Citing & referencing explained3 PARTS• STATEMENT – e.g. idea, finding, conclusion taken from a source• CITATION – in the body of your text – indicates idea taken from a source (i.e. that not your own idea) – abbreviated form – refers reader to reference list• REFERENCE – full details of source used – end of your text (usually) – allows reader to find source / verify what you say, if necessary
Statements Citations in body of text (in-text citation) abbreviated pointers to full referenceAllow reader to:• know when you are stating an idea, fact or text that is not your own• find full details of the source in your reference list
Reference end of text full bibliographic detailsAllows reader to :• see breadth & depth of reading• locate sources• verify if necessary
What is a citation style?Hundreds of different stylesAuthor/date (e.g. Harvard) (Handelman and Levin, 2008) Handelman, G. J. and Levin, N. W. (2008) ‘Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms’, Heart Failure Reviews, 13(4), 393-404.Numeric (e.g. Vancouver) (1)  1. Handelman G J, Levin NW. Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms. Heart Failure Reviews 2008;13(4):393-404.Journal specific e.g. British Medical Journal 1 1. Handelman GJ, Levin NW. Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms. Heart Failure Reviews 2008;13(4):393-404.Check with your lecturer / tutor which style to use. If using Endnote/EndnoteWeb – recommend Harvard HWUUse one style consistently throughout paper . D
Reference list / bibliographyTerms often used interchangeably- a list of what you’ve read at the end of a piece of workReference list Full details of all documents cited (mentioned) in the textBibliography Full details of all documents cited (mentioned) in the text and/or Full details of other (background) reading - not cited usually for larger pieces of workCheck with your School on terminology and what is required
Avoiding PlagiarismPhoto in here Words/ideas, etc = intellectual property Theft = penalties Using someone else’s work, words or ideas and passing them off as your own e.g. from - • published material e.g. book • unpublished e.g. dissertation / thesis • semi-published / grey literature – e.g. company reports • material from a web pageThe pancreas produces insulin • radio / tv programmesin response to an increase inblood glucose. • cutting & pasting / quoting / paraphrasingThe pancreas creates insulin Detection: vocabulary, style & fluency, Turnitina result of heightened bloodglucose. Elevated blood glucose causes HWU Student Guide to Plagiarism the pancreas to release insulin. http://www.hw.ac.uk/registry/resources/PlagiarismGuide.pdf
Found guilty of plagiarism Copying the work of other authors in a book and articles “Chunks of prose, apparently written by Dr Persaud, were the work of other authors.” (Jenkins, 2008)Photo of Dr Raj Persaud “He failed to attribute the so-called ‘stolen words’” (Jenkins, 2008) General Medical Council hearing- plagiarism dishonest brought profession into disrepute suspended from practising medicine for 3 months Jenkins, R. (2008) ‘TV psychiatrist Raj Persaud suspended for plagiarism. Raj Persaud brought profession into disrepute’ The Times, 21 June TimesOnline [Online]. Available at: http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/tv_and_radio/article4179597.ece (Accessed: 14 October 2008)
German Defence Minister Plagiarism scandal over copy-and-past methods in PhD thesis Copied entire sections from other sources, without attribution.Photo of Karl-Theodor zu Admitted accidental “mistakes”Guttenberg 82.44% plagiarised - 891 examples of plagiarism from over 120 different sources (Guttenplag wiki) University of Bayreuth withdrew his doctorate Announced his resignation (March 2011) Paterson, T. (2011) ‘German minister renounces PhD after accusations of plagiarism. ‘ ’ The Independnet 23 Feb The Independent [Online]. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/german-minister-renounces-phd-after-accusations-of-plagiarism-2222828.html (Accessed: 27 July 2011)
