- 2 -AdjectivesAn adjective is a word that describes something.afraidWhen youre afraid,you are scared.ajarSomething that is ajaris partly open. Thedoor is ajar.alikeWhen things are alikethey look the same.angryWhen you are angry,you are very mad.asleepWhen you areasleep you arenot awake.awakeWhen you are awake,you are not asleep.badWhen something isbad, it is hasunpleasant qualities.The opposite of bad isgood.bigWhen someone orsomething is big, it isabove average size.biggerThe boy in the middleis bigger than the boyon the left.biggestThe boy on theright is thebiggest of thethree.blackBlack is the color of avery dark night.blueThe sky is blue duringthe day.braveSomeone who isbrave has courage.brittleSomething that isbrittle will break orsnap in two easily.Potato chips arebrittle.brokenWhensomething isbroken, it doesnot work orhas beendamaged.brownBrown is the color ofwood.cleanWhen something isclean, it is not dirty.closedWhen something isclosed, it is not open.The door is closed.colorfulSomething that iscolorful is brightlycolored or has manycolors.courageA quality inwhich a personcan facedanger or painwithoutshowingexcessive fear.
- 3 -darkWhen it is dark, thereisnt much light.differentWhen things aredifferent they are notthe same.dirtyWhen something isdirty, it is not clean.earlyWhen somethingshappens early, itoccurs in thebeginning part of theday or it occursbefore it wasexpected to happen.excellentWhensomething isexcellent, it isvery, verygood.fastThis girl can run veryfast.fatThe opposite of fat isthin.fieryFiery means very hot.Fiery embers flewout of the campfire.fullThis glass is full.Empty is the oppositeof full.frightenedWhen we arefrightened, weare afraid.goodWhen something isgood, it is has nicequalities. The oppositeof good is bad.grayElephants are large,gray mammals. Graypaint can be made bymixing black andwhite paint.greenGrass, broccoli, andmany other plants aregreen. You can makegreen paint bymixing blue andyellow paint.happyPeople usually smilewhen theyre happy.healthyWhen you arehealthy, youare not sick.hotFire is very hot.largeWhen someone orsomething is large, it isabove average size.lastThe last item orperson is the one atthe end.littleWhen someone orsomething is little, itis below average insize.littlerThe boy in themiddle is littlerthan the boyon the right.
- 4 -littlestThe boy on the left isthe littlest of the three.longWhen something islong, it is not short.loudThe opposite of loudis quiet.madWhen you are mad atsomeone, you areangry with them.manyThe are manyapples above.multicoloredMulticolored meanshaving many colors.narrowWhen something isnarrow, it doesnt takeup a lot space fromside to side.newWhen something isnew, it hasnt beenused before.oldWhen someone orsomething is old, ithas been around for along, long time.openSomething thatis open is notshut. The dooris open.orangeOrange is a color. Youcan mix red andyellow paint to getorange.pinkPink is the color youget when you mix redand white paint.purpleThe color purple ismade by mixing redand blue paint.quietWhen it is quiet thereis no noise.redRed is the firstcolor in therainbow.sadSometimes people crywhen theyre sad.scaredWhen youre scared,you are afraid.shortWhen someone orsomething is short, itis below averageheight.shorterThe boy in the middleis shorter than theboy on the right.shortestThe boy on theleft is theshortest of thethree.shutWhen something isshut, it is not open Thedoor is shut.sickWhen you are sick,you are not healthy.slowWhen something isslow it does notmove quickly.smallWhen someone orsomething is small, itis below average size.smallerThe boy in themiddle issmaller thanthe boy on theright.
- 5 -smallestThe boy on the left isthe smallest of thethree.smartSomeone who is smartcan think well.splendidWhen something issplendid, it is very,very good.________straightSomething straight isnot curvy or bent.tallWhensomeone orsomething istall, it is aboveaverage height.tallerThe boy in the middleis taller than the boyon the left.tallestThe boy on the right isthe tallest of the three.tinyWhen someone orsomething is tiny, itis very small.tinierThe boy in the middleis tinier than the boyon the right.tiniestThe boy on theleft is thetiniest of thethree.uglySomething that is uglyis not nice to look at.unhappySometimes people crywhen theyre unhappy.upside downWhen something isupside down, its topis where its bottomused to be.violetViolet is a bluishpurple color.whiteSnow is white.wideWhen something iswide, it takes up a lotspace from side toside.yellowYellow is a color. Thesun is yellow. Lemonsare yellow.youngWhen someone orsomething is young,it has only beenaround for a shorttime. A baby isyoung.
