上海市中级口译复习 30 篇  策马翻译培训  www.cemachina.com
汉译英:Passage 1 上海菜系是中国最年轻的地方菜系,通常被成为“本帮菜 ”                                         ,有着 400 多年的历史。同中国其他菜系一样,                ...
bowling, enjoy KFC, while Americans learn Chinese, exercise Kung Fu, like Peking Duck. AndTitanic sailedinto China, while ...
remainthe same: hoping for apropitious and happy new year.//Each family will clean up the house and put up an antithetical...
As is clearly spelled out in our new development strategy, we will go beyond our nationalboundaries and wedge ourselves in...
Environmental crisisleads to one of the serious problems, namely, water shortage. Presently,morethan 40% of the world’s po...
wasaccepted to joinbowling and international standard dance asan Olympic demonstrationevent.// The booming of wushu isattr...
cooperation. The overall development in bilateral trade and economic cooperation is, however,irreversible. There are two f...
basisof all life onearth. It has a double helix structure, like a spiral staircase.//Passage15几千年来我们中国人一直视筷子为一种可以将饭从碗中逐口送入...
have a special regard and personal friendship for the people of china. Beijing is for us an old andnostalgic home. During ...
businesses cansucceed. For example, shanghai’s transportation links to the world, includingPudong International Airport an...
三种人:第一种人是浮想联翩的思想家,第二种人是富有革命精神的探索家,第三种人是不受常规约束的实干家。//Passage6The difference between a brain and a computer can be expressed...
胥黎预示:人类可以在试管里而不是在子宫里孕育;药物可以即刻给人以快感,植入体内的电极可以给人以刺激,输入不同的人造荷尔蒙可以改变人的行为。 //此书问世 70 年后,我们看到赫胥黎对技术发展的预言是如此惊人的精确,               ...
risk will be prepared to accept therelatively low yields now availableongovernment bonds.// Butmany investors fall somewhe...
肤色或宗教信仰。           这种观念加上硅谷多宗族的社会、                      不拘礼仪的生活方式、             舒适适宜的气候,使外国人近悦远来。 //Passage11 Today,we pion...
然而时隔不久,爱迪生这项发明的音乐应用价值便为世人所认识,并被推向了市场。 //第二次世界大战之后,             电的广泛使用使现代可提式点唱机面世。                          不过这种点唱机只能单声道放音。...
hemisphere of the brain. In most individuals, the left hemisphere has primary responsibility forlanguage, while the right ...
在被误导性的广告所描绘的世界里,爱恋和激情全然为产品所拥有,性也成了商品,其中年轻女子则成了最大的牺牲者。 //
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  1. 1. 上海市中级口译复习 30 篇 策马翻译培训 www.cemachina.com
  2. 2. 汉译英:Passage 1 上海菜系是中国最年轻的地方菜系,通常被成为“本帮菜 ” ,有着 400 多年的历史。同中国其他菜系一样, “本帮菜”具有“色,香,味”三大要素。 //上海菜的特点是注重调料的使用,食物的质地和菜的原汁原味。其中最著名的有特色点心“南翔小笼”和特色菜“松鼠鲑鱼 ” 。//“南翔小笼”是猪肉馅,个小味美,皮薄汁醇。 “松鼠鲑鱼”色泽黄亮,形如松鼠,外皮脆而内肉嫩,汤汁酸甜适口。 //在品尝过“松鼠鲑鱼 ”之后,我们常常惊讶于“松鼠 ”的形状,觉得在三大评价标准上在添加“形”这个标准才更合适。 //译文:Shanghai cuisine, usually called Benbang cuisine, is the youngest among the major regionalcuisines in China, with a history of more than 400 years. Like all other Chinese regional cuisines,Benbang cuisines takes “color, aroma and taste” asits essential quality elements.//Shanghai cuisine emphasizes in particular the expert use of seasonings, the selection of rawmaterials with quality texture, and original flavors. Shanghai cuisine is famous for a special snackknown as Nanxiang Steamed Meat Dumplings and a special dish called “Squirrel-ShapedMandarin Fish”.//Nanxiang Steamed Meat Dumplings are small in size, with thin and translucent wrappers, filledinside with ground pork and rich tasty soup. Squirrel-Shaped Mandarin Fish is yellow-colored andsquirrel-shaped, with a crispy skin and tender meat, all covered with asweet and sour source.//After tasting Squirrel-Shaped Mandarin Fish, we are always amazed by the squirrel shape andthink that it is more appropriate to plus “appearance” as the fourth element.Passage 2美国人强调效率、竞争和独创性,而中国人则将严谨规划放在首位,鼓励团队成员之间的密切合作和无私奉献。 //在美国学校,讨论享有至高无上的地位,讨论是课堂教学的主旋律;而中国教师喜欢讲课,喜欢考试,编写千篇一律的标准教案,培养整齐划一的高材生。 //美国人的政治观, 经济观以及社会观的核心是个人道德自治观。 中国传统的思想体系是以儒家学说为基础的,这种思想强调整体和谐。 //现在,中美联系比以往更加紧密,中国人学英语,玩保龄球,吃肯德基,美国人学汉语,练功夫,吃北京烤鸭, 《泰坦尼克》驶进中国, 《牡丹亭》也在百老汇上演。 //American people emphasize efficiency, competition and originality while Chinese people givepriority to careful planning and encourage close cooperation and altruistic dedication amongteammembers.//InAmericanschools, discussionis given top priority while Chinese teachers like to lecture in class,and alot of them areobsessed with examinations. They write consistent and standardizedteachingplans, and arehappy with bringing up identical and standardized talents.//Central to American political, economic and social thought is the concept of individual moralautonomy. Traditional Chinese philosophical systems are based on Confucianism, which singshigh praises for communal harmony.//Nowadays, the relationof China andAmericabecome closer thanever. Chinese learnEnglish, play
  3. 3. bowling, enjoy KFC, while Americans learn Chinese, exercise Kung Fu, like Peking Duck. AndTitanic sailedinto China, while The Peony Pavilion hasbeenperformed onBroadway.//Passage3我们社会主义市场经济体制的建立和发展, 要求我们改革和完善社会福利保障体制, 从而对社会服务提出了更高的要求。 //随着政府职能的转变, 原来由政府包揽的许多社会服务工作, 有相当一部分将逐步转移到社会团体和民间组织。 //一方面,政府的宏观管理责任将会变得更加重大。另一方面,社会团体和民间组织有必要参与更多的社区服务工作。 //这样就提出一个课题:政府和社会团体如何密切合作,如何分工协作,更好地推进社区服务事业。//The establishment and development of china’s socialist market economy requires the reform andimprovement in our soial welfare and security system, which in turnplaces higher expectations onthe work of communityservice.//With the transformation of governmental functions, much of the work involving social servicesthat was initially undertaken by the government will have to be transferred gradually to socialgroupsand non-governmental organizations.//Onthe one hand, the government will shoulder great responsibilities in itsmacro-management;andon the other hand, social groups and non-governmental organizations will need to involvethemselves more in community service.//Consequently, there has emerged an issue which concerns the way of a close collaboration andthedivision of responsibilities between the government and social groups, in order to further thedevelopment of community service.Passage4春节期间的娱乐活动多种多样,丰富多彩。耍龙灯和舞狮子是春节期间的传统项目。还有一种至今仍受人欢迎的传统表演活动,叫踩高跷。 //现在,随着生活水平的不断提高,人们采用了新的方式庆祝新年。但不管庆祝方式怎么变,春节的精华不会变,那就是为了祈求新年吉祥如意。 //家家户户都会打扫的干干净净,门上都会贴上对联,人人都会穿上新衣裳,拿出最精美的食物,团聚在一起,互道吉利,表示祝贺。 //最重要的是, 春节是一个合家欢聚的日子, 出门在外的人总要想方设法在除夕夜到来之前赶回家,吃上一年中最重要的一段饭——“团圆饭 ” 。//The recreational activitiesduring theSpringFestival arevaried and colorful. The DagonDanceandLion Dance are traditionally performed during the festival. Walking on stilts is another traditionalperformance event popular in china. //Nowadays, with the improvement of living standards, people have takenup new ways tocelebratethe New Year. No matter what change there might be, the highlights of the Spring Festival will
