HELEN WALMSLEYTHE E-DESIGN TEMPLATE:A Pedagogic Guide for e-Learning DesignersINTRODUCTIONThe e-Design Template is a Word-...
HELEN WALMSLEYOther approaches in this volume also allow novice designers to makedesign choices that would not be made by ...
THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEcreate new Best Practice Models based on them. Links to research would beclarified and the focus woul...
HELEN WALMSLEYSpace does not permit a detailed rationale for each of the principles above,however I will describe in more ...
THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEconfidence as independent online learners. In the same way, assessment andinteraction types can be va...
HELEN WALMSLEYThe representation of learning designs for use and sharing is problematical, asmany teachers use a variety o...
THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATETable 2 is an illustration of an e-Design Template for distance learning (discussion-based) and inclu...
HELEN WALMSLEYParticipate in onlinefamiliarisation withinterfaceStudents addannotations towhiteboardStudents preparePPT/ l...
THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEFigure 4: Blackboard structure with the phases and guidanceThe materials were then developed by the S...
HELEN WALMSLEYFigure 6: Completed distance learning activities for a Coaching and Mentoring ModuleBEST PRACTICE MODELS FOR...
THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEThe suggestions for Twitter activities that were devised by participantsduring the workshop included ...
HELEN WALMSLEYeasy to use, and simple to adapt for a variety of delivery patterns, tools andcontexts. It is related to oth...
THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEJonassen, D. H., Howland, J. L., Moore, J. L., & Marra, R. M. (2003). Learning to solve problems with...
HELEN WALMSLEYWaterfield, J., & West, B. (2006). Inclusive Assessment in Higher Education: A Resource for Change.[Online]....
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  1. 1. HELEN WALMSLEYTHE E-DESIGN TEMPLATE:A Pedagogic Guide for e-Learning DesignersINTRODUCTIONThe e-Design Template is a Word-based pedagogic template that guides teacherswhen planning e-Learning. It highlights the core principles for effective e-Learningand invites users to focus on designing learning activities that embed theseprinciples. The template suggests activities for a range of delivery patterns,including distance and blended learning. It can be used to design curriculum-focused or tool-focused e-Learning. It has been used successfully to design smallcourses, whole awards and to review existing e-Learning designs. In this chapter,the e-Design Template is described with detailed examples. The value of thisapproach for sharing and re-use within a broader, online community of practice isalso discussed.An emphasis on best practice principles is not always explicit in e-Learning models. Other similar e-learning tools and templates tend either toemploy an approach based on a single learning theory, or fail to elaborate thetheoretical model underpinning the framework at all. For example, the 3EFramework (Bruce, Smyth, Fotheringham, & Mainka, 2011) focuses on thepractical implementation of e-learning encouraging student-centred learning andinteraction without detailing the pedagogic principles underpinning the framework.Similarly, the exemplars produced by the AUTC project (AUTC, 2003) offerlearning designs based on a range of pedagogic focuses, e.g. collaborative learningand problem-based learning without offering a rationale for these approaches.Frameworks that are based on one or two learning theories include theStudent-Owned Learning Engagement (SOLE) model (Atkinson, 2011) that isbased on constructive alignment (Biggs, 2003) and Laurillard’s conversationalframework (Laurillard, 2002). In addition, the 5-Stage model (Salmon, 2004) isbased on social constructivist principles. Useful as these frameworks are, theynevertheless imply rather elucidate the full range of good practice principles for thenovice designer.More holistic learning design advice or guides, for example the 7Principles applied to Technology (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996), the Communityof Inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) and the e-Learning Groupsand Communities (McConnell, 2006) approaches are insufficiently detailed for anovice user to use in practice.