- 6 -AdverbsAn adverb is a word that describes an action, telling "how," "when" or "where" the action took place.angrilyWhen you actangrily, youractionsindicate thatyou are verymad.bravelyWhen you act bravely,you face danger and actwithout fear or despiteyour fear. Firefightersbravely face danger.dailyWhen somethingis done daily, it isdone each day.Some peopleexercise daily.earlyWhen something is doneearly, it happens in thebeginning of the day orbefore the expected time.The sun rises early in thedayfastWhen something orsomeone movesfast, they changeposition veryrapidly. The sprinterran fast.fieryWhen somethingacts in an intenseor hot way, it isfiery. The fireburned hotly.friendlyWhen peopleact nicely toeach other, theyare beingfriendly.gracefullyWhen you dosomething gracefully,you do it withelegance and beauty.A ballerina dancesgracefully.happilyWhen you dosomething withpleasure or joy, youdo it happily. Shehappily helped herbrother.harmoniouslyWhen people, countries,or other groups behave ina friendly manner, theyare acting harmoniously.horizontallyWhen somethingmoves horizontally, itmoves left and right.Trains travelhorizontally along theirtracks.joyfullyWhen you dosomething withgreat pleasure orhappiness, you do itjoyfully. Shejoyfully went onvacation.lateWhen somethinghappens late, it isdone after theexpected time or isdone towards theend of the day.magicallyWhen something isdone with magic andmystery, it is donemagically. The rabbitappeared magically outof the magicians hat.monthlyWhen somethingis done monthly,it is done eachmonth. Peoplepay their billsmonthly.
- 7 -quicklyWhen somethingor someone movesquickly, theychange positionvery rapidly. Anathlete runsquickly.rapidlyWhen something orsomeone moves rapidly,they change position veryquickly. A cheetah runsrapidly.sadlyPeople behavesadly when theyare sad ordepressed. Shecried sadly whenshe found out thebad news.strenuouslyWhen you dosomethingstrenuously, youput a lot of forceand energy into it.verticallyWhen somethingmoves vertically, itmoves up and down.Elevators movevertically in abuilding.violentlyWhen something acts violently,it uses great force. The wind ina tornado spins violently.weeklyWhen something isdone weekly, it isdone each week. Sueshops weekly forgroceries.wigglyWhen somethingor someone iswiggly, it twistsand moves all over.yearlyWhen something is doneyearly, it is done each year.People celebrate their birthdayyearly.Astronomy-Related WordsasteroidAsteroids are tinyplanets that mostly orbitbetween Mars andJupiter.asteroid beltThe asteroid belt is adoughnut-shapedconcentration ofasteroids that orbitthe Sun between theorbits of Mars andJupiter.astronautAn astronautgoes up intospace to explore.astronomerAstronomers arepeople who studyastronomy andlearn aboutobjects in theuniverse, likestars and planets.astronomyAstronomy is thescience that studies theuniverse.
- 8 -atmosphereThe atmosphere is thegas that surrounds aplanet.atomEverything is madeup of tiny atoms.auroraAuroras arebeautiful lightsin the near-polarsky.Big DipperThe Big Dipper isa group of 7 starscontained in theNorthernHemisphereconstellation Ursamajor (the GreatBear).1,000,000,000billionA billion is a thousandmillion. The Earth isbillions of years old.cometA comet is the a small,icy object that orbit theSun. Its tail alwayspoints away from thesun.constellationA constellationis a group ofstars that wesee in the sky.They are notnecessarilylocatedtogether inspace, butlooks as thoughthey are fromEarth.crescentmoonA crescentmoon is smallerthan a halfmoon.EarthThe Earth is thethird planet fromthe sun. Its wherewe live!eclipseAn eclipse happenswhen the moon blocksout light from the sunor the Earths shadowgoes across the moon.falling starA falling star is not astar; it is a meteor(made of rock and/oriron) which is burningup in the Earthsatmosphere.full moonA full moon appearsas an entire circle inthe sky.galaxyA galaxy is anenormous groupof stars.gibbous moonA gibbous moonis between a halfmoon and a fullmoon.half moonA half moon looks likehalf a circle.