  4. 4. remainthe same: hoping for apropitious and happy new year.//Each family will clean up the house and put up an antithetical couplet on each side of the door.Dressed up in their best, people will get together, treat each other to the most delicious foodsandexchange auspicious greetings.//Most important of all, the Spring Festival is the occasion for a family reunion. People away fromhome for various reasons will alwaystrytheir best to come back beforethe NewYear’sEve for thefamilyreuniondinner, themost important meal of theyear.//Passage5 香港中文大学,简称“中大 ” 立 于 1963 年。中大是一所研究型综合大学,以 ,成“结合传统与现代,融汇中国与西方”为创校使命。 // 40 多年来,中大一直致力于弘扬中华传统文化,坚持双语教育,并推行独特的书院制度,在香港教育界卓然而立。中大校园占地 134 公顷,是世界上最美丽的校园之一。 //中大的师生来自世界各地。有教职员工 5200多人、近万名本科生、约 2000 多名研究生,其中约 2500 多人来自 45 个不同的国家和地区。 //中大实行灵活的学分制,不仅有助于培养有专有博的人才,而且还赋予学生更大的学习自主权。中大的多元教育有助于充分发挥每一个学生的潜能。 // The Chinese Universityof Hong Kong, CUHK for short, was founded in 1963. It is a research-oriented comprehensiveuniversity with a mission to combine tradition with modernity and bring together China andtheWest.// For more than 40 years, we have been distinguished from other local universities byvirtue of our rich Chinese cultural heritage, bilingual education, and our unique college system.CUHK’s 134-hectarecampus isone of the most beautiful campuses in the world.// CUHK’ s facultyand students come from all corners of the world. It has more than 5200 staff members,approximately 10,000 undergraduates, and 2000 postgraduate students. Of these students, some2,500 arefrom 45 countriesand regions outside Hong Kong.// The flexible credit unit systemallows a balance between depth with breadth, and a high degree of freechoice of students indesigning their ownlearning.The multi-faceted education atCUHK helps to bringout thebest inevery student.//Passage6中国国际出版集团是中国最大的、 最权威的外语出版发行单位, 其前身是中央人民政府新闻出版署国际新闻局。 //我集团坚持“让中国走向世界,让世界了解中国 ”的出版原则,全心致力于中国外语教育与研究事业的发展,全心致力于中外文化交流事业的拓展。 //为了加强对出版人才队伍的建设, 为了满足日益增长的特殊出版业务的需要, 我集团每年都要选派一些青年员工到国内外知名高等学府和研究机构进修, //根据我们的发展战略,我们会将前进的步伐迈出国界走向世界,瞄准海外读者群,这一战略已取得了良好的开局。 //TheChinaInternational PublishingGroup isthe largest and the most authoritative foreignlanguagepublishing and distribution establishment, its predecessor being the International Press Bureau ofthe CentralPeople’sGovernment Pressand PublicationAdministration.// Adhering to thepublishing philosophy of “assisting China’s march to the world and facilitating world’sunderstanding of China”, the Group commits itself entirely to promoting foreign languageeducation and research in China and advancing cultural exchanges between China and foreigncountries.// In order to build up a strong team of publishing staff, as well as to meet the growingneed of more technically demanding business, the Group makes it a rule that young staff beselected and sent to noted universities and researchinstitutions, both domestic and overseas, forfurther studies.//
  5. 5. As is clearly spelled out in our new development strategy, we will go beyond our nationalboundaries and wedge ourselves into the world circulation market, aiming at the internationalreadership. Our initial effortshave beenvery rewarding.//Passage7 改革开放 30 年来,随着中国逐渐崛起成为政治经济强国,海外人士学习汉语的现象与日俱增,海外孔子学院也成了人们学习中国语言和中国文化的首选之地。 //通过学习汉语, 他们对这个和自己文化大相径庭的古老文明产生了浓厚的兴趣, 而且有机会了解中国的哲学、艺术、医学、饮食文化,亲身体验这个文明古国的风采。 //作为第二文化,中国文化也丰富了他们的生活和世界观。可以说,这个潮流方兴未艾。越来越多的学习汉语的美国人除了对中国菜肴赞不绝口之外,也在尝试针灸,草药和武术。 //他们也看功夫电影,学习东方时装潮流和手工艺,不知不觉的在日常生活中谈及中国的点心,人参、银杏,乌龙茶等。目前在美国最热门的中国文化是道家学说和有着神秘色彩的风水学。As china is rising as a political and economic world power, thanks to its three-decade reform andopening up, more and more people in overseas countries start to learn Chinese and turn to aConfucius Institute in their own countries as their first choice learning Chinese language andChinese culture.//During the learning process, the learners concurrently develop their interest in this ancient land,whose civilization is so vastly different from theirs. And the learners have opportunities to learnabout Chinese philosophy, art, architecture, medicine and catering culture and experiencefirst-hand the splendorsof thisvenerable civilization.//Asthe second culture, Chinese culture hasenriched the life and world outlook of the learners. Thistrend, so to speak, is gathering momentum and is there to stay.Apart from their love for Chinesecuisine, more and moreAmericanlearnersof Chinese language areturningto Chinese acupuncture,herbal medicines, martial arts.//They are also interested in kongfu films, fashions and crafts. Seemingly outlandish words such asdimsum, ginseng, gingko, oolong cha have crept into their everyday language. The latest Chinesecultural icons to make its impact there areTaoism, and ancient school of thought, and fengshui,anancient artof placement.//Passage8过去 10 年,海平面升高和森林看法的速度都是前所未有的;生态恶化、物种灭绝、臭氧层被破坏、温室效应、酸雨等一系列环境问题已经严重影响到人类的生存环境。 //环境恶化造成的问题之一就是缺水。目前全世界 40%以上的人口,即 20 多亿人,面临缺水问题。 据预测, 未来 25 年全球人口将有 60 亿增长到 80 亿, 环境保护面临更大的压力。 //中国作为一个发展中国家,面临着发展经济和保护环境的双重任务。从国情出发,中国在全面推进现代化的过程中,将环境保护视为一项基本国策。 //众所周知,对生态环境和生物多样性的保护是环保工作的重点。我国野生动植物物种丰富,仅脊椎动物就有 6000 多种左右,高等植物 3 万多种。 //Sealevel roseand forest weredestroyed at an unprecedented rateduring thelast decade.A seriesofenvironmental problems such s the deterioration of ecosystem, the extinction of bio-species,damage to the ozone layer, the green-house effect, acid rain, have posed a serious threat tohumanlivingconditions.//