  2. 2. HELEN WALMSLEYOther approaches in this volume also allow novice designers to makedesign choices that would not be made by more experienced designers. Forexample, the ISIS Framework and the LdShake tools offer designers theopportunity to identify the pedagogic ‘intention’ but do not highlight best practice.OpenGLM allows the designer to apply a pre-defined teaching method and adapt itfor their own design, but does not require this to be used. The CompendiumLD toolsimilarly, allows a free-reign of learning design.The e-Design template aims to steer a way between holistic models andprinciple-light practical guides by offering a principle-based and practical-focusedtemplate to support best-practice e-learning designs.Most online learning at Staffordshire University (UK) is developed byindividual and small teams of teachers as there is no dedicated e-Learningdevelopment team to adapt and create e-Learning resources and activities.Guidance materials, support and a range of staff development courses and activitiesare available but teaching staff must design and develop their own resources andactivities for online learning in what is essentially a ‘cottage’ style industry(Lentell, 2012). Learning design tools and technologies are often seen byuniversity teachers as too complicated and taking too long to learn to use. Inaddition, tools that give a wide variety of choices and options make it difficult forteachers (who are subject specialists, not necessarily online pedagogy experts) toselect the most appropriate tools, activities and structures. This sometimes meansthat the very tools designed to help teachers develop online learning become abarrier to that development.The ‘e-Learning Models’ project was launched at Staffordshire University inMay 2006 as one of a number of initiatives aimed at reducing some of the barriersto using technology in teaching and learning (Stiles & Yorke, 2006), as well tryingto enhance the quality of e-Learning development at the University. Earlyobjectives for the project included the development of representations or models ofe-Learning illustrating good practice which could guide the adoption of e-Learningby novices and more experienced practitioners alike (Walmsley & Yorke, 2010). Aset of models, frameworks, research articles and web-pages from a range ofexisting writers was gathered and made available in an online community ofpractice called the Best Practice Models for e-Learning Community. Theseresources were then used as the basis of a range of online and face-to-facecommunity-based staff development activities to support the development of e-Learning design skills in participants.A community survey in October 2009 produced a number of clear findings:- linking the models closely to research outputs was important- models were considered a useful guide to e-Learning design if they were based on‘what works’- members valued the ability to share their experiences of designing and usingtechnology for teaching and learning, and- members valued the opportunity to reflect on their use and learn from each otherin a supportive community of practice.Following the survey and associated focus groups, it was decided to derive a setof principles for quality e-learning from existing models, resources and research, to
  3. 3. THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEcreate new Best Practice Models based on them. Links to research would beclarified and the focus would be on guiding e-Learning designers towards highquality e-Learning without merely listing all possible models and approaches. Inaddition, the new Principles and e-Design Template had to be flexible so that itwould be easy to create new models for emerging technologies. From this, the newPrinciples and e-Design Template emerged and this has now been usedsuccessfully in a range of community activities and staff development sessions.The rest of this chapter describes the principles and some examples of e-DesignTemplates developed from them for different delivery patterns, pedagogicapproaches and tools.E-DESIGN TEMPLATE PRINCIPLESIt was felt that a number of existing e-Learning activities developed by staff werelimited in scope and based on a largely transmissive theory of learning, despite thevariety of pedagogic approaches being used by the same teachers in face-to-faceactivities. For example, many of our teachers used Blackboard (our institutionalVLE) simply as a repository for course documents. Recent educational researchsupports constructivist theories of learning which propose that learning takes placethrough student activity, interaction with others and by students constructing theirown learning. In their preface, Jonassen and Land say of these contemporarylearning theories,“At no time in the history of learning psychology has there been so muchfundamental agreement about the epistemology, ontology, and phenomenologyof learning.”