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  • How do I cite an entire chapter from a medial text book for a powerpoint presentation which was created to train medical providers? The entire 45 slide presentation was taken from the text book. I would like to avoid having to cite each slide. Is there a way to appropriately cite the book and acknowledge the authors without doing it page by page?
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The Cite is Right Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Cite is Right! © draconisVH Flickr.com WHAT? WHY? WHEN? HOW?
  • 2. WHAT ?
  • 3. What is a citation?
    • Citation - abbreviated pointer to source used
    • In the body of your text
    • In-text citation
    • Allows reader to:
    • know when you are stating an idea, fact or
    • some text that is not your own
    • know whose idea, fact or text it is
    • find full details of the source in your reference
    • list
    In a recent study (Thomson, 2005) it was argued that income from tourism had risen. However, others suggest income from this sector had fallen over the same period (Smith & Jones, 2005). In a recent study 1 it was argued that income from tourism had risen. However, others suggest this sector income had fallen from over the same period 2 .
  • 4. What is a reference? In a recent study (Thomson, 2005) it was argued that income from tourism had risen. However, others suggest income from this sector had fallen over the same period (Smith & Jones, 2005). In a recent study 1 it was argued that income from tourism had risen. However, others suggest income from this sector had fallen over the same period 2 .
    • Reference – full details of sources used
    • At the end of your work (reference list)
    • End-text citation
    • Allows reader to :
    • see breadth & depth of reading
    • locate sources
    • verify if necessary
    Reference list Smith, A. & Jones, J.(2005) ‘Fluctuations in tourism – the economic impact’, Journal of Tourism 12 (1), pp. 23-36. Thomson, M. (2005) ‘Tourism revenues: an economic perspective, International Journal of Tourism 43 (2), pp. 45-50. 1. Thomson, M. (2005) ‘Tourism revenues: an economic perspective, International Journal of Tourism 43 (2), pp. 45-50. 2. Smith, A. & Jones, J.( 2005) ‘Fluctuations in tourism – the economic impact’, Journal of Tourism 12 (1), pp. 23-36. Example
  • 5. What is a citation style? Format of citations and references Numbers, author/date, brackets [ ] ( ), superscript, capitalisation, italics, underlining, etc. Hundreds of different styles Author/date e.g. Harvard (variations) Numeric e.g. Vancouver Journal styles e.g. BMJ, RSC Ask tutor which style to use Must be consistent in use of style
  • 6. What is a citation style?
    • Numeric
    • (1) [1]
    • Handelman G J, Levin NW. Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms. Heart
    • Failure Reviews 2008;13(4):393-404.
    • Author/date
    • (Handelman and Levin, 2008)
    • Handelman, G. J. & Levin, N. W. (2008) Iron and anemia in human biology: a review
    • of mechanisms. Heart Failure Reviews, 13 , 393-404.
    • British Medical Journal
    • 1
    • Handelman GJ, Levin NW. Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms. Heart Failure Reviews 2008;13(4):393-404.
  • 7. Reference list / bibliography Terms often used interchangeably - a list of what you’ve read at the end of a piece of work Reference list Full details of all documents cited (mentioned) in the text Bibliography Full details of all documents cited (mentioned) in the text and/or Full details of other (background) reading - not cited usually for larger pieces of work Check with your School on terminology and what is required
  • 8. WHY ?
  • 9.
    • Avoiding plagiarism
    • Words/ideas, etc = intellectual property
    • Using someone else’s words or ideas and passing them off as your own from e.g.
      • published material e.g. book
      • unpublished e.g.
      • tutor’s notes / classmate’s work
      • material from a web page
      • including images
      • buying ready-mades from the internet
    • By failing to acknowledge / attribute
      • cutting & pasting
      • paraphrasing
      • quoting
    • Detection: vocabulary, style, fluency, Turnitin
    • HWU Student Guide to Plagiarism
    • http://www.hw.ac.uk/registry/resources/PlagiarismGuide.pdf
    During the last decade, there has been a shift from "instructivist" approaches towards "constructivist" approaches in the field of instructional design. Over the last ten years, there has been a marked change from "instructivist" points of view to "constructivist" points of view among instructional designers. How to recognise plagiarism. [Online]. Available at: http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/example2paraphrasing.html (accessed 13 Oct 2008) ryancr Flickr.com
  • 10. Andy Butterton/PA Jenkins, R. (2008) ‘TV psychiatrist Raj Persaud suspended for plagiarism. Raj Persaud brought profession into disrepute’ The Times , 21 June TimesOnline [Online]. Available at: http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/tv_and_radio/article4179597.ece (Accessed: 14 October 2008)
    • Found guilty of plagiarism
    • Copying the work of other authors in a book and articles
      • “ Chunks of prose, apparently written by Dr
      • Persaud, were the work of other authors.”
