Creating Xylella Resistant Grapevines by Conventional Breeding - Andy Walker - Pierce's Disease Conference 2008

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Creating Xylella Resistant Grapevines by Conventional Breeding …

Creating Xylella Resistant Grapevines by Conventional Breeding

Andy Walker, Alan Tenscher, Summaira Riaz
& David Ramming

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  • 1. Creating Xylella Resistant Grapevines by Conventional Breeding
    • Andy Walker, Alan Tenscher, Summaira Riaz
    • & David Ramming
    Support from CDFA PD/GWSS Board, the AVF, and the Louis P. Martini Endowed Chair Funds
  • 2. History of Breeding for PD Resistance
    • Muscadine grapes have excellent PD resistance, but physically and genetically hard to introgress resistance into vinifera
    • Bunch grape breeding in the southeastern US - (Blanc du Bois, BD5-1) has been hindered by intense fungal disease pressure and quantitative inheritance of PD resistance from conventional sources
  • 3. PD Resistance of Olmo’s Mexico Collections 9R 7I 8S 4R,2I,1S 8R,0S 5R 4I 1S 1R,0S
  • 4. Sources of Xf resistance
    • b43-17 – ( V. arizonica/candicans ) from Monterrey, Mexico – resistance is inherited as a single dominant gene
  • 5. Sources of Xf resistance
    • Markers linked to PdR1 from b43-17 have different alleles in b40-14 and b42-26
    • Many more V. arizonica and V. girdiana forms have been collected for testing
  • 6. Mapping and Characterizing PD Resistance
    • The PdR1 resistance locus exists in V. arizonica b43-17
    • All progeny from this plant are resistant to Xf; the F8909 pop. ( V. rupestris x b43-17)
    • F8909-08 and F8909-17 have been used in breeding and mapping Xf resistance
    • D8909-15 x F8909-17 = 9621 population
  • 7. Mapping and Characterizing PD Resistance
    • Fine scale mapping has positioned PdR1 within 1cM of markers on LG 14
    • PdR1 from F8909-17 and F8909-08 map differently and represent either chromosome of the PdR1 locus – PdR1a and PdR1b from b43-17
  • 8.  
  • 9. 8909-19 S 8909-08 R
  • 10. Breeding Objectives
    • Breed PD resistant wine grapes by backcrossing Xf resistant selections to high quality V. vinifera wine grape cultivars.
    • Characterize Xf resistance and wine grape quality traits (color, tannin, ripening dates, flavor, productivity, etc).
    • Work with David Ramming to accomplish the same goals with table and raisin grapes.
  • 11. Breeding Objectives
    • Develop large seedling populations at the 94% and 97% vinifera level in many high quality vinifera wine and table backgrounds
    • Intercross advanced high quality selections with Xf resistance from multiple sources
    • Introgress in powdery mildew resistance
    • Develop genetic markers for fruit and wine quality
  • 12. Backcross Breeding
    • Begin with a resistance source crossed to V. vinifera
    • – That F1 is 50% V. vinifera
    • – Cross back to V. vinifera – 75% mBC1
    • – Cross back to V. vinifera – 87.5% mBC2
    • – Cross back to V. vinifera – 93.75% mBC3
    • – Cross back to V. vinifera – 96.89% mBC4
    • – 3 yr cycle with marker-aided selection (MAS)
  • 13. 2008 Progress at 93.75% V. vinifera ( mBC3)
    • Planted about 400 seedlings (some fruited!), will produce 97% (mBC4) seed in 2009
    • Propagated 8 strong seedlings (6 to 7 vine reps) to wide spacings and Wye trellis for wine lots in Fall 2009
  • 14. Progress at 93.75% V. vinifera ( mBC3) F8909-08 = V. rupestris x V. arizonica b43-17 504-49 = B90-116 x 8909-08 ( PdR1b ) A81-17 = A38-17 x 504-49 0502-48 = A81-138 x Chardonnay 0505-01 = A81-138 x Cabernet Sauvignon
  • 15. 2008 crosses to produce (A) = 93.75% vinifera PdR1b (F8909-08) and (B) = 87.5% vinifera PdR1a resistance (F8909-17).
  • 16. 2008 crosses to produce: A) = 90.6% vinifera PdR1b (F8909-08) with Run1 powdery mildew resistance; and B) = 87.5% vinifera PdR1b resistance (F8909-08) with vinifera PM resistance.
  • 17. 2008 rootstock crosses to combine PD and nematode resistance.
  • 18. 2008 Crosses: 87.5% vinifera progeny (A) PdR1a (F8909-17); (B) arizonica b40-14 (06339); (C) shuttleworthii (0098-03 – 75% vinifera and 04394 – 50% vinifera ); and (D) arizonica/girdiana b42-26 (50% vinifera progeny).
  • 19. 87.5% V. vinifera / 50% Chardonnay
  • 20. 2008 Winegrape Evaluations Reference cultivars and select 87.5% vinifera progeny with PdR1 .
  • 21. 2008 Winegrape Evaluations Juice and wine analysis courtesy of ETS Laboratories, St. Helena, CA.
  • 22. 2008 Wine Evaluations 87.5% vinifera Tasting results of 2007 wines (1= poor to 5 = very good). There were 10 faculty and staff tasters. Cabernet Sauv., Midsouth and U0502-07 and -01 not fermented in 2008
  • 23. Thanks!