Academic writingPhoto in here Read widely - proportionate to assignment - appropriate sources Show your reading - evaluate and discuss other authors’ ideas - show your understanding of the literature - attribute your sources Evaluate / formulate your own response / conclusion Use work of others to support your own opinions I believe that genetically modified yeasts will play a major role in the continuing advancement of brewing technology. Studies by Linko (2009) and Young (2010) illustrate the technical advantages of genetically modified yeasts . Their significance has also been noted by Jones (2008). Add weight to your discussion Potential for better academic writing & dissertation Hear an academic’s opinion
QUIZQuiz at:Paul Robeson Library (n.d.) How to avoid plagiarism: An online tutorial [Online]. Available at:http://library.camden.rutgers.edu/EducationalModule/Plagiarism/ (Accessed: 26 September, 2011)
When to citeUsing someone else’s work, words or ideas from e.g. • published material e.g. book • unpublished e.g. dissertation / thesis • material from a web pageText • quoting • paraphrasingStatistics • if not your own e.g. In 2006, 20% of people in the UK lived below the poverty line.Tables, graphs, diagrams, images •unless you created these yourselfRadio, TV programmes, etc
When not to citeHowever . . . . . do cite to back up your opinions . . .Your own opinions / ideas / thoughts / conclusions e.g. I believe that television can play a positive role in children’s education. Baker (2006) presents convincing evidence that children’s recall is greater for visually presented facts and these findings have been supported by Morton (2007). It could be argued that television is a key contributor to children’s learning. Jones (2006), for example, suggests that children absorb information more efficiently when presented in audio-visual form.
When not to citeCommon knowledge e.g. David Cameron is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. However, each subject will have its own common knowledge e.g. Mitochondria are found in cells If in doubt – ask your tutorDon’t cite if you don’t need to! Try not to pepper your work with unnecessary citations in an effort to get extra marks.Never cite something you haven’t read.
Keep a note!• To cite and reference correctly you need the bibliographic details of sources used e.g.books Author surname, Initial/s Publication date / year Title Place of publication Publisher Page number/s information taken from• Different sources require different details e.g. websites author date title URL date accessed
Book• Author surname/s, first name/s or initial/s • Wooldridge, J.M.• Year of publication • 2006• Title of the book • Introductory econometrics: a modern approach• Edition • 3rd edition• Place of publication • Mason• Name of publisher • Thomson South Western• Page number/s information taken fromIn-textWooldridge(2006) indicates that….It has been shown by Wooldridge that… (1)Reference list / bibliographyWooldridge, J.M. (2006) Introductory econometrics: a modern approach. 3rd ed.,Mason: Thomson South Western. (author date)1. Wooldridge, J.M. Introductory econometrics: a modern approach. 3rd ed. Mason: Thomson South Western; 2006. (numeric)
Journal Article• Author surname/s, first name/s or initial/s • Palombo, V.J.• Year of publication • 2009• Title of the article • Designing marketing channels for global expansion• Title of the journal • Marketing Management Journal• Volume number • 19• Issue /part number •2• Page numbers • 64-71• Page number/s information taken from In-text Palombo (2009) gave a useful summary… Palombo (1) gave a useful summary… Reference list / bibliography Palombo, V.J. (2009) ‘Designing marketing channels for global expansion’, The Marketing Management Journal, 19 (2), 64-71. (Author date) 1. Palombo,V.J. Designing marketing channels for global expansion. The Marketing Management Journal 2009; 19(2): 64-71. (Numeric)
e-journal ArticleIf a PDF • Bezemer, D.J.• Author surname/s, first name/s or initial/s • 2010• Year of publication • Understanding financial crisis through• Title of the article accounting models • Accounting, Organizations and Society• Title of the journal • 35• Volume number •7• Issue /part number • 676-688• Page numbers Author, date Bezemer (2010) gave a useful summary… Bezemer, D. J. (2010) Understanding financial crisis through accounting models, Accounting, Organisation and Society, 35(7), 676-688. Numeric Bezemer (1) 1. Bezemer,D.J. Understanding financial crisis through accounting models. Accounting, Organizations and Society 2010; 35 (7): 676-688.