      • (Jenkins, 2008)
      • “ He failed to attribute the so-called ‘stolen words’”
      • (Jenkins, 2008)
    • General Medical Council hearing-
    • plagiarism dishonest
    • brought profession into disrepute
    • suspended from practising medicine for 3 months
      • “ It was not my intention to pass off other people’s work as mine.” (Jenkins, 2008)
  • 11.
    • Academic writing
    • Read widely
    • - from appropriate sources
    • - show your reading
    • Discuss other authors’ ideas
    • - attribute them
      • “ I accept that my use of the work of some authors lacked adequate acknowledgement.”
      • Raj Persaud (Jenkins, 2008)
    • Formulate your own response / conclusion
    • Use work of others to support your own opinions
    • Add weight to your discussion
    • Potential for better essays, dissertations, theses!
    Jenkins, R. (2008) ‘TV psychiatrist Raj Persaud suspended for plagiarism. Raj Persaud brought profession into disrepute’ The Times , 21 June TimesOnline [Online]. Available at: http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/ tv_and_radio/article4179597.ece (Accessed: 14 October 2008)
  • 12. WHEN ?
  • 13. When not to cite Common knowledge e.g. Gordon Brown is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. However, each subject will have its own common knowledge e.g. Mitochondria are found in cells If in doubt – ask your tutor Your own ideas / thoughts / conclusions e.g. It could be argued that television is a key contributor to children’s learning. Jones (2006), for example, suggests that children absorb information more efficiently when presented in audio-visual form.
  • 14. When not to cite
    • Your own opinion e.g.
    • I believe that television can play a positive role in children’s education.
    • Baker (2006) presents convincing evidence that children’s recall is greater for visually presented facts and these findings have been supported by Morton (2007).
    • Don’t cite if you don’t need to!
    • Try not to pepper your work with unnecessary citations in an effort to get
    • extra marks.
    • Never cite something you haven’t read .
  • 15. When to cite
    • Ideas or words of others
    • Any idea, opinion or finding that isn’t your own
        • from print or web based sources
        • if cutting and pasting
        • even if rewording or paraphrasing
    • Quotes
    • Exact words taken from another source
        • print or web
        • published or unpublished (e.g. lecture notes)
  • 16. When to cite
    • Statistics
    • if not your own
      • e.g. In 2006, 20% of people in the UK lived below the poverty line.
    • Tables, graphs, images, radio programmes
    • Quiz
    • Paul Robeson Library (n.d.) How to avoid plagiarism: An online tutorial [Online]. Available
    • at: http://library.camden.rutgers.edu/EducationalModule/Plagiarism/ (Accessed: 14 October 2008)
  • 17. HOW ?
  • 18. Reference Construction
    • You’ll be using different sorts of material in your essays
      • books, book chapters, journal articles, web-pages, newspaper articles…
    • To cite and reference these sources correctly, you need to take note of specific details – often called bibliographic details
    • Some types of information require you to take note of more details than others
  • 19. Citation Style
    • How you format your in-text citations and reference list/bibliography will depend on your chosen citation style
    • Author date / numeric = two main types of style
      • Hundreds of different styles e.g.
        • Harvard (author/date). Variations!
        • Vancouver (numeric)
    • Citation style determines the -
      • order in which details are listed
      • format e.g. in UPPER CASE, italics or bold
      • punctuation e.g. where to use commas, semi-colons , full stops, etc.
