Chapter 1What is Psychology?
Chapter 1What is Psychology?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKzJToO0FJw
Chapter 1What is Psychology?Quick Write #1Answer the following questions:1. What is psychology?2. Is psychology a science?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes  • Science: The use of systematic methods to observe,            ,  ...
 Is   psychology simply common sense?  • Sometimes yes, but sometimes no… Unexpected        Findings  • Exercise: How wo...
   People dream on average around 5-6 times a night.   Dogs dream.   Psychiatrists attend medical school the same as yo...
1856 - 1939 Peopleoften think of Freud when they think of psychology. Freudbelieved that most of human behavior is cause...
 Psychology  has traditionally focused on the negative aspects of human experience, but the discipline is concerned with ...
 Western   Philosophy Biology   and Physiology Wilhelm  Wundt (1832-1920) First Psychology Laboratory (1879)  establis...
 Wundt:An early school of psychology that attempted to identify the structures of the human mind Wundtis often regarded ...
 William   James and Pragmatism  • Identify the functions of the mind  • Pragmatism: to find out the meaning of an idea, ...
James saw the mind as flexible and fluid andbelieved the mind is characterized by constantchange in response to a continuo...
 Charles   Darwin (1859) Natural   Selection: Survival of the Most Fit  • There exists a constant struggle for resources...
www.darwinawards.com
Seven Current Psychological Perspectives  1. Biological  2. Behavioral  3. Psychodynamic  4. Humanistic  5. Cognitive  6. ...
 Focuses on the brain and  nervous system  • Central to understanding behavior,    thought, and emotion Neuroscience  • ...
 Focuseson the environmental determinants of observable behavior Notable Behaviorists:  • John Watson, B.F. Skinner Ear...
 Emphasizes    unconscious thought, conflict  between internal drives and society, as well as  early family experiences  ...
 Focuses  on positive human qualities, capacity for self-actualization, free will  • Refute that humans are driven by unc...
 Emphasizes the importance of mental processes to problem solving, learning and memory Mental       processes control be...
 Emphasizes   the relevance of evolutionary theory to all behavior and mental processes  • Just as evolution shapes our p...
 Examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes  • In contrast to the evolutionary...
Seven Current Psychological Perspectives1. Biological2. Behavioral3. Psychodynamic4. Humanistic5. Cognitive6. Evolutionary...
 Altruism   Defined  • Voluntary behavior intended to help others  • Not motivated by expectation of personal gain Altru...
 Arepeople ever truly altruistic? Or are they operating according to selfish motives? Have  you ever acted in a genuinel...
   Physiological Psychology: studies physical    processes that underlie mental processes.   Behavioral Neuroscience : s...
   Cognitive Psychology: studies attention, consciousness,    information processing and memory.   Learning: studies the...
 Industrialand Organizational Psychology:  focuses on the workplace, both the workers  themselves and the company they wo...
 Community Psychology: focuses on accessible  care for people with psychological problems. School and Educational Psycho...
 Forensic   Psychology: applies  psychological concepts to the legal system. Sport Psychology: applies psychology’s  pri...
 What   do psychologists do? And where? • Business • Social and Human Services • Research • Education • Clinical and Priv...
• Education (from the National Association of School Psychologists)   • Work with students         • Provide counseling, i...
• Clinical Settings   • assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.   • some specialize in treat...
 IndividualisticCultures: emphasize the uniqueness of each individual and his/her thoughts, feelings, and choices.  • Ind...
 Collectivistic Cultures: emphasize the social group and the roles the individual plays in that larger group.  • Interdep...
 Psychology  is concerned with Mind-Body      connections How the mind impacts the body: the way you  think and feel imp...
   Explain what psychology is and describe the positive        psychology movement.   Discuss the roots and early scient...
 Defining   Psychology  • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Historical   Foundations of Psychology  ...
 Contemporary     Approaches to Psychology  • Seven current approaches – complementary Specializations   and Careers in ...
