Academic writing tips / citing and referencing basics
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Academic writing tips / citing and referencing basics Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ACADEMIC WRITING
    • Good English / grammar
    • Appropriate style
    • Development of an argument
    • Literature to support argument
    • CITING & REFERENCING
  • 2. GOOD ENGLISH / STYLE
    • Numerous books on this in library
    • Shelfmark 810
    • AVOID (personal)
    • “ I read an article by David Thomson and didn’t agree
    • with it . . .”
    • ADOPT (academic)
    • “ It has been suggested that . . . Thomson (1998).
    • However, this opinion has been challenged by Holt
    • (2001)”.
  • 3. DEVELOPING AN ARGUMENT
    • DO
    • Give a balance of opinion
    • On the one hand . . . However, on the other hand . . .
    • Range of sources - not just those which back up your own opinion
    • DON’T
    • “I think that . . . . .” or statement of fact (with no back up)
      • Opinion must be backed up with evidence
  • 4. USEFUL STYLE/PHRASES
    • “ Although I agree with Williams (1966) that . . . I also consider the argument put forward by Davidson (1994) to have considerable merit”
    • “ There has been some very useful work done on this
    • subject . . . (Eysenck, 1992)”.
    • “ It has been argued that . . . . (Johnson, 2002). However, more recent research has shown. . (Smith, 2003)”
    • BALANCE OF OPINION
    • STATEMENTS BACKED UP WITH EVIDENCE
  • 5. SUPPORTING YOUR ARGUMENT
    • Well used sources
    • Balance of opinions / wider reading
      • Add authority to your work
    • SOURCES MUST BE ACKNOWLEDGED
  • 6. CITING & REFERENCING - WHAT
    • CITING
      • MENTIONING WORK OF OTHERS IN YOUR OWN WORK
      • Depressed mood has been shown to interfere with attentional strategies of efficient task solution (Hertel, 1997, 1998; Hertel & Rude, 1991)
  • 7. CITING & REFERENCING - WHAT
    • REFERENCING
      • DETAILING SOURCES CITED / MENTIONED IN TEXT
      • = BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAILS
      • in REFERENCE LIST / BIBLIOGRAPHY
      • Hertel, P. T. (1997). On the contributions of deficient cognitive control to memory impairments in depression. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 569–583.
  • 8. CITING & REFERENCING - WHY
    • Shows what sources used / how you have used them
    • Provides evidence in support of argument
    • Adds authority to your work
  • 9. CITING & REFERENCING
    • Helps to display a balance of opinions / wider reading
    • Lends appropriate style
    • ESSENTIAL TO GOOD ACADEMIC WRITING
    • Guards against plagiarism
    • ALLOWS YOU TO ACKNOWLEDGE YOUR SOURCES
  • 10. CITING – HOW?
    • In-text citations
      • Acknowledge your sources in your text to support points / statements made / quotes eg
    “ It is worthwhile noting that the link between depression and risk sensitive behavioral strategies is not a theoretical novelty. Indeed, Nesse (2000), Leahy (1997) and Klinger (1975) have all proposed that depressed states represent a risk-management strategy that has evolved to alter an individual’s behaviour in contexts of high risk environments” 1. Statement/opinion 2. What sources read to back this up? 3.Evidence – sources used
  • 11. REFERENCING – HOW?
    • Link your in-text citations to full bibliographic details of sources in your BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • B IBLIOGRAPHY
    • Klinger, T. (1975). Depressed states and risk-management strategies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 12, 23-35.
    • Leahy, M. (1997). Alterations in individuals’ behaviour in contexts of high-risk environments. Journal of Personality, 22, 339-406.
    • Nesse, J. (2000) Link between depression and risk-sensitive behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 228-301.
  • 12. REFERENCES
    • Give full bibliographic details
      • Who, what, where, when (description of item)
    • Books
      • Author/s or editor/s, title, edition, year/place of publication, publisher
    • Journals
      • Author/s, article title, journal name, volume number, issue number, page numbers, year of publication.
  • 13. WHY CITE & REFERENCE?
    • To –
    • compile a bibliography for your assignment
    • acknowledge all sources used
      • Guards against plagiarism
    • enable another researcher to find the texts you based your work on
    • support points made in your argument
    • add authority to your work
    • Essential for good academic writing
  • 14. STYLES
    • Numerous styles in which you can format references
      • Chicago
      • Vancouver
      • American Psychological Association (APA)
    • Style must be consistent
  • 15. APA STYLE
    • In-text citations
      • Author surname(s) followed by date of publication in brackets
    . . . Berm (1973) has shown that sex-biased advertising contributes to sex discrimination. . . .
  • 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (APA style)
    • Berm,S.L. (1973) Does sex-biased advertising aid and abet sex
    • discrimination? Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 3 (1), 6-18.
    pages JOURNAL ARTICLE part volume year of publication author title of article name of journal Festinger,L.A. (1975). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Stanford,C.A.: Stanford University Press . BOOK (authored) place of publication publisher
  • 17.
    • Banks, I. (n.d.). The NHS healthcare guide . Retrieved
    • August 29, 2001, from http://www.healthcareguide.nhsdirect.nhs.uk
    BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (APA style) ELECTRONIC SOURCE / WEBSITE
  • 18. TIPS FOR REFERENCING
    • MUST BE COMPLETE AND CORRECT
    • Keep full notes of all sources used!
    • If you take a photocopy, make sure that you keep a note of the periodical title, volume number, page numbers etc.
    • It can be very difficult to check back later
  • 19. SUMMARY
    • CITING & REFERENCING
      • WHAT
      • WHY
      • HOW
  • 20. MORE INFORMATION
    • How to Find Out Guide for Life Sciences>Info Skills
    • http://www.hw.ac.uk/library/LifeSciences/lsinfoskills.htm
  • 21. CONTACT DETAILS
    • Marion Kennedy
    • Subject Librarian (Chemistry & Life Sciences)
    • t: 3583
    • e:M.L.Kennedy@hw.ac.uk
    • Enquiry desk: Tuesdays 1-5pm