    • Check with your School which style you should use
  • 20. Referencing Terms
    • The next few slides list the elements of information (bibliographic details) required to cite and reference different types of material correctly
    • See the handout ‘Referencing Terms’ for a description
  • 21. Book
    • Author name/s – surname and first name (or first name initials)
    • Year of publication
    • Title of the book
    • Edition
    • Place of publication
    • Name of publisher
    • For e-books, all of the above , plus
    • eBook supplier
    • [online]
    • URL / web address
    • date accessed
  • 22. Book (single author) - example
    • In-text
    • Sloman (2006) indicates that…. or . . . . It has been shown that… (1)
    • Reference list / bibliography
    • Sloman, J. (2006) Economics , Harlow, FT Prentice Hall. (author/date)
    • Sloman, J., Economics . 6 th ed. 2006, Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. (numeric)
    • Refer to handout for examples using other styles
    • Online book, same as print book plus supplier, [online] URL and (date accessed)
    • SLOMAN, John
    • 2006
    • Economics
    • 6th edition
    • Harlow
    • FT Prentice Hall
    • Author names: surname, first name or initial/s
    • Year of publication
    • Title of the book
    • Edition
    • Place of publication
    • Name of publisher
  • 23. Book (multiple authors) - example
    • In-text
    • It has been argued that . . (Perman et al., 2003) or . . Recent research has proven that . . (1)
    • Reference list / bibliography
    • Perman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvrary, J. & Common, M. (2003) Natural resource and
    • Environmental Economics , Harlow, Pearson Education. (author/date)
    • 1. Perman, R., et al., Natural Resource and Environmental Economics . 3 rd ed. 2003,
    • Harlow: Pearson Education. (numeric)
    • Refer to handout for examples using other styles
    • Online book, same as print book plus supplier, [online] URL and (date accessed)
    • Perman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvray, J., & Common, M.
    • 2003
    • Natural Resource and Environmental Economics
    • 3rd edition
    • Harlow
    • Pearson Education
    • Author names: surname, first name or
    • initial/s
    • Year of publication
    • Title of the book
    • Edition
    • Place of publication
    • Name of publisher
  • 24. Chapter in edited book
    • Author name/s – surname and first name (or first name initials)
    • Year of publication
    • Title of the chapter
    • Editor’s name or names
    • Title of the book
    • Edition
    • Pages
    • Place of publication
    • Name of publisher
  • 25. Chapter in edited book - example
    • Author name/s – surname and first name (or first name initials)
    • Year of publication
    • Title of the chapter
    • Editor’s name or names
    • Title of the book
    • Edition
    • Pages
    • Place of publication
    • Name of publisher
    • Watson, G., Londsdale, C., Cox, N., & Sanderson, J.
    • 2007
    • Strategic supply chain management: the power of incentives
    • Waters, D (Editor)
    • Global Logistics
    • 5th ed
    • pp. 91-106
    • London
    • Kogan Page
  • 26. Chapter in edited book - example
    • Watson, G., Londsdale, C., Cox, N., & Sanderson, J.
    • 2007
    • Strategic supply chain management: the power of incentives
    • Waters, D (Editor)
    • Global Logistics
    • 5th ed
    • pp. 91-106
    • London
    • Kogan Page
    • Author name/s – surname and first name (or first name initials)
    • Year of publication
    • Title of the chapter
    • Editor’s name or names
    • Title of the book
    • Edition
    • Pages
    • Place of publication
    • Name of publisher
    • In-text
    • In a recent study (Watson et al., 2007) it has been argued that...
    • or
    • Watson has proven that . . . (1)
    • Reference list / bibliography
    • Watson, G., Lonsdale, C., Cox, N. & Sanderson, J. (2007) Strategic supply
    • chain management: the power of incentives. In Waters, D. (Ed.) Global Logistics . 5 th ed.
    • London,Kogan Page. (author/date)
    • Watson, G., et al., Strategic supply chain management: the power of incentives , in
    • Global Logistics , D. Waters, Editor. 2007, Kogan Page: London. P. 91-106. (numeric)
    • Refer to handout for examples using other styles
    • Online book, same as print book plus supplier, [online] URL and (date accessed)
  • 27. Journal Article
    • Author name/s – surname and first name (or first name initials)
    • Year of publication
    • Title of the article
    • Title of the journal/source/publication
    • Volume number/Part number
    • Issue number
    • Page numbers
  • 28. Journal Article - example
    • In-text
    • DeVoss and Rosati (2002) gave a useful summary… or
    • DeVoss and Rosati (1) gave a useful summary…
    • Reference list / bibliography
    • DeVoss, D. & Rosati, A.C. (2002) “It wasn’t me, was it?” Plagiarism and the Web.
    • Computers and Composition , 19, 191-203. (author/date)
    • 1. DeVoss, D. and A.C.Rosati, “It wasn’t me, was it?” Plagiarism and the Web .