(Jonassen & Land, 2000)The e-Design Template aimed to highlight and embed constructivist theories oflearning, as well as other widely accepted principles of good learning including the‘Seven Principles’ (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996) as a trigger for developers whenconsidering online activities. The e-Design Principles are:- e-Learning is designed in timed chunks that emphasise time on task andexpectations (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996; GagnÉ, Briggs, & Wager, 1992;Means, Toyama, Murphy, Bakia, & Jones, 2010)- e-Learning is assessed using a range of types (self/peer/tutor), options andchoices (Carroll & Appleton, 2008; Irwin, 2007; Nicol, 2009, 2010; University ofHertfordshire, 2011; Waterfield & West, 2006)- e-Learning includes a variety of interactions between students, teachers,peers and externals (Anderson, 2003; Laurillard, 2002)- e-Learning is accessible, activity-led, collaborative and designed in phasesthat support, scaffold and increase learner independence (Gokhale, 1995; Johnson,Johnson, & Smith, 2007; Jonassen, Howland, Moore, & Marra, 2003; Race, 2010;Salmon, 2004; Schank, 2002; Stephenson & Coomey, 2001; Swan, 2005)
  4. 4. HELEN WALMSLEYSpace does not permit a detailed rationale for each of the principles above,however I will describe in more detail the ‘phases’ approach, as this has become aunique and important feature of the e-Design Template.e-Learning offers the opportunity for a wider range of learning activitiesthat can empower students to manage their own learning, but this opportunity isnot currently widely exploited (Conole, 2010; Stephenson, 2001). The four phasesapproach in the e-Design Template scaffolds the learning designer as they buildlearning activities that gradually develop the learner’s skills and confidence as self-organised learners.The four phases approach was developed from Stephenson and Coomeywho describe learning activities in two dimensions (Stephenson & Coomey, 2001).The first dimension considers the extent to which the task or activity is open orclosed (e.g. is the answer to the question/task a single right or wrong answer, or isit open-ended?) The second dimension is concerned with the consideration ofmanagement and control (e.g., does the tutor dictate the task and method, or doesthe student have a choice?) This can be represented as four ‘quadrants’.Figure 1: Four types of learning activity adapted from Stephenson and Coomey(Stephenson & Coomey, 2001)Mirroring good practice in face-to-face teaching that leads students toautonomy (Elton, 1988), the quadrants can be used to guide the design of activitiesthat are initially closed/tutor-managed, through closed/student-managed toopen/tutor-managed and finally to open/student-managed. These phases have beennamed ‘Active Induction’, ‘Guided Exploration’, ‘Facilitated Investigation’ and‘Self-Organised Learning’. This offers a simple way for teachers to createscaffolded activities that support students as they develop their skills and grow in
  5. 5. THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEconfidence as independent online learners. In the same way, assessment andinteraction types can be varied, and new options offered as students move throughthe phases and widen their repertoire of online learning techniques. The principlesare presented to teachers as a guide, but they are encouraged to use all theprinciples when designing their online learning activities. This approach could beconsidered rather more prescriptive than other learning design tools that offer awider range of options. It is our experience, however, that by initially limiting therange of options and providing a clear structure to the template, teachers areenabled to design e-Learning easily, and to build confidence more quickly.Figure 2: An illustration of the Best Practice Principles for e-LearningThe principles are used together with the e-Design Template as a guidewhen teachers are planning online learning activities. The e-Design Templateincludes a range of suggested activities mapped to the principles. These activitiesare derived from case studies, experience and the contributions of the Best PracticeCommunity. The activities are described using simple language that concretelysummarises the learning task or activity. The learning activity language is looselyadapted from the language used on the Ulster Hybrid Model (University of Ulster,2008)The principles are intended to support the pedagogic planning of onlinelearning activities and it is assumed that many other considerations of effectivelearning are being considered, for example, the seven principles as above,alignment of learning outcomes and activities, appropriate learning aims andobjectives, and so on. The e-Design Template becomes a representation of learningthat the teacher uses as the basis for building online learning activities, forexample, distance learning activities. The e-Design Template is intended to be auser-friendly learning design representation that uses the teacher’s own language.
