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Civil war
 

Civil war

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Spanish Civil War

Spanish Civil War

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    Civil war Civil war Presentation Transcript

    • La Segunda República (1931-36)La Segunda República (1931-36) yy La Guerra Civil (1936-1939)La Guerra Civil (1936-1939) Prof. Mark HarpringProf. Mark Harpring
    • Metas de la Segunda RepúblicaMetas de la Segunda República  Reformar la estructura del campoReformar la estructura del campo  Renovar el ejército, secularizar y universalizar la enseñanzaRenovar el ejército, secularizar y universalizar la enseñanza  Difundir la cultura y extender la investigaciónDifundir la cultura y extender la investigación  Reformas fiscalesReformas fiscales  Modernizar la justicia con leyes civiles nuevasModernizar la justicia con leyes civiles nuevas  Legalizar el abortoLegalizar el aborto  Liberalizar la prensaLiberalizar la prensa  Suprimir la censuraSuprimir la censura  Extender el sufragio universal a las mujeresExtender el sufragio universal a las mujeres  Ley de autonomíasLey de autonomías
    • La Constitución de 1931La Constitución de 1931  ““No podrán ser fundamento de privilegioNo podrán ser fundamento de privilegio jurídico: la naturaleza, la filiación, el sexo, lajurídico: la naturaleza, la filiación, el sexo, la clase social, la riqueza, las ideas políticas niclase social, la riqueza, las ideas políticas ni las creencias religiosas.”las creencias religiosas.”  ““Los ciudadanos de uno y de otro sexo,Los ciudadanos de uno y de otro sexo, mayores de 23 años, tendrán los mismosmayores de 23 años, tendrán los mismos derechos electorales conforme determinen lasderechos electorales conforme determinen las leyes.”leyes.”
    •  ““Todos los españoles, sin distinción de sexo,Todos los españoles, sin distinción de sexo, son admisibles a los empleos y cargos públicosson admisibles a los empleos y cargos públicos según su mérito y capacidad…”según su mérito y capacidad…”  ““La familia está bajo la salvaguardia especialLa familia está bajo la salvaguardia especial del Estado. El matrimonio se funda en ladel Estado. El matrimonio se funda en la igualdad de derechos para ambos sexos, yigualdad de derechos para ambos sexos, y podrá disolverse por mutuo disenso o apodrá disolverse por mutuo disenso o a petición de cualquiera de los cónyuges…petición de cualquiera de los cónyuges…
    •  ““Serán elegibles para Diputados todos los ciudadanosSerán elegibles para Diputados todos los ciudadanos de la República mayores de 23 años, sin distinción dede la República mayores de 23 años, sin distinción de sexo ni de estado civil…”sexo ni de estado civil…”  ““La Reforma Eugénica del Aborto . . . autoriza laLa Reforma Eugénica del Aborto . . . autoriza la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo por razóninterrupción voluntaria del embarazo por razón terapeútica y durante los primeros tres meses porterapeútica y durante los primeros tres meses por razones eugénica y ética. En el caso ético, la decisiónrazones eugénica y ética. En el caso ético, la decisión es exclusivamente de la mujer.”es exclusivamente de la mujer.”
    •  Problemas para la República:Problemas para la República: – DesempleoDesempleo – Economía internacional en condiciones malas aEconomía internacional en condiciones malas a causa de la caída de la Bolsa de Wall Streetcausa de la caída de la Bolsa de Wall Street – Violencia, huelgas por parte de los anarquistas yViolencia, huelgas por parte de los anarquistas y sindicalistassindicalistas
    • Cartas sobre la guerraCartas sobre la guerra ““When I first walked into the streets of Barcelona I wasWhen I first walked into the streets of Barcelona I was amazed at what I saw. When we read about Spain in theamazed at what I saw. When we read about Spain in the newspapers, articles, and books, we read of the front, ofnewspapers, articles, and books, we read of the front, of cities bombed, and I came expecting to find a war-like—orcities bombed, and I came expecting to find a war-like—or what I thought was war-like—atmosphere over everythingwhat I thought was war-like—atmosphere over everything and everybody. Here in Barcelona, the city goes on livingand everybody. Here in Barcelona, the city goes on living its life—shops do business, people work and sit in theits life—shops do business, people work and sit in the cafes. When you are in the city for a while you begin to seecafes. When you are in the city for a while you begin to see the effects of war. You see that there aren't many youngthe effects of war. You see that there aren't many young men in the streets—and if there are they are in uniform,men in the streets—and if there are they are in uniform, home on leave or recovering from wounds. You see thehome on leave or recovering from wounds. You see the wrecked buildings where bombs have fallen—and you seewrecked buildings where bombs have fallen—and you see the women and the kids, tattered, ragged, and hungry...the women and the kids, tattered, ragged, and hungry...