    • Computers and Composition, 2002. 19 (2): p. 191-203. (numeric)
    • Refer to handout for examples using other styles
    • Online journal, same as print journal plus name of collection [online], URL of collection and (date accessed).
    • DeVoss, D., & Rosati, A. C.
    • 2002
    • "It wasn't me, was it?" Plagiarism and the
    • Web.
    • Computers and Composition
    • 19
    • 2
    • 191-203
    • Author name/s: surname, first name or initials
    • Year of publication
    • Title of the article
    • Title of the journal/source/publication
    • Volume number/Part number
    • Issue number
    • Page numbers
  • 29. Web-page
    • Author/s (surname and initials or organisation)
    • year site published or last updated
    • title of internet site
    • URL / web address
    • date accessed
  • 30. Web-page - example
    • In-text
    • The Open Gardens scheme (British Red Cross, 2008)… or
    • The Open Gardens scheme (1) . . .
    • Reference list / bibliography
    • British Red Cross (2008) Open Gardens. Available at:
    • http://www.redcross.org.uk/index.asp?id=39992 (Accessed: 17 June 2008). (author/date)
    • British Red Cross. Open Gardens [Internet]. [Cited 17 June 2008]. Available from:
    • http:// www.redcross.org.uk/index.asp?id =39992 (numeric)
    • British Red Cross
    • 2008
    • Open Gardens
    • http://www.redcross.org.uk/index.asp?id=39992
    • 17 June 2008
    • Author/s
    • (surname and initials or organisation)
    • Year site published or last updated
    • Title of internet site
    • URL
    • Date accessed
  • 31. More examples. . . .
    • Other sources of information source . . .
        • historical books wikis
        • translated books research reports
        • reference books company reports
        • atlases acts of parliament
        • blogs government publications
      • Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2008) Cite them right: The essential guide to
      • Referencing and plagiarism . Newcastle upon Tyne: Peartree Press
    • Citing and referencing
        • Two or more texts supporting the same point
        • Quotations
        • Using page numbers in in-text citations
        • Secondary citations
        • Refer to ‘Citing and Referencing’ handout for more information
  • 32. Secondary Referencing/Citations
    • Referring to a piece of work you read about in another
    • source (when you have not read the original work)
    • In text citation
    • Chen (2007) cites the work of Kelly (1999) who concluded…
    • Other common conventions (as cited in..), (cited in…), (see…), (cited by…), (quoted in…)
    • Reference list / bibliography
    • Only cite the source you actually read
    • Refer to ‘Citing and Referencing’ handout for more
    • information
  • 33. Reference lists / bibliographies
    • If using the author/date style (e.g. Harvard)
      • references should be listed alphabetically by the first authors' surnames, regardless of the order they appear in the text.
      • if you cite the same reference more than once, it is only listed once in the reference list / bibliography
    • If using the numeric style (e.g. Vancouver)
      • references should be listed numerically in the order they appear in your text
      • if you cite the same reference more than once, you use the same number (unless you are referring to different page numbers)
    • Usually single line spacing – check with your supervisor
  • 34. Its all Latin to me…
    • You may have seen the following -
        • Op. cit. opere citato in the work cited
        • Ibid. Ibidem in the same place
        • Et al. et alii and others
    • These are used in some numeric styles
    • Reference list
    • Thomson, M. (2005) ‘Tourism revenues: an economic perspective, International Journal of Tourism 43 (2), pp. 45-50
    • Handelman, G. J. & Levin, N. W. (2008) Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms. Heart Failure Reviews, 13 , 393-404.
    • Smith, A. & Jones, J.(2005) ‘Fluctuations in tourism – the economic impact’, Journal of Tourism 12 (1), pp. 23-36.
    • Du, J., et al. (2008) ‘Economic institutions and FDI location choice: Evidence from US multinationals in China’, Journal of Comparative Economics , 36(3), pp.412-429.
    • Ibid., p. 413
    • Thomson, M. op.cit., p.46.
  • 35. TIPS & TOOLS
  • 36. Paraphrasing and Quoting
    • Paraphrasing (putting things in your own words) can be tricky
    • It is not just a matter of substituting a few words
      • e.g ten years for decade, point of view for perspective, etc
    • The original material has to change sufficiently in terms of language and structure
      • bad paraphrasing plus a reference is still plagiarism
      • try re-writing the original text without looking at it
    • If you can’t put in to your own words, use quotation marks and cite and reference the source
      • if you don’t quote verbatim, then use [square brackets] to indicate words you have added and … for words you have removed.