  6. 6. HELEN WALMSLEYThe representation of learning designs for use and sharing is problematical, asmany teachers use a variety of mental models of learning and so tend to prefer avariety of representations. The MoD4L project investigated issues of sharing andre-use of learning designs and found that,“An effective representation for sharing and reuse has not, so far, beendeveloped, even in Further Education where sharing and reuse are institutionalnorms”(Falconer, Beetham, Oliver, Lockyer, & Littlejohn, 2007)A number of e-Design Templates have been developed that give examplesof the types of activities that follow the principles and can act as a ‘prompt’. The e-Design Template is scalable and can be used to design an award, module or lesson.Templates have been designed for a variety of delivery patterns, tools, pedagogicapproaches and discipline subjects. Examples of e-Design Templates for distancelearning and web-conferencing are given below.DELIVERY PATTERNSe-Design Templates have been developed for a selection of online delivery patternsto suit a range of delivery styles, cohort structures and pedagogic approaches andinclude, for example:- e-Supported: in this pattern, all teaching is face-to-face, but students have accessto a wide range of resources and informal learning opportunities online.- Blended Learning (Integrated): this includes online activities to prepare for andreflect on classroom sessions. Each teaching and learning session is planned withthree integral parts: (1) an online preparation, (2) the face-to-face and (3) onlinereflection, follow-up, assessment etc.- Blended Learning (Concentrated): this includes online activities that are inchunks or blocks, for example during the summer for accelerated programmes. Theonline activities may be a continuation of face-to-face study or may be separate andself-contained- Distance Learning (Discussion-based): this includes activities built aroundonline discussions with peers and/or work/placement colleagues.- Distance Learning (Collaborative-based): this includes online activitiesdesigned to encourage collaborative group work with peers and/or work/placementcolleagues.- Distance Learning (Individual): this includes online activities designed toencourage active learning, self-organised learning and independent study. Thesemay be run in a cohort pattern (with groups starting at set dates), or with roll-on-roll-off ongoing enrolment.The suggested learning activities are expressed in simple language that describesthe essence of each activity and includes those that are in common use as well assuggestions that are more innovative. The range of activities is intended to reflectthe principles, and activities are designed for each of the four phases. For example,
  7. 7. THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATETable 2 is an illustration of an e-Design Template for distance learning (discussion-based) and includes a range of activity suggestions:Active Induction(TMCA)Guided Exploration(SMCA)FacilitatedInvestigation(TMOA)Self-organisedLearner (SMOA)Students postresponses to tutor-setquestions in forumStudents read peerresponses and addcomments/suggestionsStudents challengeand build on anothersideasStudents summariseand reflect ondiscussion.Students braiddiscussion and createnew resource to shareDelphi: Students posta questionDelphi: Studentsanswer anotherstudents questionDelphi: Students adda comment to astudents answerDelphi: Studentsreview and reflect onquestions, responsesand commentsDebate: Students readstimulus material andpost individualstatementDebate: Studentswork in groups toagree and post asupporting oropposing argumentDebate: Students postresponses toargumentsDebate: Students voteand reviewconclusionsRole-play: Studentsread stimulusmaterials forsituation/ problemRole-play: Studentsassigned roles andreview context andproblemRole-play: Studentspost responses tosituation/ problemRole-play: Studentscontribute finalconclusion.Students review rolesand conclusionsTable 1: e-Design Template for distance learning (discussion-based)E-LEARNING TOOLSThe e-Design Template can be used to illustrate suggested activities that map to theprinciples for a particular tool or technology, for example: e-portfolios; blogs;social bookmarking; electronic voting systems; mind maps and so on. Newtemplates are simple to set up for emerging technologies. An example of how thee-Design Template can be used for web-conferencing is given below, together withsuggested student activities:Active Induction(TMCA)Guided Exploration(SMCA)FacilitatedInvestigation(TMOA)Self-organisedLearner (SMOA)Students join onlineweb-conference andintroduce themselvesto room in chatListen to tutor/ expertpresentations and addcomments/ questionsin chatStudent groups/ pairsdeliver presentationas part of whole web-conferenceStudents presentown/group researchor project outcomesin web-conferenceTutor invitesopinions using pollstools, questions andcommentsListen to series oflinked presentationsby differentpresenters followedby Q+AStudents preparequestions forpresenter and leadtopic discussion onaudio or in chatStudents host web-conference withexpert for groupStudents participatein icebreaker activityRespond to tutor’squestions with audioor chatNominated studentleads a discussionExpert is invited andinterviewed