  6. 6. Environmental crisisleads to one of the serious problems, namely, water shortage. Presently,morethan 40% of the world’s population, more than 2 billion people, now face water shortage. It ispredicted hat with the global population expected to increase from six billion to eight billion overthe next 25 years,more pressure onenvironmental protection stressisexpected.// As a developingcountry, china is confronted with the dual task of developing the economy and protecting theenvironment. Proceeding from its national conditions, china has, in the process of promotingitsoverall modernization program, made environmental protection one of its basic statepolicies.// It isknownto allthat protection of the ecological environment and biodiversityisthefocal point of environmental protection work. China isrich in wildlife species. There areabout 6,000 vertebrates alone and 30,000 species of higher plants.//Passage9为了切实保护儿童权益,中国的立法、司法、政府各有关部门以及社会团体都建立了相应的机制,以监督、实施和促进保护儿童事业的健康发展。 //中国政府动员社会采取多种方式关心和帮助残疾儿童的成长,大力弘扬残疾儿童自强不息的精神,倡导团结、友爱、互助的道德风尚。 //中国民族素有“携幼 ”“爱幼 ”的传统美德,中国古语“有无有以及人之 ,幼”了流传至今。 //我们要在全社会倡导树立“爱护儿童、教育儿童、为儿童做表率、为儿童办实事 ” 的公民意识, 并努力为儿童事业的发展创造良好的社会条件。 // To effectivelyprotect children’s rights and interests, china’s legislation, judicial and government departmentsconcerned as well as non-governmental organizations have set up corresponding mechanisms tosupervise, facilitateand promote the healthy development of the work onprotecting children.//The Chinese government has done a great deal to mobilize various circles in society to care for, invarious manners , the development of disabled children, to greatly encourage the spirit ofunceasing self-improvement among physically disadvantaged children and to advocate the valuedsocial virtues of unity,friendship and mutual aid.// The Chinese nation has long cultivated thetraditional virtues of “bring up the young” and caring for the young”.An old Chinese saying that“love our children and love others’ children in the same manner” isstill very popular.// We shouldurge the society at large to raise the awareness of importance of “protecting and educatingchildren, and setting a good example and doing practical thing for children”. We will spare noefforts to create favorable social conditions for the progress of child development programs.//Passage10武术在我国源远流长,是中华民族传统文化的瑰宝。我们知道,一个民族的优秀文化遗产,不仅仅属于一个民族,它会逐渐传播到世界而成为人类的共同财富。 //为了更好的推广武术运动,使其与奥运项目接轨,中国武协和国际武联做了大量的艰苦卓绝的工作。现在武术运动已被列为一种具有与保龄球运动和国际标准舞同等地位的奥运表演项目。 //武术的蓬勃发展,除得益于其项目本身的吸引力之外,早期移居海外的一代武术大师功不可没。//老一代武术家在海外播种下了武术的种子,使武术这门既可以自卫又可以健身的运动很快就在新的土地上扎下了根。 今天高超的武术大师已遍布世界各地, 武术爱好者也与日俱增。 //Wushu, or Chinese martial art, can be traced back to ancient times. It is a gem of Chinesetraditional culture. As we all know, the fine culture of a nation doesn’ belong to the nation alone tand it will bespread to the rest of the world and shared byallhumanity.// The Chinese WushuAssociation and International Wushu Federation (IWUF) have been working very hard topopularize wushu and make the Chinese martial art closer to the Olympic Movement. Wushu
  7. 7. wasaccepted to joinbowling and international standard dance asan Olympic demonstrationevent.// The booming of wushu isattributed not only to the attractiveness of the sport but also toemigrant Chinese wushu mastersover the years.// Martial artists of the older generations havesown wushu seeds in foreign countries. Weshu, which canbe used asself defense and cankeeppractitioners fit and strong, soom became popular on new lands. Today sperb wushu masters areactive all over the world, and amateurs are on the increase with each passingday.Passage11我赞同许多东亚学者的观点, 东方文明可以医治盛行于西方世界的一些顽疾。 西方世界个人自由主义泛滥导致了极端个人主义、 性关系混乱以及过度暴力行为, 对此我们不能视而不见。//相反, 东方社会的自我约束力, 集体责任感以及温厚儒雅的传统倒可以消除西方社会的许多恶疾。//在这个信息时代,世界已缩小成一个地球村。这个地球村里,不再有什么泾渭分明的东方世界和西方世界,我们是生活在同一个社区里的邻里。 //因此,我们彼此之间无须冲突。我们之间的关系应该是一种友好合作,平等互补的关系。我们应该相互理解,相互学习, 和睦共处。 // I sharethe same view with many EastAsianscholarsthat the Oriental civilizationcanheal some of the prevailing, stubborn Western ills. We should not turn a blind eye to the factthat individual freedom has gone overboard in the West, resulting in extreme individualism,sexual promiscuity and excessive useof violence.// By contrast, self-discipline, corporateresponsibility and the pacific traditionof EastAsiacanoffset manyWesternvices.// At this ageofinformation, the world hasshrunk as a global village in which there will beno clear-cut worlds ofthe East and the West any more, but a world of one community with neighboring families.//Therefore, we do not necessarily have to come into clash with each other. Our relationship is oneof friendly cooperation, equality and mutual complementarityand therefore, we shouldunderstand and learnfrom each other,and live in harmony.//Passage12国际贸易的基本原则是平等互利, 各国追求各自的利益是正常的, 出现一些摩擦和纠纷也是不可避免的。 关键要以冷静而明智的态度正确对待和处理摩擦和纠纷。 //就中美贸易而言,互利共赢的经贸关系给两国人民带来了实实在在的经济利益。 今天, 美国在华投资设立的企业已超过 4 万家,投资额达 450 亿美元。 //美国 500 强企业有 400 多家进入中国,大多数企业获利丰厚。与此同时,在美国市场上,许多中国商品受到美国消费者的青睐。中国在美国投资设立的企业已超过 1000 家。//我们可以预见, 中美贸易摩擦将随着经贸关系的深化而凸显, 但是中美经贸合作的总体发展是不可逆转的。主要有两个原因,其一:中美贸易具有很大互补性。其二:中国产品具有明显的劳动力成本优势。 // Equality and mutual benefit is the fundamental principle of internationaltrade. Therefore, it is normal that countries will seek to protect their own interests, which maylead to tradefrictions and disputes. Thekey lies in how to cope with these issuescorrectly in a cooland wise manner.// As for China-US trade, mutually beneficial and win-win trade and economicties have delivered tangible economic benefits to the two peoples. Now, with over 40,000U.S.-invested enterprises, the total investment in china standsat$45 billion.// Of the top 500 U.Scompanies, more than 400 have their business in china, and most of them are making handsomeprofit. At the same time, many Chinese commodities have become favored choices of Americanconsumers. Meanwhile, the number of Chinese-invested enterprises in the UnitedSateshassurpassed 1,000.// We predict that trade disputes between china and the United Stateswill become more acute along with the further development in bilateral tradeand economic
