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Books Journals Articles What Find Books Journals Articles What Find Presentation Transcript

  • WELCOME
    • TYPES OF READING MATERIAL
    • FINDING REFERENCES
    • DATABASE SEARCHING
    • ACADEMIC WRITING
    • CITING & REFERENCING
    • http://www.hw.ac.uk/library/LifeSciences/lsinfoskills.htm
  • CONTENT
    • DIFFERENT TYPES OF READING MATERIAL
      • Books / journals
    • FINDING REFERENCES
      • Books/journals
      • Articles - database searching
    • ACADEMIC WRITING
    • CITING & REFERENCING
    • ASSIGNMENTS
    PROCESS READING WHAT TO READ? HOW TO FIND IT?
    • WHAT TO READ
    • BOOKS
    • JOURNALS
    • ARTICLES
    WHAT TO READ & HOW TO FIND IT HOW TO FIND IT CATALOGUE CATALOGUE/ A-Z LIST BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES
  • BOOKS
    • Usually one-off publications
      • can be multiple volume sets
    • 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc EDITIONS
    • Years apart
  • BOOKS
    • Lengthy publication process
      • on average 2 years to pass from authors to library shelf
    • Fairly static information
    • Chapters - divided with headings
        • structured v chapters of literature
  • BOOKS
    • Authored
      • Single author
      • Multiple authors
    • Edited
      • Single editor
      • Multiple editors
    Write the content Co-ordinate authors contributions eg chapters Liaise between author/s & publishers
  • Finding books
  • JOURNALS
    • Published on ongoing basis e.g. monthly, quarterly, annually etc.
    • Series - volumes / issues
    • Also known as serials or periodicals
    • Each issue contains a number of ARTICLES
  • JOURNALS
    • Publishing time relatively rapid
    • Good source of current information /new developments
    • Keeping up-to-date
  • JOURNALS
    • Be aware of the differences between
      • academic or scholarly journals
      • popular magazines
      • periodicals
    • Usually –
    • news
    • feature items
    CONTENT JOURNAL MAGAZINE
    • Usually –
    • report original research findings
    • review original
    • research
  • ARTICLE LENGTH JOURNAL MAGAZINE
    • longer articles
    • focus on very specialised topics
    • shorter articles
    • broader, more popular topics
    • journalists or staff writers
    AUTHORS JOURNAL MAGAZINE
    • scholars/academics, considered experts in their field
    • aimed at a broad range of people
    • vocabulary understood by the general public
    AUDIENCE JOURNAL MAGAZINE
    • targeted to specific group of scholars in a discipline
    • vocabulary is discipline specific
    • None of these common
    • May be short bibliography
    CREDITS JOURNAL MAGAZINE
    • Use
    • Citations
    • Footnotes
    • Bibliography
    • Content reviewed by staff editor
    EDITORS JOURNAL MAGAZINE
    • Content is reviewed and critiqued by a board of other scholars in the discipline
    • Peer review
    • pictures
    • photographs
    • glossy
    • advertising
    • colour
    FEATURES JOURNAL MAGAZINE
    • illustrations
    • graphs
    • tables
    • abstracts
    • calculations
    • black & white
    • text is dominant
  • FINDING PRINT JOURNALS
  • ELECTRONIC JOURNALS Content of print journals Digitised Available over a computer network / Internet
  • FINDING ELECTRONIC JOURNALS http://www.hw.ac.uk/library
  • FINDING ELECTRONIC JOURNALS
  • FINDING ELECTRONIC JOURNALS Click to access full text
  • FINDING ELECTRONIC JOURNALS Links to contents pages
  • FINDING ELECTRONIC JOURNALS Link to full-text Contents page
  • FINDING ELECTRONIC JOURNALS Full-text article
  • SUMMARY OF DIFFERENCES
    • Longer publication time
    • not so current
    • more GENERAL topics
    • relatively STATIC info
    • CHAPTERS
    BOOKS JOURNALS
    • Shorter publication time
    • = more current
    • SPECIALISED topics
    • RECENT research
    • ARTICLES
  • ARTICLES
    • Found within journals
    • Usually relatively short
    • Generally, report recent research studies
  • ANATOMY OF AN ARTICLE
    • Introduction What/ Why
    • Methodology How
    • Results What found
    • Discussion Lit review/results
    • Conclusion/s Why results useful
    • What CAN conclude
    • What CAN’T conclude
    • Further research needed
  • ABSTRACT ABSTRACT This research subjected the visual rightness theory of picture perception to experimental scrutiny. It investigated the ability of adults untrained in the visual arts to discriminate between reproductions of original abstract and representational paintings by renowned artists from two experimentally manipulated less well-organized versions of each art stimulus . Perturbed stimuli contained either minor or major disruptions in the originals' principal structural networks. It was found that participants were significantly more successful in discriminating between originals and their highly altered, but not slightly altered, perturbation than expected by chance. Accuracy of detection was found to be a function of style of painting and a viewer's way of thinking about a work as determined from their verbal reactions to it. Specifically, hit rates for originals were highest for abstract works when participants focused on their compositional style and form and highest for representational works when their content and realism were the focus of attention. Findings support the view that visually right (i.e., "good") compositions have efficient structural organizations that are visually salient to viewers who lack formal training in the visual arts .