  8. 8. HELEN WALMSLEYParticipate in onlinefamiliarisation withinterfaceStudents addannotations towhiteboardStudents preparePPT/ links to share aspart of plenaryStudents use web-conference room tocollaborate duringpreparation work ofgroup projectsTable 2: e-Design Template for Web-conferencingUSING THE TEMPLATE TO PLAN E-LEARNINGThe e-Design Principles and Template have been used in a variety of face-to-faceand online workshops to stimulate discussions with teachers about the kinds ofactivities that can be included in online settings. In our experience, novices tend tobegin by designing transmissive online learning using a bank of resources andindependent study, despite most teachers using problem-based or discussion-basedlearning in face-to-face settings. The use of the template encourages teachers to‘fill in the blanks,’ that is to consider a wider range of activities, interactions,assessment types, and to think about how to adapt activities for each of the‘phases’. This has the effect of ‘scaffolding’ teachers’ design activities. Anexample of the blank version of the template used is given in Figure 3.Figure 3: Blank e-Design Template used in staff development workshopsOnce the teacher has an overall mental construct of the learning activities,the course structure and content can be developed using the appropriate deliverytool (e.g. Blackboard). For example, the e-Design Template was used atStaffordshire University to create a set of online learning activities to developundergraduate study skills. As an additional scaffold for the teacher, a Blackboard(Virtual Learning Environment) presence was populated with the four phases andwith specific guidance for generating an online learning course. Figure 4 shows thetemplate and guidance in Blackboard.
  9. 9. THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEFigure 4: Blackboard structure with the phases and guidanceThe materials were then developed by the Study Skills team to share withsubject teachers and were made available with some of the e-Design Templateguidance to support adaptation and re-use. Figure 5 is a screenshot of thecompleted Study Skills online activities in BlackboardFigure 5: Completed Study Skills materials in BlackboardIn another example, the e-Design Template was used by a tutor to planonline activities for a Coaching and Mentoring distance learning module. Each twoweek block of study included a range of activities that were mapped to theprinciples and phases. The tutor commented that this was a quick way to build a setof distance learning activities, and that his confidence grew as activities wereadded. Figure 6 illustrates some of the completed activities.
  10. 10. HELEN WALMSLEYFigure 6: Completed distance learning activities for a Coaching and Mentoring ModuleBEST PRACTICE MODELS FOR E-LEARNING COMMUNITYThe e-Design Principles and the resulting e-Design Templates for delivery patternsand tools have been shared with the Best Practice Models for e-Learning onlinecommunity. Suggestions, comments and additional activity ideas have beenincorporated into the ongoing development of the models. Additional activitiessuggested during workshop sessions are added to the relevant template for use bythe community. For example, an online workshop called: ‘Using Twitter forTeaching and Learning’ was designed using the e-Design Template and includedan activity on using the principles to design learning activities using Twitter. Inaddition, one of the online activities invited participants to design their ownlearning activities that mapped to the model to share. Figure 7 is an illustration ofthe first few workshop activities on the course page in Moodle.Figure 7: Example of workshop planned using e-Design Template
