, R. (2004b) Plagiarism in first year student work. Journal of Information Literacy, 5, 192-199.
Newspaper article - example • Author name/s – surname and first name or • Old, D initial (if none, use title of newspaper) • Year of publication • 2008 • Title of the article • House Price Gloom • Title of the newspaper • Evening Chronicle • Edition (if required) • Newcastle edition • Day and month • 26th June • Page reference • p 25In-text citationHouse prices fell by 2.1% last month (Old, 2008). ORHouse prices fell by 2.1% last month (1).Reference list / bibliographyOld D. (2008) ‘House price gloom’, Evening Chronicle (Newcastle edn.), 26 June, p.25. (author date)24. Old D. House price gloom. Evening Chronicle. 2008. 26 June, p. 25. (numeric)• Online newspaper article - same as print newspaper plus [online] URL and (date accessed)Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2008) Cite them right: The essential guide to referencing and plagiarism. Newcastle upon Tyne: Peartree Press. pp.39