e-journal ArticleUsing e-journal collection name/URL• Author surname/s, first name/s or initial/s • Bezemer, D.J.• Year of publication • 2010• Title of the article • Understanding financial crisis through accounting models• Title of the journal • Accounting, Organizations and Society• Volume number • 35• Issue /part number •7• Page numbers • 676-688• Name of online collection • Science Direct and URL of collection • www.science direct.com• Date accessed • 10 September 2012http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002
e-journal ArticleAUTHOR, DATE STYLEIn-textBezemer (2010) gives a useful summary . . .Reference list / bibliographyBezemer, D. J. (2010) Understanding financial crisis through accounting models, Accounting,Organisation and Society, 35(7), 676-688, available: http://www.sciencedirect.com [accessed10 September 2012].NUMERIC STYLEIn-textBezemer(1) gives a useful summary…Reference list / bibliographyBezember,D.J. Understanding financial crisis through accounting models. Accounting,Organizations and Society [internet]. 2010 [cited 2012 Sept 10]; 35 (7): 676-688. Available from:http://www.sciencedirect.com.
e-journal ArticleUsing a DOI• Author surname/s, first name/s or initial/s • Bezemer, D.J.• Year of publication • 2010• Title of the article • Understanding financial crisis through accounting models• Title of the journal • Accounting, Organizations and Society• Volume number • 35• Issue /part number •7• Page numbers • 676-688• DOI • 10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002 could use with resolver prefix http://dx.doi.org/ • http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002• Date accessed • 10 September 2012http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002
e-journal ArticleAUTHOR, DATE STYLEIn-textBezemer (2010) gave a useful summary…Reference list / bibliographyBezember,D.J. (2010) ‘Understanding financial crisis through accounting models’, Accounting,Organizations and Society, 35 (7), 676-688, DOI: 10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002[accessed: 10 September 2012].Bezemer, D. J. (2010) Understanding financial crisis through accounting models, Accounting, Organisationand Society, 35(7), 676-688, available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002 [accessed 10 September,2012].
e-journal ArticleNUMERIC STYLEIn-textBezemer (1) gave a useful summary…Reference list / bibliography1. Bezember,D.J. Understanding financial crisis through accounting models. Accounting, Organizations and Society [internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Oct 10]; 35 (7): 676-688. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002 .OR1. Bezember,D.J. Understanding financial crisis through accounting models. Accounting, Organizations and Society [internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Oct 10]; 35 (7): 676-688. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2010.07.002.
Secondary ReferencingReferring to a piece of work you read about in another source (when you havenot read the original work)Reference list / bibliographyOnly list Palombo (2009) - the source you actually readIn text citationPalombo (2009) cites the work of Keller and Kotler (2006) who suggest that expansioninto foreign markets is generally not a preferred option for organisations with a strongdomestic customer base.Palombo (2009, citing Keller and Kotler 2006) notes that expansion into foreign markets isgenerally not a preferred option for organisations with a strong domestic customer base.As suggested by Keller and Kotler (2006), expansion into foreign . . . . (cited inPalombo, 2009)Keller and Kotler (2006, cited by Palombo 2009) suggest that expansion into foreign …It has been suggested that expansion into foreign. . . (Keller and Kotler 2006, in Palombo2009)
Common mistakesIncorrect• For example, in author-date• putting author initials in the citations – e.g. It has been argued that . . . (Smith, 2009) (D. Smith, 2009)• Not inverting the author’s surname/initial/s in reference list Smith, D. (2009) – D. Smith (2009)Incomplete• Citing in text and leaving out of reference list (& vice versa)• Insufficient detail in referencesInconsistent• Date in citation doesn’t correspond with date in references• Mix of formatting e.g. journal in italics or bold
Note Taking• Be systematic and thorough• Note down all the (bibliographic) details you need to cite & reference correctly e.g. remember . . . . . • author initials as well as surnames • chapter title and author if an edited book • page number you get quotes / information from • date you accessed websites / electronic materials• Make sure you can tie your notes to your source
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