  11. 11. THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEThe suggestions for Twitter activities that were devised by participantsduring the workshop included a wide variety of innovative and creative learningactivities, and a selection are included below:Active Induction(TMCA)Guided Exploration(SMCA)FacilitatedInvestigation(TMOA)Self-organisedLearner (SMOA)1. Students inventwords anddefinitionsbeginning withtwitt... and tweet2. Students usehashtag to sortrelevant tweets3. Send severaltweets aboutyourself to create astream that otherscan see to get toknow you4. Tweet one thingwhich is going wellin your organisation& one thing whichyou are keen toimprove.1. Students access casestudy and tweetquestions/ comments2. Students use rangeof tools with Twitter3. Complete a twittercircle4. Follow famoustweeters5. Students decide onproject topic and tweetto tutor6. Tweet a URL thatreferences a point orsupports an idea1. Students tweetsummary of learning2. Students shareupdates and furtherresources to peers3. Students deliverproject presentationand audience tweetsquestions, comments,feedback4. Tutor followsStudent tweets onlaptop while teaching1. Students tweetevaluations of learningprogramme2. Students tweetreflections on theirlearning – project topicand ILT skills3. Students choosewhether to continueTwitter group for peersupport, learning andsocial networking4. Students tosummarise key pointsfrom a group’s tweetsTable3: Selected learning activities for Twitter contributed during workshopA similar online workshop that focussed on learning designs for distancelearning courses included a discussion between participants on the use of themodels and user feedback included the following comments:- I like the Best Practice Principles slide for its readability- The models are very useful!- I think the models will be useful in pointing out different ways of doing things.- Everyone is doing what they think is best without recourse to any unified model. Ireally like the e-distance model with all the helpful examples - a great start point.To view the latest versions of the models, see the wiki here:http://learning.staffs.ac.uk/bestpracticemodels/CONCLUSIONThe e-Design Principles and the e-Design Template have been developed from arange of pedagogic research on e-learning, and have been supplemented inconjunction with a community of practice. It is a pedagogical guide to designing e-learning that can be used by both novice developers and experts alike, as well as bythose reviewing their e-learning designs. The e-Design Template has proven to be
  12. 12. HELEN WALMSLEYeasy to use, and simple to adapt for a variety of delivery patterns, tools andcontexts. It is related to other learning design tools, but in addition, scaffolds thelearning design process itself to guide teachers towards designing online learningactivities that are carefully timed, include a range of interactions, scaffolded in fourphases and aim to develop effective independent online learners.REFERENCESAnderson, T. (2003). Getting the Mix Right Again: An updated and theoretical rationale for interaction.The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 4(2).Atkinson, S. (2011). Embodied and Embedded Theory in Practice: The Student-Owned Learning-Engagement (SOLE) Model. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning,12(2).AUTC. (2003). Learning Designs. [Online]. Retrieved June 11, 2013, fromhttp://www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au/Biggs, J. B. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does. Buckingham:Society for Research into Higher Education.Bruce, S., Smyth, K., Fotheringham, J., & Mainka, C. (2011). University benchmark for the use oftechnology in modules. [Online]. Retrieved June 11, 2013, fromhttp://staff.napier.ac.uk/services/vice-principal-academic/academic/TEL/TechBenchmark/Pages/home.aspxCarroll, J., & Appleton, J. (2008). The 2008 Plagiarism Landscape. [Online]. Retrieved September 13,2011, from http://www.plagiarismadvice.org/documents/briefingpaper/Chickering, A. W., & Ehrmann, S. C. (1996). Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever.[Online]. Retrieved June 4, 2013, from http://www.tltgroup.org/programs/seven.htmlConole, G. (2010). Bridging the gap between policy and practice: a framework for technologicalintervention. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 6(1), 13–27.Elton, L. (1988). Conditions for Learner Autonomy at a Distance. Innovations in Education & TrainingInternational, 25(3), 216–224.Falconer, I., Beetham, H., Oliver, R., Lockyer, L., & Littlejohn, A. (2007). Mod4L Final Report:Representing Learning Designs. [Online]. JISC. Retrieved December 20, 2012, fromhttp://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearningpedagogy/mod4lreportfinal.pdfGagnÉ, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.). FortWorth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment:Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. Internet in Higher Education, 2(2), 87–105.Retrieved from http://auspace.athabascau.ca:8080/dspace/handle/2149/739Gokhale, A. A. (1995). Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking. Journal of TechnologyEducation, 7(1).Irwin, B. (2007). Flexible online assessment. [Online]. Retrieved August 2, 2011, fromhttp://www.education.ed.ac.uk/e-learning/gallery/irwin_flexible_oa.pdfJohnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. (2007). The State of Cooperative Learning inPostsecondary and Professional Settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19(1), 15–29.