  • HOW TO FIND ARTICLES
    • Browsing Table of Contents (TOC)
      • - lists articles in each issue
    • Searching Databases / Literature search
  • BROWSING
    • Acta Psychologica 114(3) 2003
    • Special issue on "Visual Gestalt Formation” Pages 211-213
    • Peter A. van der Helm, Rob van Lier and Johan Wagemans
    • Acts of perceptual inquiry: problems for any stimulus-based
    • simplicity theory, Julian Hochberg Pages 215-228
    • Perceived complexity and the grouping effect in band patterns, Pages 229-244
    • Lars Strother and Michael Kubovy
    Print journal TOC
  • BROWSING Electronic journal TOC Link to full-text
  • SEARCHING
    • Databases
      • PsycINFO
      • Science Citation Index - Web of Knowledge
    • Literature Search
  • SEARCHING
    • PRINCIPLES OF DATABASE SEARCHING
    • http://www.hw.ac.uk/library/LifeSciences/lsinfoskills.htm#Advanced
    • PRACTICAL SESSION (OWN TIME)
  • SEARCHING
    • What is a bibliographic database?
    • How do you go about searching a database?
      • Building a search strategy
      • Iterative approach
    • ELECTRONIC FILING CABINET
    DATABASE RECORDS
  • RECORD Journal article Book Book chapter
  • SCOPE & COVERAGE
    • Every database has a different subject SCOPE & COVERAGE
    • Some specialise in one subject area eg PSYCINFO
    • Some are MULTIDISCIPLINARY eg
    • Web of Science
  • FIND RELEVANT SOURCES
    • Library Website > Databases page
      • http://www1.hw.ac.uk/library/electresa2z.php
    • How to Find Out Guide for Applied Psychology
      • http:// www.hw.ac.uk/library/LifeSciences/ lspsychol.htm
    • PsycINFO via
      • Ovid Online Subject Coverage: Sports science , psychology, social sciences Type: Bibliographic database Format: Networked On-Campus Access: ip Address (click on Connect) Off-Campus Access: ATHENS USERNAME AND PASSWORD REQUIRED [ Connect ] [ Information ]
  • HOW DO YOU SEARCH A DATABASE?
    • Clear research/essay question
    • Identify key CONCEPTS
    • Identify KEYWORDS
    • Broad and narrow terms
    • Synonyms and alternative terms
    • Alternative spellings/plurals
    • AND, OR, NOT (combining)
    • Applying limits
    SEARCH STRATEGY
  • RESEARCH QUESTION
    • Define the question you are asking - eg
      • “ Discuss the role of clinical psychology in recovery
      • from depression after stroke.”