      • don’t over-use quotes, summarising the argument into your own words shows a better understanding
    • Examples in ‘Citing and Referencing’ handout
  • 37. Note Taking
    • Be systematic and thorough
    • Think about all the (bibliographic) details you need to reference correctly and note them down
    • Remember to note down all the details you’ll need e.g.
      • not just author surnames - initials too
      • not just book title – but chapter title too if relevant
      • not just the really good quote – but the page number
      • you found it on
      • not just the web address for the website – but the date
      • you accessed it, etc, etc.
  • 38. Note Taking
    • It can be very difficult, time consuming and frustrating to try to find these details later.
    • If you don’t have all the details, you really can’t refer to the source in your text because you won’t be able to reference it properly.
    • Try using a colour coding system in your notes e.g. highlight the following types of text in different colours. .
      • - your own words
      • - paraphrased text
      • - exact sentences or phrases from your source
      • which you want to paraphrase later
      • - quotes (or use quotation marks)
  • 39. If your notes look like this – get organised! Why, oh why, did I not take better notes?
  • 40. Remember Raj…
      • “ I realise I should have been much more careful
      • when I started writing the book. At the time, given
      • the stress I was under, given the deadlines and my
      • other work, I thought I was adequately attributing
      • work.”
      • Raj Persaud (Jenkins, 2008)
    • Jenkins, R. (2008) ‘TV psychiatrist Raj Persaud suspended for plagiarism. Raj Persaud brought profession into disrepute’ The Times , 21
    • JuneTimesOnline [Online]. Available at: http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/tv_and_radio/article4179597.ece
    • (Accessed: 14 October 2008)
  • 41.
    • Store the bibliographic details of all your sources in one place e.g. a password protected online library
    • Add notes and your own keywords (tags)
    • Type source details in manually or download from a database search
    • Organise your sources e.g. in folders for different assignments, by subject, etc.
    Reference management software
  • 42. Reference management software
    • Format reference lists automatically
    • Change citation / referencing styles easily
    • Cite while you write i.e. insert in-text citations as you type
    • Helps ensure consistency
      • no worries on where you put the commas , colons, full stops and italics!
      • change the order of your in-text citations and the reference list is re-ordered accordingly (v.useful for numbered bibliography)
  • 43. Web-based, online access Access from home or halls ‘ Lite’ version Most suitable for undergraduate students Library provides help and advice Desk-top – PC Caledonia computers Can’t access from home or halls Most suitable for research (PhD) level students and staff UICS provide training for PG and staff
  • 44. Library lunchtime workshop
  • 45. Further guidance - citing & referencing
    • Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2008) Cite them right: The essential guide to
    • Referencing and plagiarism. 810.61PEA/ 3 hour loan
    • University of the West of England (2008). Referencing. [Online]
    • http:// learntech.uwe.ac.uk /referencing/ (Accessed: 13 th October 2008)
    • University of Portsmouth/University Library. (2007) Interactive referencing
    • guide.[Online] Available at: http:// www.referencing.port.ac.uk/apa/index.html
    • (Accessed:13th October 2008)
    • Birmingham City University Business School (2006). Harvard Referencing.
    • [online] http:// essential.tbs.bcu.ac.uk/harvard.html and Conducting and citing
    • research[online] http:// essential.tbs.bcu.ac.uk/research.html (Accessed: 13th
    • October 2008)
    • JISC. (2008) Plagiarism advisory service. [Online] Available at:
    • http:// www.jiscpas.ac.uk / (Accessed: 13th October 2008)
  • 46. Further guidance – academic writing
    • Advice available from the Academic Skills Service
    • http://www.hw.ac.uk/sbc/library/academic_skills/index.htm
    • Books on academic writing in the library at 810.61
    • Books on study skills in the library at 371.3
  • 47. Help/Contact
    • Library helpdesk
        • [email_address]
        • IM/chat: www.hw.ac.uk/library/chat.html
    • Your Subject Librarian
        • or [email_address] or [email_address]
    • Effective Learning Advisor/Academic Counsellor [email_address]
    • Endnote desktop training (UICS for PG Students): www.hw.ac.uk/uics/Training/endnote.htm
  • 48.
    • QUESTIONS?