  13. 13. THE E-DESIGN TEMPLATEJonassen, D. H., Howland, J. L., Moore, J. L., & Marra, R. M. (2003). Learning to solve problems withtechnology: a constructivist perspective (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Merrill.Jonassen, D. H., & Land, S. M. (Eds.). (2000). Theoretical foundations of learning environments.Mahwah: L. Erlbaum Associates.Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching: a conversational framework for the effective useof educational technology (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Lentell, H. (2012). Distance learning in British universities: is it possible? Open Learning: The Journalof Open, Distance and e-Learning, 27(1), 23–36.McConnell, D. (2006). E-Learning Groups and Communities. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2010). Evaluation of Evidence-basedPractices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. U.S.Department of Education.Nicol, D. J. (2009). Assessment for learner self-regulation: enhancing achievement in the first yearusing learning technologies. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 34(3), 335–352.Nicol, D. J. (2010). The foundation for graduate attributes: developing self-regulation through self andpeer-assessment. QAA.Race, P. (2010). Making Learning Happen: A Guide for Post-Compulsory Education (2nd ed.). London:Sage Publications Ltd.Salmon, G. (2004). E-Moderating: The Key to Online Teaching and Learning. London, UK: Routledge.Schank, R. C. (2002). Designing world class e-learning: how IBM, GE, Harvard Business School, andColumbia University are succeeding at e-learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.Stephenson, J. (2001). Learner-managed learning - an emerging pedagogy for learning online. In J.Stephenson (Ed.), Teaching and Learning Online: New Pedagogies for New Technologies(Creating success). London, UK: Kogan Page.Stephenson, J., & Coomey, M. (2001). Online Learning: it is all about dialogue, involvement, supportand control - according to the research. In J. Stephenson (Ed.), Teaching and Learning Online:New Pedagogies for New Technologies (Creating success). London, UK: Kogan Page.Stiles, M. J., & Yorke, J. (2006). Technology supported learning – Tensions between innovation, andcontrol and organisational and professional cultures. Journal of Organisational Transformationand Social Change, 3(3), 251–267.Swan, K. (2005). A Constructivist Model for Thinking About Learning Online. In J. Bourne & J. C.Moore (Eds.), Elements of Quality Online Education: Engaging Communities. The SloanConsortium.University of Hertfordshire. (2011). ESCAPE - Assessment timelines. [Online]. Retrieved September13, 2011, from http://jiscdesignstudio.pbworks.com/w/page/30631817/ESCAPE - AssessmenttimelinesUniversity of Ulster. (2008). Hybrid Learning Model. [Online]. Retrieved December 14, 2012, fromhttp://cetl.ulster.ac.uk/elearning/hlm.phpWalmsley, H., & Yorke, J. (2010). eLearning Models: a Web 2.0 approach to staff development inHigher Education. In D. Parkes, L. Hart, & G. Walton (Eds.), Web 2.0 and Libraries: Impacts,Technologies and Trends. Oxford: Chandos Publishing Ltd.
  14. 14. HELEN WALMSLEYWaterfield, J., & West, B. (2006). Inclusive Assessment in Higher Education: A Resource for Change.[Online]. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://www.plymouth.ac.uk/pages/view.asp?page=10494Helen WalmsleyLearning Development and Innovation, Academic Development Unit,Staffordshire University, UK