    • Identify main CONCEPTS
    • Identify KEYWORDS
  • KEYWORDS
    • DEPRESSION / CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY / STROKE
    • Related to the main CONCEPTS
    • Provide SEARCH TERMS to use in the literature search
  • IMPORTANCE OF KEYWORDS
    • Wrong keywords
      • = wrong information
    • Too narrow
      • = not enough information
    • Too broad
      • = too much information
  • BROAD/NARROW KEYWORDS
    • Distinguish broad and narrow terms – eg
    • BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS / DEPRESSION / CLINICAL DEPRESSION
    • Narrow terms fit inside broad terms
    Behavioural symptom Depression Clinical Depression Post-natal depression
  • ALTERNATIVE TERMS / WORD ROOTS / PLURALS
    • Alternative / related terms
      • Stroke Cerebrovascular Accident / CVA / Apoplexy
    • American spellings
    • Behaviour Behavior
    • Plurals
    • Stroke/s Behaviour/s
    • Word roots
    • Behav$ iour, iours, ioural,
  • STRATEGY MAP
    • Good idea to note main CONCEPTS
    • with ALL KEYWORDS for each concept
  • STRATEGY MAP STROKE Cerebrovascular Accident CVA Apoplexy Strokes CVAs Narrower Term Brain Infarction Broader Term Brain Diseases CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Clinical Psychologist/s Narrower Term Clinical Neuropsychology Broader Term Psychology DEPRESSION Depressive – State/s Symptom/s Narrower Term Clinical Depression Broader Term Behavioural Symptoms
  • BUILDING BLOCK TECHNIQUE
    • Search for each concept
    • Combine concepts
    • AND, OR, NOT
  • AND, OR, NOT AND INTERSECTION OR OR OR UNION NOT NOT EXCLUDING SET 1= STROKE SET 2= DEPRESSION
  • STRATEGY MAP Stroke/s OR Cerebrovascular Accidents OR CVA/s OR Apoplexy Clinical Psychology OR Clinical Psychologist/s Depression OR Depressive State/s OR Depressive Symptom/s AND AND STROKE CLINCAL PSYCHOLOGY DEPRESSION
  • APPLYING LIMITS
    • Date ranges
    • Publication type
    • Language
  • ITERATIVE APPROACH
    • Seldom right first time
    • Expect to
      • Re-work
      • Modify
      • Try again
    • Modify each set of results until you find what you’re looking for
    • Very seldom you get exactly what you want first time!
  • SEARCH RESULTS
    • A SET of records of published items
    • RECORDS -
      • ALWAYS give BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAILS
      • MOST OFTEN also give an ABSTRACT
      • SOMETIMES also link to FULL-TEXT electronic documents
  • RECORD
  • SEARCH RESULTS
    • IT IS POSSIBLE TO –
    • PRINT, EMAIL, SAVE RECORDS
    • SAVE SEARCH STRATEGIES FOR RE- USE
  • LOCATING FULL-TEXT
    • Link to full-text on-screen from within database record (where available)
    • Use library CATALOGUE to see if we have the item in print copy
    • Use library A-Z list of electronic journals to see if we offer electronic access
    • Search other library catalogues (via HWUL webpages)
    • Request item/s on Inter-Library Loan
  • SUMMARY SO FAR
    • Types of reading material
    • Finding references
    • Database searching
      • What is a bibliographic database?
      • How do you go about searching a database?
        • Building a search strategy
        • Iterative approach
  • ACADEMIC WRITING
    • Good English / grammar
    • Appropriate style
    • Development of an argument
    • Literature to support argument
    • CITING & REFERENCING
  • GOOD ENGLISH / STYLE
    • Numerous books on this in library
    • Shelfmark 810
    • AVOID (personal)
    • “ I read an article by David Thomson and didn’t agree
    • with it . . .”
    • ADOPT (academic)
    • “ It has been suggested that . . . Thomson (1998).
    • However, this opinion has been challenged by Holt
    • (2001)”.
  • DEVELOPING AN ARGUMENT
    • DO
    • Give a balance of opinion
    • On the one hand . . . However, on the other hand . . .
    • Range of sources - not just those which back up your own opinion
    • DON’T
    • “I think that . . . . .” or statement of fact (with no back up)
      • Opinion must be backed up with evidence
  • USEFUL STYLE/PHRASES
    • “ Although I agree with Williams (1966) that . . . I also consider the argument put forward by Davidson (1994) to have considerable merit”
    • “ There has been some very useful work done on this
    • subject . . . (Eysenck, 1992)”.
    • “ It has been argued that . . . . (Johnson, 2002). However, more recent research has shown. . (Smith, 2003)”
    • BALANCE OF OPINION
    • STATEMENTS BACKED UP WITH EVIDENCE
  • SUPPORTING YOUR ARGUMENT
    • Well used sources
    • Balance of opinions / wider reading
      • Add authority to your work
    • SOURCES MUST BE ACKNOWLEDGED
  • CITING & REFERENCING - WHAT
    • CITING
      • MENTIONING WORK OF OTHERS IN YOUR OWN WORK
      • Depressed mood has been shown to interfere with attentional strategies of efficient task solution (Hertel, 1997, 1998; Hertel & Rude, 1991)
  • CITING & REFERENCING - WHAT
    • REFERENCING
      • DETAILING SOURCES CITED / MENTIONED IN TEXT
      • = BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAILS
      • in REFERENCE LIST / BIBLIOGRAPHY
      • Hertel, P. T. (1997). On the contributions of deficient cognitive control to memory impairments in depression. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 569–583.