  8. 8. cooperation. The overall development in bilateral trade and economic cooperation is, however,irreversible. There are two factors contribute to this trend. Firstly, the Sino-U.S. economic andtrade relations enjoy complementaritiesin vast fields. Secondly,chinahasan outstanding labor costadvantage.//Passage13汉语常被认为是一种非常古老的语言。从某种意义上说,这种说法不免失之偏颇。人类所有的语言都可追溯到朦胧的史前时期,但目前我们还无法确定这些语言是否都同宗同源。 //五千年前华夏祖先说汉语的方法同英语人士的祖先说英语的方式大致相似。 而从另一种意义上说, 汉语确实也是一种很古老的语言。 今天所存留下来的最早的汉字已有近四千年的历史。//这些文字均为甲骨雕文。大部分铭文为神谕圣旨,内容大都与政治事件和宗教活动有关,有些则是关于天气和战争的记录。 //汉语有丰富的古代文字作品,源远流长,远非其他一种语言的文字可与之媲美。 一些最古老的文字属象形文字。 // Chinese is often termed a very oldlanguage. In a sense such a statement is misleading. All human languages go back to the dimuncertainty of prehistory, and at present we have no way of knowing for surewhether or not theycanallbetracedback to thesame root.// Five thousand years ago the ancestors of Chinese peoplespoke an early form of Chinese language in much the same way that the ancestors ofEnglish-speaking people were using an early form of the English language. In a sense, however,Chinese is indeed a very old language. The earliest writtenformsof Chinese in existence todaydateback nearly4,000 years.// These writings are incisions on bones and tortoise shell. Most ofthe inscriptions are oracular, dealingmostly with political and religious events, or with weather orwarfare.// Chinese has an abundance of ancient writings that reach back continuously in timefurther thanthe writings of any other language in the world. Some of the earliest written Chinesecharacters were quite pictographic.//Passage14我们都知道信息存储、 传输和处理是提高社会整体发展水平的最重要的保障条件之一, 也是世界各国高技术竞争的焦点之一。 但并非每一个人都知道, 世界上最重要的信息是人类基因组提供的信息。 //人类基因组蕴含着人类生、老、病、死的绝大多数遗传信息,破译这些信息将会在疾病的诊断、新药物的研制、新疗法的探索等领域引发一场革命。 //一些科学家认为,破译人类遗传密码的重要性不亚于人类登月的“阿波罗计划 ” 。人类基因组图谱及初步分析结果的公布,对生物科学和生物技术的发展起着重要的推动作用。 //我们确信的是, 35 亿年前高度复杂的分子 DNA 就出现了。 DNA 是地球上所有生命的基础,它有着像螺旋式楼梯一样的双螺旋结构。 // We all know that information storage, transmission andprocessing constitute some of the most important guarantee conditions for enhancing the levelof overall social development, as well as a focal point in the competition of high technologiesbetween various countries. But not everyone realizes that themost significant informationreservoir isno other thanthe humangenome.// The humangenome contains most of thehereditary information related to the birth,aging, diseases and death of humankind. Its decodingwill bring about a revolution to the diagnosis of diseases, to the development of new medicinesand to the explorationof new therapies.// Some scientists believe the work to decipher thehuman genetic code is no less important than the Apollo moon landing program. The publicationof the map and preliminary conclusion of the human genome played an important role inpromoting the development of life science and biotechnology.// What we do know is that bythree and a half billion years ago the highly complicated molecule DNAhad emerged. DNAisthe
  9. 9. basisof all life onearth. It has a double helix structure, like a spiral staircase.//Passage15几千年来我们中国人一直视筷子为一种可以将饭从碗中逐口送入口中的最简单同时也是最有效的工具。 早在周朝时期, 筷子便被人们用来夹取荤、 蔬菜, 而米饭在那时则用手来取食。//全国各地的筷子大小基本一样,而所用的材料的种类则各有不同,所选材料有竹子、木材、漆器、玉石、象牙、塑料、吕、银、金等。特长的竹筷通常用于厨房中。 //中国人使用筷子的方法很有艺术性,各人有各人的方法,就好像签名一样,不尽一致。中国人一般都能随心所欲的用筷子夹起一粒米饭,一粒豌豆,一只滑溜溜的蘑菇或海参。 //使用筷子时,要把一双筷子夹在大拇指和食指之间。要点是让其中的一根筷子保持不动,活动另一根筷子,以便能像钳子一样夹取食物。 // For thousands of years we Chinese have always regardedchopsticks the simplest possible and the most efficient tool for transporting bite-sized morsels offood form a bowl to the mouth.Asearlyas in the Zhou Dynasty, chopsticks were used for pickingup meat and vegetables, while hands were used for rice.// Chopsticks, which are roughly uniformin size throughout China, can be made of a variety of materials, including bamboo, wood, lacquer,jade, ivory, plastic, aluminum, silver and gold. Special longbamboochopsticks aregenerally used inthe kitchen.// The way we Chinese handle our chopsticks is quite artistic and varied from personto person likeone’s signature. An average Chinese can very easily pick up a single tiny grain of rice, or a tinypiece of peas, or aslippery button mushroom or seacucumber.//Whenusingchopsticks, oneshouldplacebothsticksbetweenthethumbandforefinger. Thepointisto keep one stick stilland move theother so asto make them wok like pincers.//英译汉:Passage1 I think Chinese businesspeople tend to have business negotiations in a rather indirectmanner, as opposed to the more direct style of American businesspeople, who are said to workwith the “get-down-to-business-first” mentality.// The Chinese-type management encouragescooperation among employees, between the labor and the management, and gives employees ajoy of participation and fulfillment, as well as a sense of pride in their work.// And most Chinesetry to find the meaning of life through working in their jobs, and view work as essential forhavingmembership in acommunity.// TheAmerican-type, or the top-down, managementemphasizes efficiency, and competition among workers. TheAmerican work ethic seems to bemore individual oriented. Traditionally,Americans work because it isthe will of God, and oftenvalue the results and accomplishments of work more thanitsprocess.//我认为中国人在商务谈判时倾向于使用一种迂回婉转的方式, 而那些被认为在工作时具有一种“公务为先”的心态的美国人则往往表现出较为直截了当的作风。 //中国式的管理方式鼓励员工之间的合作, 也鼓励普通员工和管理人员之间的合作, 是员工有一种喜悦的参与感和成就感,使他们对自己的工作产生一种自豪感。 //大多数中国人想从工作中找到生活的意义,他们将工作视为成为团体中一份子的必不可缺的条件。//美国式的自下而上的管理方式注重效率, 注重员工之间的竞争。 美国人的工作观有较强的个体取向性。 美国人一直认为,工作是秉承了上帝的意志,我们对工作成果的重视常常高于对工作过程的重视。 //Passage2 In the short period of six days, we have gone a longer distance than theworld-renowned “Long March”. We have acquired a keen sense of the diversity, dynamism, andprogress of china under your policies of reform and opening to the outside world.// My wife and I