Hjw & aah chapter 1 slides shared
Hjw & aah chapter 1 slides shared
Hjw & aah chapter 1 slides shared
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  • Note: Instructors should note the goals of psychology – to describe, predict, and explain behavior. Those goals can easily be tied to the research methods discussed in Chapter 2 for added emphasis.
  • IM: Activity Handout 1.1: Common Sense or FactActivity/Demonstration: Asking students how they would respond in certain situations (e.g., bystander intervention) and then telling them that their response(s) are inconsistent with research findings helps make this point.
  • Not quite sure what this slide is about??!!!
  • Like when people say to me, “Oh you study psychology. Are you psychoanalyzing me right now?”Freud once said: “I have found little that is ‘good’ about human beings on the whole. In my experience, most of them are trash.”
  • IM: Positive Psychology ActivityIM: Forgiveness Activity
  • IM: Structuralism ActivityIntrospection – literally means “looking inside”. For this type of research a participant in Wundt’s lab would be asked to think or “introspect” about what was going on mentally as various events took place.
  • IM: Functionalism ActivityIn contrast to structuralism, which emphasized the components of the mind, functionalism probed the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual’s adaptation to the environment. Whereas structuralists were looking inside the mind and searching for its structures, functionalists focused on human interactions with the outside world and the purpose of thoughts.
  • (as opposed to Wundt who believed in the existence of rigid structures in the mind). A way to remember the difference between the two is: Structuralism – key question = what the mind IS (that is, its structures), whereas functionalism’s key question is what the mind is FOR (its purposes or functions)
  • IM:Activity Handout 1.2: To Be Extinct or NotNatural selection – an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and, importantly, produce offspringEvolutionary theory implies that the way we are, at least in part, is the way that it is best suited to survival in our environment (Cosmides, 2011)Why – because his theory is strongly supported by observation - can give antibiotic resistant bacteria example
  • Note: It is important to stress early and often that these approaches are complementary, not contradictory… that they really represent different levels of analysis.
  • Note: This slide is repeated to encourage instructors to summarize the complementary approaches to understanding behavior and mental processesIM: How Would They See It? Activity
  • Activity/Demonstration: Ask students first to provide real-world examples of altruistic behaviorIM: Truly Altruistic ActivityIM:Activity Handout 1.3: Are You Altruistic?
  • Activity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
  • Activity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
  • Activity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
  • Activity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
  • Activity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
  • Activity/Demonstration: Instructors might ask students to describe the various career opportunities available to those who hold undergraduate or advanced degrees in psychologyIM:Activity Handout 1.4: Jobs in Psychology
  • Note: Instructors should stress that, although personal happiness is positively correlated with individualism, there is a price (e.g., higher suicide and divorce rates)
  • IM: Is It Good For You? ActivityActivity/Demonstration: Have students generate the examples called for in this slide, or have them sort your examples into the two categories
  • Note: Instructors may use the learning objectives presented on this slide or the following two slides to summarize the chapter material
  • Hjw & aah chapter 1 slides shared

    1. 1. Chapter 1What is Psychology?
    2. 2. Chapter 1What is Psychology?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKzJToO0FJw
    3. 3. Chapter 1What is Psychology?Quick Write #1Answer the following questions:1. What is psychology?2. Is psychology a science?
    4. 4. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Science: The use of systematic methods to observe, , , and behavior. • Behavior: Everything we do that can be directly observed. • Mental Processes: The thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experience privately but that cannot be observed directly.
    5. 5.  Is psychology simply common sense? • Sometimes yes, but sometimes no… Unexpected Findings • Exercise: How would you respond? • [Amy - we should come up with situations and ask how they would respond and then show how they are inconsistent with research as said below in the notes]
    6. 6.  People dream on average around 5-6 times a night. Dogs dream. Psychiatrists attend medical school the same as your family physician or a surgeon. Psychology stemmed from the area of biology. You are more likely to receive help if there are 2 people around rather than if there are 20 people around. You would value receiving $10 for helping a neighbor clean out their garage versus getting $10 for doing nothing. Adults in their sixties start to decline in their interest in sex. Psychology is all about making people feel better. Living together before marriage will result in a better marriage. Intelligence is inherited
    7. 7. 1856 - 1939 Peopleoften think of Freud when they think of psychology. Freudbelieved that most of human behavior is caused by dark, unpleasant, unconscious impulses that are driving all of our actions. Thestudy of psychology disorders is an important part of psychology, but it is only one small part of the science of psychology.
