Style in academic writingHow to write clearly for a reader
What is the purpose of this video? Asimo image in here Image retrieved 23.08.11 from http://www.diseno- art.com/encyclopedia/archive/ASIMO. html Video link http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=NZngYDDDfW42
Register Language use changes depending on • the situation in which communication takes place • the topic and purpose of the communication • the relationship between the people involved • whether you are speaking or writing3
Journalism compared to academic writing What is the difference between academic writing and journalism? What types of Questions do academic writers and journalists ask?4
Journalism vs academic writing Journalists Academic writers Who? What? Where? When? How? Why? People Concepts Places Processes events relationships5
Journalism vs academic writing Compare the two texts in terms of these features Intended readers Purpose of the texts Aspect of the topic to focus on How information is presented How information is organised Language6
Journalism vs academic writing Features Journalistic text Academic text Readers general public (may people who are have or are address reader as ‘you’) developing expertise Purpose to engage interest; to extend knowledge; to gossip; to entertain to discuss ideas Aspect of topic people connected with ideas related to the topic the topic Layout layout depends on conventional layout, depending particular publication but on purpose. Commonly: usually in columns numbered, headed sections / in-text citations and references Starting point Scene setting or ‘hot Background or key information news’ to interest reader (e.g. definition)7
Journalism vs academic writing Features Journalistic text Academic text Information through feelings / images accurately, through presented explanation and evidence, Information for dramatic effect / to engage logical order which depends organised reader on purpose Sources of personal experiences and published work of information information from speaking to academics, carefully people, who may or may not be referenced named language informal, colloquial language formal, academic, cautious language Cultural wide range of cultural references limited to the specialist field references8
Purpose & audience for academic writing• Why do you have to write essays & exam questions?• to show that you: • understand important information in your field • can analyse, evaluate, reorganise and re-present information to answer a particular question. • can develop and justify your own interpretation.• Who are you writing for?• The lecturer or tutor who marks your work • you need to be sure that the tutor will understand what you write • you should write as clearly, simply and logically as possible.
Purpose and audienceYour essays and exam answers are • written communications • about a serious topic • between people who do not know each other well • designed to persuade your lecturer to accept you as a member of the academic communityTherefore, they are written in a formal, impersonal and objective writing style.This is a very different style from journalism.
Reference Gillett, Andy, Hammond, Angela and Martala, Mary (2009). Successful Academic Writing. Harlow: Pearson Education. ISBN: 978-0-273-72171-0 (£12.00 or £8.00 used from Amazon)11