  10. 10. have a special regard and personal friendship for the people of china. Beijing is for us an old andnostalgic home. During our stay here ten years ago we spent a great deal of memorable time withthe people here----working, shopping, sightseeing, and touring the city on our bicycles.// Thosewere happy days. They were good days, important days. We were part of the dramatic processwhich brought usback together and set us onthe road to agenuine friendly and cooperativerelationship.// Nonetheless, problems remain in our economic, education and strategic relations.While we arenot so na.ve as to believe that there are no issues of difference between us, I alsobelieve that our differences aregreatlyovershadowed byissueswhich bind usand strengthen ourrelationship.//在短暂的六天里,我们的行程超过了举世闻名的“长征 ” 。在改革开放政策引导下的中国,气象万千,充满活力,不断进步,这些我们都已强烈的感受到了。 //我和我夫人对中国人民怀有一种特殊的敬慕之情和个人友谊。对我们两人来说,背景是我们思念的故乡。十年前我们在此生活期间, 我们与这里的人们一起度过了许多难忘的时光——我们在这里工作、 购物、观光、骑自行车逛城。 //那是一些另人愉快的日子,一些美好的日子,一些意义重大的日子。我们参与了富有戏剧性的转变过程,这种转变使我们重新走到一起,使我们踏上了一条通往建立一种真诚友好的合作关系的道路。 //然而,我们在经济、教育以及战略关系中仍然存在着问题。一方面,我们不会天真的以为我们之间不存在分歧,另一方面,我也认为那些将我们联系在一起并且强化我们关系的事务,在很大程度上弱化了我们之间的差异。//Passage3 The Washington National Cathedral is one of the largest and most famous religiouscenters in the United States. It belongs to the Episcopal Church. The official name of the buildingid the CathedralChurch of Saint Peterand Saint Paul.// The National Cathedral wasbuilt withmoney from private citizens. The work started in 1907, and the Cathedral was not completelyfinished until 1990. The first stone was laid in the presence of President Theodore Roosevelt.Every President of the United States since then has attended servicesorvisited theCathedral.// Itlooks like many of the great religious centersbuilt in Europe about 800 yearsago. Thebuilding isshaped like a cross or the letter T. in the center is a bell tower 91 meters high. Two more towersstand atthe bottom of the cross.// Two hundred windows areset high in the walls of the NationalCathedral. Most are made of many pieces of colored glass. They color the sunlight as it enters thebuilding and spills across the floor. Some windows have flower designs. Others have images fromChristian stories or from American heroes.//华盛顿国家大教堂是美国规模最大、最负盛名的宗教中心之一,隶属主教派教会。该建筑的正式名称是圣彼得和圣保罗大教堂。 //国家大教堂是由私人赞助建造起来的。工程开始于1907 年,知道 1990 年才完全竣工。奠基石是当着当时西奥多.罗斯福总统的面放置的。从那以后的每一任美国总统都参加过这里举行的宗教礼仪活动,或参观过大教堂。 //大教堂看起来像欧洲许多建于 800 年前的宗教大中心,形状像个“十”字,或像字母 T,中间耸立了一座高达 91 米的钟楼, 另外两座塔楼坐落在十字形底部。 // 200 扇窗户高高的嵌在国家大教堂的墙上。 大多数窗都由多块彩色玻璃拼成, 射入建筑内的阳光被彩色玻璃染得五彩缤纷,洒落在大教堂一侧的地坪上,有些窗户有花卉图案,有些窗的画面则是一些有关基督教的故事或美国历史英雄的形象。 //Passage4 Innovation starts at the top, and it is important for leaders to create an environmentwhere innovation is constant, where people have the skills and incentives to think creatively. Indoing so, you attract talents that want to contribute to that environment, creating a virtuouscycle for the company.// Shanghai’sleadership hasworked hard to create an environment where
  11. 11. businesses cansucceed. For example, shanghai’s transportation links to the world, includingPudong International Airport and the new deep waterport facility,have achievedworld-classstatus// We live in an era where innovation is central to economic growth andprosperity. It is comfortable to hold onto the old ways of doing business. But innovation is hardbecause it usually leads to change. Innovation requiresnew ideas, new processes, and newinstitutions.// New technologies and approaches canradically change an existing market, creatingnew customers and competitions. But innovation and its accompanying disruption can bemanaged through good leadership, a long term strategy, and good people. President Hu Jintaostated at the beginning of thisyearthat “ Innovationisthe coreof thenation’scompetitiveness.//创新从领导层开始做起。 领导层必须营造一个可以不断创新的环境, 以激励人们的创新思维。这样的环境可以吸引那些乐于创新的人才,从而使公司得到良性发展。 //上海的领导努力为企业营造可取得成功的环境。例如,浦东国际机场和新的深水港等设施的建立,使上海与世界的交通连接达到了世界级的水平。 //我们生活在一个以创新驱动经济发展和繁荣的时代。墨守成规确实舒服惬意,而改革创新则困难重重,因为创新往往引发变革。创新需要新思想,新程序和新机制。 //新技术和新方法会剧烈的改变现行的市场秩序,既带来新的公司客户, 也带来新的竞争对手, 但是, 如果我们有英明的领导, 长期的战略以及优秀的人才,创新活动及其所伴随的冲击是可控的。胡锦涛主席在年初是曾说过: “创新是国家的核心竞争力。 ”//Passage5 What will the role of universities be in this globalized economy? How will theycontribute to improving society through innovation that will improve the quality of life andsupport economic growth? How will they prepare their graduates who will extract the best andexplore the greatest in thisincreasingly complex society?// It is important to remember thatundergraduate education and post-graduate education are tightly linked to research. Oureducation programs should ensure that the students are learning in an atmosphere characterizedby the pursuit of new knowledge and process of discovery. An interrelated educational programwill create a flow of young, bright and uninhibited minds to work onthe frontierof discovery.//The fundamental mission of a university is the creation of new knowledge which sometimes hasimmediatepractical applications. But that cannever bethe only goal.And making it aprimary goalwill frequently be short-sighted. Basic contributions to knowledge should be valued for beingexactlythat. Ouruniversity hasan almost unique role in fostering such contribution.// Choosingthe right people is the first and perhaps the most crucial step in ensuring an innovativeenvironment. There are three types of people that can be important. The first class of individualsconsists of fanciful visionaries. The second class of important people in innovative environmentconsists of revolutionary explorers. The third class of individuals consists of uninhibitedexecutors.//在这个经济全球化的时代背景下, 大学将扮演怎样的角色呢?大学将如何通过旨在提高生活质量、 推动经济发展的创新活动进而推动社会的进步呢?在这个日新月异、 充满变数的社会,大学又将如何培养那些善于取精用弘的学生呢? //我们应该认识到,本科生教育和研究生教育都与研究紧密相连。 我们的教育应该为学生创造一种可以探寻新知识、 带来新发现的氛围,将教学与研究融合在一起的教育可以培养一批活跃在探索前沿、聪颖开放的青年才俊。//大学最的使根本的使命就是创造新知识, 虽然大学所创造的新只是有时会立即产生实际应用价值, 但这决不是大学所追求的唯一目标。 将获取实际应用价值的目标定位大学的主要目标是一种短视行为。 基础研究也同样是大学的使命, 而且大学在推动基础研究方面能发挥独特的作用。 //选对人是确保创新型研究环境的首要因素,也是最为关键的因素。选人要选