    8. 8.  Psychology has traditionally focused on the negative aspects of human experience, but the discipline is concerned with much more than disordered behavior! Positive Psychology Movement • Experiences people value • Traits associated with optimal functioning • Positive group and civic values
    9. 9.  Western Philosophy Biology and Physiology Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) First Psychology Laboratory (1879) established at the University of Leipzig
    10. 10.  Wundt:An early school of psychology that attempted to identify the structures of the human mind Wundtis often regarded as the founding father of modern psychology Research described dimensions of feeling: • Pleasure / Displeasure • Tension / Relaxation • Excitement / Depression Methodology: Introspection
    11. 11.  William James and Pragmatism • Identify the functions of the mind • Pragmatism: to find out the meaning of an idea, must determine its consequences. Focused on interactions with environment Adaptive significance: “Why?” • How it makes an organism better able to survive
    12. 12. James saw the mind as flexible and fluid andbelieved the mind is characterized by constantchange in response to a continuous flow ofinformation from the world. He called thisnatural flow of thought a… “stream of consciousness”
    13. 13.  Charles Darwin (1859) Natural Selection: Survival of the Most Fit • There exists a constant struggle for resources • Nature will favor those traits that promote reproduction and survival • Environmental changes alter evolution’s course WhyDarwin’s theory continues to influence psychologists today…
    14. 14. www.darwinawards.com
    15. 15. Seven Current Psychological Perspectives 1. Biological 2. Behavioral 3. Psychodynamic 4. Humanistic 5. Cognitive 6. Evolutionary 7. Sociocultural
    16. 16.  Focuses on the brain and nervous system • Central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion Neuroscience • Structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous system • What does neuroscience emphasize? Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior
    17. 17.  Focuseson the environmental determinants of observable behavior Notable Behaviorists: • John Watson, B.F. Skinner Early conflicts with cognitive psychologists • But not every behaviorist today rejects cognition completely Chapter 7: Learning
    18. 18.  Emphasizes unconscious thought, conflict between internal drives and society, as well as early family experiences • All influence behavior, thought, and emotion Notable Psychodynamic Theorists • Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler Psychoanalysis Chapter 11: Personality
    19. 19.  Focuses on positive human qualities, capacity for self-actualization, free will • Refute that humans are driven by unconscious impulses (psychodynamic) or external rewards (behaviorism). People can choose to live by higher human values (altruism, free will) Notable Humanistic Theorists • Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow Chapter 11: Personality
    20. 20.  Emphasizes the importance of mental processes to problem solving, learning and memory Mental processes control behavior through memories, perceptions, and thinking Chapter 9: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
    21. 21.  Emphasizes the relevance of evolutionary theory to all behavior and mental processes • Just as evolution shapes our physical features, it also influences our decision making, level of aggressiveness, fears and mating patterns. Notable Evolutionary Psychologists • David Buss, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior
    22. 22.  Examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes • In contrast to the evolutionary approach Studies differences between ethnic and cultural groups within a country Chapter 12: Social Psychology
    23. 23. Seven Current Psychological Perspectives1. Biological2. Behavioral3. Psychodynamic4. Humanistic5. Cognitive6. Evolutionary7. Sociocultural
    24. 24.  Altruism Defined • Voluntary behavior intended to help others • Not motivated by expectation of personal gain Altruism: The Evolutionary Approach • Kin selection • Reciprocity Altruism: The Sociocultural Approach • If culture teaches us to be kind without regard for our own gain, then we can become true altruists
    25. 25.  Arepeople ever truly altruistic? Or are they operating according to selfish motives? Have you ever acted in a genuinely altruistic fashion? If so, when and how? Could your behavior be explained instead by theories of kin selection?