    • ……But you see too that everywhere are a people who areBut you see too that everywhere are a people who are fightingfighting for their livesfor their lives,, theirtheir country—thecountry—the raised fist whichraised fist which greets you ingreets you in SaludSalud is not just a gesture—it means life andis not just a gesture—it means life and liberty being fought for and a greeting of solidarity with theliberty being fought for and a greeting of solidarity with the democratic peoples of the world. Barcelona is a beautifuldemocratic peoples of the world. Barcelona is a beautiful city—surrounded by hills and mountains—an ever blue skycity—surrounded by hills and mountains—an ever blue sky —palm trees lining the broad avenues—a city which in—palm trees lining the broad avenues—a city which in peacetime must have been a joy to live in. And the peoplepeacetime must have been a joy to live in. And the people —how can I tell you how wonderful they are—how truly a—how can I tell you how wonderful they are—how truly a beautiful people the Spanish are. They are an intelligentbeautiful people the Spanish are. They are an intelligent people and an understanding people, and even now, inpeople and an understanding people, and even now, in midst of their war, the education of its people goes on—midst of their war, the education of its people goes on— schools for kids, girls from the Basque country andschools for kids, girls from the Basque country and Andalucia who three months ago couldn't read, nowAndalucia who three months ago couldn't read, now holding down leading and important jobs in Governmentholding down leading and important jobs in Government agenciesagencies..”” Mary Rolfe, November 1938Mary Rolfe, November 1938
    • ““I'm sure that by this time you are still waiting for a detailedI'm sure that by this time you are still waiting for a detailed explanation of what has this international struggle to do with my beingexplanation of what has this international struggle to do with my being here. Since this is a war between whites who for centuries have held us inhere. Since this is a war between whites who for centuries have held us in slavery, and have heaped every kind of insult and abuse upon us,slavery, and have heaped every kind of insult and abuse upon us, segregated and jim-crowed us; why I, a Negro who have fought throughsegregated and jim-crowed us; why I, a Negro who have fought through these years for the rights of my people, am here in Spain today?these years for the rights of my people, am here in Spain today? Because we are no longer an isolated minority group fightingBecause we are no longer an isolated minority group fighting hopelessly against an immense giant. Because, my dear, we have joinedhopelessly against an immense giant. Because, my dear, we have joined with, and become an active part of, a great progressive force, on whosewith, and become an active part of, a great progressive force, on whose shoulders rests the responsibility of saving human civilization from theshoulders rests the responsibility of saving human civilization from the planned destruction of a small group of degenerates gone mad in their lustplanned destruction of a small group of degenerates gone mad in their lust for power. Because if we crush Fascism here we'll save our people infor power. Because if we crush Fascism here we'll save our people in America, and in other parts of the world from the vicious persecution,America, and in other parts of the world from the vicious persecution, wholesale imprisonment, and slaughter which the Jewish people sufferedwholesale imprisonment, and slaughter which the Jewish people suffered and are suffering under Hitler's Fascist heels.and are suffering under Hitler's Fascist heels.”” Canute Frankson, July 1937Canute Frankson, July 1937
    • Ataque desde el aireAtaque desde el aire (Barcelona, 1938)(Barcelona, 1938)
    • ““Mirando al cielo”Mirando al cielo”
    • Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 1936Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 1936
    • ““Muerte de un republicano”Muerte de un republicano”
    • Abraham Lincoln BatallionAbraham Lincoln Batallion Las Brigadas InternacionalesLas Brigadas Internacionales
    • Voluntarios internacionalesVoluntarios internacionales
    • ¡¡No Pasarán!No Pasarán! El fascismo quiereEl fascismo quiere conquistar Madrid.conquistar Madrid. Madrid será la tumba delMadrid será la tumba del fascismo.fascismo.
    • Carteles de la Guerra CivilCarteles de la Guerra Civil El escritor británico Christopher Caudwell escribió lo siguienteEl escritor británico Christopher Caudwell escribió lo siguiente en Barcelona en diciembre de 1936en Barcelona en diciembre de 1936:: "On almost every building there are party posters: posters"On almost every building there are party posters: posters against Fascism, posters about the defense of Madrid, postersagainst Fascism, posters about the defense of Madrid, posters appealing for recruits to the militia...and even posters for theappealing for recruits to the militia...and even posters for the emancipation of women and against venereal disease."emancipation of women and against venereal disease." Robert Merriman, un voluntario americano luchando en España,Robert Merriman, un voluntario americano luchando en España, escribió lo siguiente desde Barcelona en enero de 1937:escribió lo siguiente desde Barcelona en enero de 1937: "Streets aflame with posters of all parties for all causes, some"Streets aflame with posters of all parties for all causes, some of them put out by combinations of parties."of them put out by combinations of parties."