  12. 12. 三种人:第一种人是浮想联翩的思想家,第二种人是富有革命精神的探索家,第三种人是不受常规约束的实干家。//Passage6The difference between a brain and a computer can be expressed in a single word, that is,complexity.The largemammalianbrainisthemost complicated thing, foritssize, knownto us.Thehuman brain weights 3 ponds, but in that 3 ponds are 10 billion neurons and a hundred billionsmaller cells.//Even the most complicated computer man has yet built can’t compare in intricacy with the brain.Computer switches and components number in the thousands rather than in the billions. What’smore, the computer switch is just an on-off device, whereas the brain cell is itself possessed of atremendouslycomplex innerstructure.//It is frequently said that computers solve problems only because they are “programmed” to doso.They canonly dowhat men have them do. One must remember that human beingsalsocanonly dowhat they are “programmed” to do. Our genes “program” us and our potentialities are limited bythat “program”.//Our “program” is so much more enormously complex, though, that we might like to define“thinking” in terms of our creativity in literature, art, science and technology. In that sense,computerscertainly can’t think.//大脑与电脑的差别可以用“复杂性 ”这三个字来表明。哺乳动物硕大的脑子就其体积而言是我们所知道的最为复杂的东西。人脑的重量为 3 磅,而这 3 磅却包含着 100 亿个神经元和 1000 亿个更小的细胞。 //就复杂性而言, 世界上已生产出的最为复杂的电脑也无法与大脑的复杂性相提并论。电脑的开关和元件充其量只要数千个,而不是数千亿个。此外,电脑开关只是亿个离合装置, 而大脑细胞却有着及其复杂的内部结构。 //我们经常听到人们说,电脑处理问题是因为电脑设有能让其处理问题的程序, 它们只能按人的指令行事。 我们应该知道, 人类也设有程序。 我们的基因给我们编写了程序, 我们的所作所为无不受制于这个 “程序 ” 。//我们大脑的程序极其复杂,我们或许可以从人类的文学、艺术、科学和技术上的创造力这个角度给“思维”下定义。从这个意义上说,电脑肯定无法思维。 //Passage7 InhisbookBraveNewWorld,published in 1932,AldousHuxleypredictedabigbiotechnological revolution about to take place: the hatching of people not in wombs but intest tubes; the drug which gave people instant happiness; the sensation which was simulated byimplanted electrodes; and modificationof behavior through the administrationof variousartificialhormones.// With 70 years of separating us from the publication of this book, we can seethat Huxley’s technological predictions are surprisingly accurate. Many of the technologies thatHuxley envisioned arealreadyhereorjust over thehorizon. But thisrevolutionhasonly just begun.//According to Huxley, the most significant threat posed by contemporary biotechnology is thepossibility that it will alterhuman nature and thereby move us into a “posthuman” stage ofhistory. Thisisimportant because humannature existsand defines us asa species with astablecontinuity. It iswhat definesourmost basicvalues.// Medical technology offers us in manycases a devil’s bargain: longer life, but with reduced mental capacity; freedom from depression,together with freedom form creativity or spirit. It will blur the line between what we achieve onour own and what we achieve because of the levels of various chemicals in ourbrains.//奥尔德斯.赫胥黎在其 1932 年出版的《奇妙新世界》一书中预言了一场即将发生的生物技术革命。赫
  13. 13. 胥黎预示:人类可以在试管里而不是在子宫里孕育;药物可以即刻给人以快感,植入体内的电极可以给人以刺激,输入不同的人造荷尔蒙可以改变人的行为。 //此书问世 70 年后,我们看到赫胥黎对技术发展的预言是如此惊人的精确, 所预言的许多技术已经诞生或即将诞生。但这场革命还只是刚拉开了序幕。 //赫胥黎认为,当代生物技术对人类构成的最严重的威胁有可能改变人性,从而把我们带入“后人类”的历史阶段。赫胥黎的预警很重要,因为人性确实存在, 人性界定着我们这个具有稳定延续性的物种, 同时又界定着我们最基本的价值观。 //医学技术在许多方面为我们提供了一种魔鬼交易:我们虽然延长了寿命,但是脑力却减退了。我们虽可免患忧郁症,但是也失去了创造力和灵气。我们无法区分哪些成就是我们自身努力的成果,哪些成果是由我们大脑里的化学物质造成的。 //Passage8 For most of the 1990s, CEOs of Old Economy companies struggled to turn slow-movingorganizations intonimbler,more flexibleoutfits. Thetruth is, realtransformations arethe exceptionrather than the rule. Changing the core values, the attitudes, and the fundamental relationshipsof a vast organizationisoverwhelmingly difficult.// Enron tumbled down. Enron didn’t failedbecause of improper accounting or alleged corruption at the top. It also failed because of itsentrepreneurial culture----the very reason Enron attracted so much attention and acclaim. Toomuch emphasis on earnings growth and individual initiative, coupled with ashocking absence oftheusual corporatechecks and balances.// What constitutes entrepreneurial culture? In thenarrow sense, it refers to some fundamental spirit and agglomerating force that come into beingin the production and management practices of an enterprise, aswell asthe common values andnorms of behavior shared bythewhole staff.// In the broad sense, entrepreneurial culture alsoincludes the culture of specific personnel in the enterprise, namely,the cultural psychologicalstructure and cultural quality of the executives of the enterprise aswell asthe cultural behavior ofthe staffmembers.//二十世纪九十年代的大部分时间里, 旧经济公司的首席执行官们都在努力地讲运作缓慢的公司朝着敏捷, 更富有弹性的公司转型。 但实际情况是, 真正转型成功的公司是极个别的例子。转变一家大型公司的核心理念,态度和基本关系极其困难。 //安然栽了。安然的失败并不仅仅是因为公司做了假帐或者所谓的高层腐败,其失败的原因还应归咎于公司的企业文化,正是这种企业文化曾经使安然应人注目,备受青睐。过分强调收益的增长和个人的主动性,加上缺乏那种常规的公司制约平衡机制。 //那么什么是企业文化?狭义上来说,它指的是企业在生产经营实践中行成的一种基本精神和凝聚力, 以及全体职工共同具有的价值观念和行为准则。 //从广义的角度上来说,企业文化还包括企业人员的文化,即企业领导人员的文化心理、文化素养以及员工的文化行为。 //Passage9 A major appeal of investing in bonds is that they provide investors with a steady streamof income andguaranteethe repaymentoftheloan in fullatmaturity. Bondsalsoappeal toinvestorsbecause of their scope for capital appreciation. Take for instance a fall in interest rates,in this case bonds which wereissued wheninterest rateswerehigh will become increasinglyvaluable and asthebond price rises,thisprovides profitforbond sellers.// In addition, if interestrates had fallen significantly over a period of time, economic growth would be stimulated aslowerborrowing costs and savingsrateswould encourage businesses to invest and households toconsume. In such alow interest-rateenvironment, it may still begood forinvestors to considerinvesting some money in bonds because they will be able to achieve a higher return than cashdeposits.// Equities and government bonds are well suited to some investors. Younger investorswill benefit from equity capital growth because they aregenerally investing forthe longer termand not unduly concerned with the lack of immediate yield. Investors concerned with avoiding