  • CITING & REFERENCING - WHY
    • Shows what sources used / how you have used them
    • Provides evidence in support of argument
    • Adds authority to your work
  • CITING & REFERENCING
    • Helps to display a balance of opinions / wider reading
    • Lends appropriate style
    • ESSENTIAL TO GOOD ACADEMIC WRITING
    • Guards against plagiarism
    • ALLOWS YOU TO ACKNOWLEDGE YOUR SOURCES
  • CITING – HOW?
    • In-text citations
      • Acknowledge your sources in your text to support points / statements made / quotes eg
    “ It is worthwhile noting that the link between depression and risk sensitive behavioral strategies is not a theoretical novelty. Indeed, Nesse (2000), Leahy (1997) and Klinger (1975) have all proposed that depressed states represent a risk-management strategy that has evolved to alter an individual’s behaviour in contexts of high risk environments” 1. Statement/opinion 2. What sources read to back this up? 3.Evidence – sources used
  • REFERENCING – HOW?
    • Link your in-text citations to full bibliographic details of sources in your BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • B IBLIOGRAPHY
    • Klinger, T. (1975). Depressed states and risk-management strategies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 12, 23-35.
    • Leahy, M. (1997). Alterations in individuals’ behaviour in contexts of high-risk environments. Journal of Personality, 22, 339-406.
    • Nesse, J. (2000) Link between depression and risk-sensitive behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 228-301.
  • REFERENCES
    • Give full bibliographic details
      • Who, what, where, when (description of item)
    • Books
      • Author/s or editor/s, title, edition, year/place of publication, publisher
    • Journals
      • Author/s, article title, journal name, volume number, issue number, page numbers, year of publication.
  • WHY CITE & REFERENCE?
    • To –
    • compile a bibliography for your assignment
    • acknowledge all sources used
      • Guards against plagiarism
    • enable another researcher to find the texts you based your work on
    • support points made in your argument
    • add authority to your work
    • Essential for good academic writing
  • STYLES
    • Numerous styles in which you can format references
      • Chicago
      • Vancouver
      • American Psychological Association (APA)
    • Style must be consistent
  • APA STYLE
    • In-text citations
      • Author surname(s) followed by date of publication in brackets
    . . . Berm (1973) has shown that sex-biased advertising contributes to sex discrimination. . . .
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (APA style)
    • Berm,S.L. (1973) Does sex-biased advertising aid and abet sex
    • discrimination? Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 3 (1), 6-18.
    pages JOURNAL ARTICLE part volume year of publication author title of article name of journal Festinger,L.A. (1975). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Stanford,C.A.: Stanford University Press . BOOK (authored) place of publication publisher
    • Banks, I. (n.d.). The NHS healthcare guide . Retrieved
    • August 29, 2001, from http://www.healthcareguide.nhsdirect.nhs.uk
    BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (APA style) ELECTRONIC SOURCE / WEBSITE
  • TIPS FOR REFERENCING
    • MUST BE COMPLETE AND CORRECT
    • Keep full notes of all sources used!
    • If you take a photocopy, make sure that you keep a note of the periodical title, volume number, page numbers etc.
    • It can be very difficult to check back later
  • SUMMARY
    • CITING & REFERENCING
      • WHAT
      • WHY
      • HOW
  • MORE INFORMATION
    • How to Find Out Guide for Life Sciences>Info Skills
    • http://www.hw.ac.uk/library/LifeSciences/lsinfoskills.htm
  • SUMMARY
    • DIFFERENT TYPES OF READING MATERIAL
      • Books / journals
    • FINDING REFERENCES
      • DATABASE SEARCHING
      • BUILDING A SEARCH STRATEGY
    • ACADEMIC WRITING
    • CITING & REFERENCING
  • CONTACT DETAILS
    • Marion Kennedy
    • Subject Librarian (Chemistry & Life Sciences)
    • t: 3583
    • e:M.L.Kennedy@hw.ac.uk
    • Enquiry desk: Tuesdays 1-5pm
  • CONTACT DETAILS
    • Marion Kennedy
    • Subject Librarian (Chemistry & Life Sciences)
    • t: 3583
    • e:M.L.Kennedy@hw.ac.uk
    • Enquiry desk: Tuesdays 1-5pm