    26. 26.  Physiological Psychology: studies physical processes that underlie mental processes. Behavioral Neuroscience : studies how the brain affects behavior. Developmental Psychology: studies how individuals change from birth through death. Sensation and Perception: studies the physical systems and psychological processes that allow individuals to experience the world.
    27. 27.  Cognitive Psychology: studies attention, consciousness, information processing and memory. Learning: studies the ways in which behavior changes to adapt to changing circumstances. Motivation and Emotion: studies the ways in which individuals attain goals and how rewards affect the experience of motivation. Personality Psychology: studies enduring characteristics of individuals (personality) Social Psychology: studies people’s social interactions, relationships, attitudes.
    28. 28.  Industrialand Organizational Psychology: focuses on the workplace, both the workers themselves and the company they work for. Clinicaland Counseling Psychology: diagnose and treat people with psychological problems. Health Psychology: emphasizes psychological factors, lifestyle and the nature of the healthcare delivery system.
    29. 29.  Community Psychology: focuses on accessible care for people with psychological problems. School and Educational Psychology: primarily concerned with children’s learning and adjustment in school. Environmental Psychology: study of interactions between people and physical environment. Psychology of Women: focuses on psychological, social and cultural influences on women’s development and behavior.
    30. 30.  Forensic Psychology: applies psychological concepts to the legal system. Sport Psychology: applies psychology’s principles to improving sport performance and enjoying sports participation. Cross-Cultural Psychology: focuses on culture’s role in understanding behavior, thought, and emotion.
    31. 31.  What do psychologists do? And where? • Business • Social and Human Services • Research • Education • Clinical and Private Practice Settings
    32. 32. • Education (from the National Association of School Psychologists) • Work with students • Provide counseling, instruction, and mentoring for those struggling with social, emotional, and behavioral problems • Increase achievement by assessing barriers to learning and determining the best instructional strategies to improve learning • Promote wellness and resilience by reinforcing communication and social skills, problem solving, anger management, self-regulation, self-determination, and optimism • Enhance understanding and acceptance of diverse cultures and backgrounds • Work with families • Identify and address learning and behavior problems that interfere with school success • Evaluate eligibility for special education services (within a multidisciplinary team) • Support students social, emotional, and behavioral health • Teach parenting skills and enhance home–school collaboration • Make referrals and help coordinate community support services • Work with educators, administrators & the community
    33. 33. • Clinical Settings • assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. • some specialize in treating severe psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression • many others may help people deal with personal issues, such as divorce or the death of a loved one • often provide an opportunity to talk and think about things that are confusing or worrying, offering different ways of interpreting and understanding problems and situations • trained to use a variety of approaches aimed at helping individuals • strategies used are generally determined by the specialty they work in• Private Practice Settings (from the U.S. Dept. of Labor) • interview patients • give diagnostic tests • provide individual, family, or group psychotherapy • design and implement behavior modification programs
    34. 34.  IndividualisticCultures: emphasize the uniqueness of each individual and his/her thoughts, feelings, and choices. • Independent sense of self • Personal happiness • Higher suicide rates • Marital happiness/more divorce
    35. 35.  Collectivistic Cultures: emphasize the social group and the roles the individual plays in that larger group. • Interdependent sense of self • Sacrifice personal happiness • Duty
    36. 36.  Psychology is concerned with Mind-Body connections How the mind impacts the body: the way you think and feel impacts the healthy state of your body. • Examples? How the body impacts the mind: the way you treat your body affects your thinking. • Examples?
    37. 37.  Explain what psychology is and describe the positive psychology movement. Discuss the roots and early scientific foundations of psychology. Summarize the main themes of seven approaches to psychology. Evaluate areas of specialization and careers in psychology. Describe the connections between the mind and the body.
    38. 38.  Defining Psychology • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Historical Foundations of Psychology • Origins in philosophy and physiology • Structuralism – Wilhelm Wundt • Functionalism – William James • Evolutionary Theory – Charles Darwin
    39. 39.  Contemporary Approaches to Psychology • Seven current approaches – complementary Specializations and Careers in Psychology • Business, social and human services, research • Education, research, clinics and private practice Application: Health and Wellness • The mind-body connection is a “two-way street”

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