  14. 14. risk will be prepared to accept therelatively low yields now availableongovernment bonds.// Butmany investors fall somewhere between these two extremes. In recent years, financial marketshave become increasingly polarized between growth and security. Investors looking for mediumand low risk areincreasingly turning to the corporate bond market as an alternative to equitiesand government bonds.//债券吸引人的一大特点是让投资者有一笔的固定的收入, 到期时能收回借出的资金。 债券也有增值的机会,例如在利率下跌时,那些在利率高时发行的债券价格将会升高,让债券持有人有机会赚取利润。 //此外,如果利率在过去一段时间里明显下跌,会刺激经济增长,因为较低的贷款成本和储蓄利率将鼓励商家投资,带动家庭消费。在这样的低利率环境下,投资人可以考虑把一些资金投资在债券上,因为投资者将取得高于现金存款的回报。 //股票和政府债券非常适合某些投资者的胃口。 年轻的投资者一般从股票的资本增值中获益, 因为他们通常做长线投资, 不太在意眼前的收益。 想规避风险的投资者则愿意购买目前收益相对较低的政府债券。 //但是很多人选择在股票和政府债券这两端之间进行金融投资。今年来金融市场的投资增值与投资安全日趋分化。 那些只愿承受中低风险的投资人都转向公司债券。公司债券是股票和政府债券的理想替代品。 //Passage10 Silicon Valley is a magnet to which numerous talented engineers, scientists andentrepreneurs from overseas flock in search of fame and fast money and to participateenthusiastically in a technological revolution whose impact onmankind will surely surpasstheepoch-making European Renaissance and IndustrialRevolution of thebygone age.// The valley’sprofessionals are among the most hardworking people anywhere. A 15-hour day and 7-day weekisnot uncommon, especially during the start-up stage. They would give up social life, and curtailtheir family lifetoo, in order to pursue the pot of gold atthe end of the rainbow.It isthissingle-minded pursuit of excellence, supported by strong ethos of teamwork and esprit de corps,that sustainthem until theirmission isaccomplished.// Paper qualification, though useful, isnot abe-all-and-end-all. More weight isgiven to a candidate’sproven abilities and aptitude for the job. This is amply demonstrated by industry icons likeApple’sJobs and Wozniak and Microsoft’s Gates, all college dropouts who might not have emerged in aqualification-conscious community.//While racial prejudice nodoubt still existsin theUnited States, it ishardly discernible in theValley.What counts most is one’s vision and track record, and not one’s nationality, skin color or creed.This, together with itsmultiracial society, informal lifestyle and agreeable climate, lures foreignersto itsshores.//硅谷犹如一块磁铁, 把许许多多天资聪颖的工程师、科学家、企业家从世界各地吸引到这里。他们来此寻求功名,希望快速致富,积极投身于技术革命,而这场革命所带来的影响必将超过昔日具有划时代意义的欧洲文艺复兴运动和产业革命。 //硅谷人的工作之勤奋,举世罕见。一天工作 15 个小时,一周工作七天,这样的工作日程安排在硅谷却是司空见惯的现象,尤其在创业初期更是如此。硅谷人放弃社交生活,减少与家人一起生活的时间,努力去寻求事业彩虹尽头处的那一桶金。正是这种孜孜不倦追求卓越的精神,加上优良的团队精神,支持着硅谷人的奋斗理念,他们不大目的绝不罢休。 //在硅谷,文凭虽然有用,却不是一切,一纸定不了终身, 硅谷更看重求职者的真才实学和岗位资质。 最具有说服力的例子莫过于行业的偶像人物,如苹果公司的创始人乔布斯和沃茨尼亚克,微软的创始人盖茨,他们都是一些大学辍学者,在讲究学历的社会很可能永无出头之日。//毫无疑问,美国人然存在着宗族歧视,但这种现象在硅谷却难寻踪影。 硅谷人最看中的是人才视野和成长历程,而不是国籍,
  15. 15. 肤色或宗教信仰。 这种观念加上硅谷多宗族的社会、 不拘礼仪的生活方式、 舒适适宜的气候,使外国人近悦远来。 //Passage11 Today,we pioneers and leaders of electronic commerce, aremeeting here to call forchanges in US patent law. We believe such changes are needed to deal with new business modelsrelated to the growth of theInternet.// I share the same view with Jeff Bezos, chief executive ofonline bookseller Amazon.dot.com. Mr. Bezos argued in an open letterthat current patentlawscould end up harming allkinds of businesses if thelawswerenot adapted to new businessmethodsused ine-commerce.// I think U.S. Patent lawsaredesigned to protect the commercialrights of people who have invested in new products, systems or methods. Hereby I propose thatthe period of protection offered by patents should be cut from 17 years to about 4 years. I alsopropose a one-month period of public consultationbeforepatentsareissued.// If changes in thepatent lawsaregoing to have any real impact, they must bemade soon, beforetoo many more newbusiness method patents are issued. Some of my colleagues in the industry have already begunlobbying lawmakers to make the changes. But we have to be a little bit more patient because itwill take at least two yearsfor any changes proposed now to be approved by lawmakers andestablished aslaw.//今天我们这些电子商务的创始人和领导人在此集会, 共同呼吁修改美国专利法。 我们认为互联网的发展已形成了一些新商业模式,专利法必须经过修改才能应付这些新情况。 //我同在线书店亚马逊电子商务公司的首席执行官杰夫.贝索斯特有相同的观点。贝索斯先生在一封公开信中指出, 现行的专利法若不加以修正以适应电子商务的新模式, 最终将影响多有的商务活动。 //我认为,制定美国专利法的根本出发点是为了保护那些投资开发新产品、新系列新方法者的权益。我在这里提议,专利权的保护期应该由原来的 17 年缩短为 4 年。同时我也建议,专利发布前应该有一个月的公示咨询期。 //如果想让专利法的修改真正起到作用, 那就必须加快修订步伐, 不然的话, 等越来越多的商务模式新专利颁布后再进行修改,为时也就太晚了。 电子商务产业的一些同行已开始有谁立法人修改法律。 但是我们还得耐心等待,现在提出的修改建议至少要等上两年才能被立法部门确定为正式的法律。 //Passage12 From recorded time, man has been fascinated and delighted with music. Bonewhistles, used as a type of flute, have been found dating back to 5,000 BC. Paintings from theStone Age show early musical instruments. In modern times, man has further developed hisinterest in music and in recorded sound with the hardwareof sound reproduction.// Americaninventor Thoms Edison, who was considered the father of sound recording, developed thephonograph in 1877, the first device to record music in the world. While Edisonconcentrated atfirst mainly on the reproduction of voice, it was not long before the musical uses of his inventionwererecognized and marketed.// The widespread use of electricity in the post-World War Twoperiod led to the invention of the modern, portable record player. It was, however, “mono”. Thereal enthusiastic listener to music wanted arealisticreproduction of music with “hi-fidelity” or“hi-fi”.// The 1980s saw an even greater series of developments in sound reproduction hardware.The examples are the Sony Corporation’s invention and development of the tiny portable tapeplayers known as the “Walkman” and the compact disc, or CD, system based on the technology ,of computerswith music information stored and reproduced digitally.//有史记载以来,人类一直痴迷于音乐,为音乐所陶醉。用作笛子的骨哨早已出现在公元前 5, 000 年。从石器时代的画中我们可以见到早期乐器的模样。 现代人进一步发展了对音乐的兴趣, 十分钟情于用声音复制设备来录音的方式。 //被誉为录音之父的美国发明家托马斯。 爱迪生于 1877 年发明了留声机,这是世界上第一台录音设备。爱迪生最初的精力主要放在对说话声音的复制上,
