Imperialism: The policy by a stronger nationto attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily.
How Did Imperialism Begin? A coaling station for steamships, Cape Town, South Africa
Imperialism in the 1800’s resulted from 3 key factors:1. Nationalism prompted rival European nations to build empires in their competitive quests for power.2. . The industrial Revolution created a tremendous demand for raw materials and expended markets, which prompted industrialized nations to seek new territories.3. . Both religious fervor and feelings of racial and cultural superiority inspired Europeans to impose their cultures on distant lands.
Causes of Imperialism ECONOMIC INTERESTS POLITICAL & MILITARY INTERESTSManufacturers wanted access to natural Merchant ships and naval vessels needed basesresources. around the world.Manufacturers hoped for new markets for Western leaders were motivated byfactory goods. nationalism.Colonies offered a valuable outlet forEurope’s growing population. HUMANITARIAN GOALS SOCIAL DARWINISMMany westerners felt concern for their “little Many westerners viewed European racesbrothers” overseas. as superior to all others.Missionaries, doctors, and colonial officials They saw imperial conquest as nature’sbelieved they had a duty to spread western way of improving the human species.civilization.
Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.Between 1500 and 1800, European states won empires around the world. However, Europe had little influence on the lives of the people of these conquered lands. By the 1800s, Europe had gained considerable power. Encouraged bytheir new economic and military strength, Europeans embarked on a path of aggressive expansion that today’s historians call the “new imperialism.”
Forms of ImperialismColony: territory that an imperial power ruled directly through colonial officials.Protectorate: Had its own government, but its policies were guided by a foreign power.Sphere of Influence: was a region of a country in which the imperial power had exclusive investment or trading rights.
Nationalism• 19th-century political changes• Allegiance to one’s country rather than to a monarch• Role of the “common people”• Unification movements Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi (on• Militarism horseback) leading an attack in Palermo, Sicily
German Unification Other strong nations emerged in the mid- 1800s as the result of political and economic changes in Europe and beyond.
The Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the mid-18th century • Britain’s advantages • The spread of industrialization
Factories ranging from The United States to Europe consumed raw materials and churned out thousands of manufactured goods.The Colonies provided new markets for the finished products of the industrial Revolution such as Tools, Weapons, and Clothing. • Rubber • Cotton • Tin Africa Southeast Asia India • Copper • Jute • Gold
Economic Motives Industrialized nations sought: • Raw materials • Natural resources • A cheap labor supply • New marketplaces for manufactured goods
Technological • The steam engine Advances • Better transportation • Increased exploration • Improvements in communication The steamboat Herald (with mounted machine guns) on the Zambezi river in Africa One of the first steam engines
The Maxim Gun British troops fighting forces in Benin in 1897
Exploration• David Livingstone• Mapping the “Dark Continent” David Livingstone
Ideological Motives • A desire to “civilize” non-Europeans also spurred the development of imperialism • Social DarwinismDarwin’s handwritten cover page for Herbert Spencer The Origin of Species
“The White Man’s Burden” By Rudyard KiplingTake up the White Man’s Take up the White Mans burden— burden— Send forth the best ye In patience to abide, breed— To veil the threat of terrorGo, bind your sons to exile And check the show of pride; To serve your captives’ need; By open speech and simple,To wait, in heavy harness, An hundred times made plain, On fluttered folk and wild— To seek anothers profitYour new-caught sullen peoples, And work anothers gain. Half-devil and half-child.
The “White Man’s Burden” appeared in children’s books andeven in advertisements of the time period.