  16. 16. 然而时隔不久,爱迪生这项发明的音乐应用价值便为世人所认识,并被推向了市场。 //第二次世界大战之后, 电的广泛使用使现代可提式点唱机面世。 不过这种点唱机只能单声道放音。而真正的音乐发烧友想要的是一种给人以身临其境感觉的高保真音响设备。 //到了 80年代,声音复制设备的发展迈出了一系列更大的步伐。例如,推出了由索尼首创开发的被称之为“随身听 ”的袖珍便携式磁带放音机,以及采用电脑技术以数码储存与再现音乐信息的 CD 激光唱片音响。 //Passage13 Thereareabout six billionpeople in the world. But every personisunique. Some peoplehave black eyes; others have brown eyes. Some have dark hair, others have light hair. Besideshumans, there aremillions of other living creatures. Some are so tiny that we simply can’t seethem with our own eyes. Whatever it is,every livingcreatureisdifferent from every other.// Why iseach living thing unique? Where do its characteristics come from? Do people receivecharacteristics from their mothersor fathers, orboth? Which characteristics dothey receive? How?These are some of the questions that biologists try to answer. The work of a man by the nameMendel ahundred yearsagowasespecially important.//Mendel studied plants, especially pea plants. Mendel decided that pea plants carried factors, andparents passed these factors onto their offspring. Today we call these factors genes. Genesaretiny pieces of matterthat carryinformation from parents to offspring. // BasedonMendel’swork,biologistsbegan to asksuchquestionsas “Canweapplyourinformation about genes to people?”they discovered that in a person genes told whether he would have brown eyes orblue eyes,whether hewould have dark hairor light hair.Now we know that every person is unique.//世界上约有 60 亿人。每个人都与众不同,有些人的眼睛为黑色,有些人的眼睛为褐色。有些人头发乌黑, 有些人头发浅淡。 除了人类之外, 还有数以百万计的其他生物。 有些生物微乎其微,是我们无法用肉眼看到的。无论何种生物,每一个都与众不同。 //为什么每个生物都会与众不同呢?生物的特性又是从何而来?人们的特性是遗传自母亲, 还是父亲, 或是父母双亲?人们从父母所得到的又是哪些特性呢?他们又是如何得到那些特性的呢?生物学家试图找到这些问题的答案。 一百年前一个叫做门德尔的人所作的研究工作具有特别重要的意义。 //门德尔的研究对象是植物, 他尤其注重对豌豆植物的研究。 他断定, 豌豆植物带有遗传因子,父辈植物讲这些因子传给子代植物。 今天我们讲这些遗传因子称为基因。 基因是一种将遗传信息从父代传给子代的微小物质。 //依据门德尔的试验结果,生物学家开始提出了许多问题,例如,我们能否将基因理论运用到人的身上?他们发现,一个人的基因可以告诉我们这个人的眼睛是褐色的还是蓝色的, 他的头发是乌黑的还是浅色的。 现在我们知道每个人都是一个与众不同的独特体。 //Passage14 The human brain contains an average of ten billion neurons or nerve cells, each ofwhich is linked with one thousand to ten thousand other neurons. These nerve cells participate incountless electrical microcircuits which make possible thought, perception, communication, andother types of mental activity.// Theoutside surfaceof thebrain,which isknownasthecortex,consists of athinwrinkled mantleof gray tissue made up of millions of neurons. This layer of thebrain represents man’s relatively recent evolutionary step in neurological development and is notpresent to a comparable degree in anyother species.// The brain is divided into two roughlysymmetrical hemispheres, sometimes called right and left brains. The activity of the twohemispheres is coordinated by a number of interconnecting nerve pathways. The twosides of thebrain,while fairlycomparable in size and form, appear to specialize in handlingvarioustasks.//Current evidence suggests that the left and right hemispheres differ in some way in their function.For example, specialized linguistic and perceptual skills are each associated with a particular
  17. 17. hemisphere of the brain. In most individuals, the left hemisphere has primary responsibility forlanguage, while the right hemisphere controls visual and spatial skills as well as the perception ofnonlinguistic sounds and musical melodies.//人的大脑平均有 100 亿个神经元,或者叫做神经细胞。 每个神经元与其它一千至一万个神经员相连。 神经元从事着不可悉数的微电路脉冲活动,并由此产生思维,感觉,交流以及一些其他脑力活动。 //大脑的外皮层叫做脑皮层,脑皮层很薄,有褶皱,是一层由是一百万计的神经元组成的灰色组织。脑皮层代表着人类在其神经发展的历史长河中近期的以此进化,任何其他物质的脑皮层都无法和人类的脑皮层相提并论。 //整个大脑分为两个大致对称的半球,有时被称为右半脑和左半脑。 一些互为联系的神经束对这两个脑半球活动进行协调。 大脑两个半球虽然有着相像的尺寸和形状,却各司其职。 //据目前所知,两个闹半球有着不同的功能。例如:语言能力和感知能力隶属于不同的半球。 大多数人的左半球负责语言操作, 而右半球则掌管与视觉和空间相关的技能,负责对非语言声音以及音乐的感知。 //Passage15For awoman, conventional beautyisheronly attribute. Sheissupposed to have nolinesorwrinkles,no scars or blemishes. She is thin, generally tall and long legged, and above all young. Allbeautiful women in television commercials conform to this norm. the image is artificial and canonly beachieved artificially.//Many women go to great lengths to manipulate and change their faces and bodies. More than amillion dollarsisspent every hour oncosmetics in thiscountry.Awomanisconditioned to view herface as a mask and her body as an object, as things separate from and more important than herrealself.//Adolescent females are also discouraged from growing up and becoming adult. Growing older isthe great taboo. Although boys are allowed and encouraged to become mature adults, girls areencouraged to remain little girls, to be passive and dependent, never to mature. Someone placedina double bind, they are supposed to be sexy and virginal, experienced and na.ve, seductive andpure.//Misleadingadvertisementsandcommercialsdepict aworld in whichloveandpassionarereversedsolely for products, in which sexuality becomes a commodity, and in which young women are theworst victims.//对一个女子来说,标准美是她的唯一标志。她的皮肤应该天生丽质,没有皱纹,没有疤痕,没有瑕疵。 她的身材应该清瘦苗条, 通常是个高挑个, 双腿修长, 而青春年少则是首要条件。所有在电视广告中出现的“花容月貌 ”的靓女都符合这个标准。这种形象是认为的,是可以人工塑造的。 //许多妇女尽其所能来摆布和修改自己的容貌体态。 这个国家每小时花费在化妆品上的钱超过一百万元。女子已习以为常的视自己的脸蛋为面具,视自己的身体为物品。是一种脱离了原型而又高于原型的东西。 //少女自然成长也不被看好,年龄上升是大忌。虽然男孩可以成为成熟的男子,并且还收到鼓励。但对女孩的要求确实必须妙龄永驻,唯唯诺诺,依附顺从,永不成熟。不知何故,对他们的要求总有两面性,既要求他们性感多情,有要求他们冰清玉洁;即要求他们老道练达,又要求他们少不更事;即要求他们风骚冶艳,又要求他们质朴无华。 //
  18. 18. 在被误导性的广告所描绘的世界里,爱恋和激情全然为产品所拥有,性也成了商品,其中年轻女子则成了最大的牺牲者。 //