- 9 -JupiterJupiter is the largestplanet in our solarsystem and the fifthplanet from the sun.Little DipperThe Little Dipper is agroup of stars in theconstellation Ursaminor (the LittleBear). This group ofstars ends at Polaris,the pole star of theNorthernHemisphere.MarsMars is areddish planetand the fourthplanet from thesun. It is theplanet thatcomes closest tothe Earth.MercuryMercury is amoonless planet;it is the planetclosest to the Sun.meteorA meteor is ameteoroid that hasentered the Earthsatmosphere, usuallymaking a fiery trail asit falls. It is sometimescalled a shooting star.Most burn up beforehitting the Earth.meteoriteA meteorite is a meteorthat has fallen to Earth.Meteorites are made ofstone, iron, or stony-iron.meteoroidMeteoroids are tinystones or pieces ofmetal that travelthrough space.meteorshowerA meteorshower is whena lot of meteorfall through theatmosphere in ashort time.Milky WayThe Milky Way isa bright line ofstars stretchingacross the nightsky.Milky Way GalaxyOur solar system is inthe Milky Way galaxy.We can see the MilkyWay as a band of starsin the night sky.moonThe Earth has onemoon. The moon has noatmosphere. The sameside of the moon alwaysfaces the Earth.nebulaA nebula is a cloud ofgas and dust in space.NeptuneNeptune is theeighth planetfrom the Sun.This frozenplanet has 8moons.North StarThe north star is astar that is locatedalmost due northand is useful fornavigation.Polaris iscurrently the polestar of theNorthernHemisphere.observatoryAn observatory is placewhere people observethe skies, using adevice like a telescope.
- 10 -orbitThe Moon orbits theEarth. The Earth orbitsthe Sun.phases of theMoonAs the moon circlesthe Earth, the shapeof the Moon appearsto change. The phasesof the Moon are: thenew moon, waxingcrescent, first quarter,waxing gibbous, fullmoon, waninggibbous, last quarter,and waning crescent.planetNine planetsorbit our Sun.planetariumPlanetariums puton star shows thatteach astronomy.PlutoPluto is the ninth andusually the farthestplanet from the Sun.Pluto is the smallestplanet in our SolarSystem.quasarA quasar is a distantenergy source in spacewhich gives off largeamounts of radiation.satelliteSatellites orbit theEarth.SaturnSaturn is thesixth planetfrom the Sun. Ithas beautifulrings.shooting starA shooting star isnot a star; it is ameteor (made ofrock and/or iron)which is burningup in the Earthsatmosphere.Solar SystemIn our Solar System,nine planets, manyasteroids, comets, andother objects orbitaround our sun.space shuttleThe space shuttle fliesinto space and backdown again, carryingpeople and equipment.spacesuitAstronauts wearspacesuits when theywalk in space.starsEach of the starswe see in thenight sky isanother sun, butmuch fartheraway than oursun.SunThe Sun is amedium-sizedyellow star in ourSolar System. Weget our light andmost of ourenergy from theSun.UranusUranus is the seventhplanet from the Sun.Uranus looks bluishand is covered withclouds. It has anunusual, tipped axis,which gives it extremeseasons.
- 11 -VenusVenus is the secondplanet from the Sun andthe hottest planet in ourSolar System. From theEarth, Venus is thebrightest object in thesky except for the Sunand the Moon.zodiacThe zodiac is a bandof 12 constellations(groups of stars) inthe sky, includingCapricorn, Aquarius,Sagittarius, Scorpio,Libra, Virgo, Leo,Cancer, Gemini,Taurus, Aries, andPisces.At the Firehouse: WordsambulanceAn ambulancetakes sickpeople to thehospital.axAn ax is useful forchopping wood.bootsBoots are a type of shoe.Boots cover the feet andpart of the lower legs.DalmatianThe Dalmatian is awhite dog that hasdark spots.dangerYou can get hurtin a dangeroussituation.fireFire is very hot.firefighterA firefighter is a personwho puts out fires andsaves peoples lives.fire truckFire fighters on a firetruck help put out fires.flameA flame is a fire.flashlightA flashlighthelps you findyour way in thedark.hatchetA hatchet is anax with a shorthandle.helmetA helmet protects yourhead. Firefighters wearhelmets.heroA hero is someone who isadmired for great courage,noble character, andperforming good deeds,like a firefighter.hoseWater flowsthrough a hose.hydrantFire fightershook a hose upto a fire hydrantto get water.
- 12 -ladderYou can climbup a ladder toreach tallthings.ropeA rope is useful for tyingthings together.waterWater is a liquid that canput out some types offires.wrenchA wrench is a toolthat turns nuts orbolts, like those ona fire hydrant.Bathroom-Related WordsbathtubYou take a bath in abathtub.bubblesIt is fun toblow soapbubbles!combA comb is a used tosmooth or untangle hair.eyedropperAn eyedropper is used todrop liquids one drop ata time.faucetYou can turn waterflow on or off at afaucet.hairbrushA hairbrush is usedto brush anduntangle hair.mirrorYou can seeyour reflectionin a mirror.shampooA shampoo is a liquidsoap used to wash hair.When you shampoo yourhair, you wash it.showerWhen you shower, youwash your body in astream of falling water.sinkWe can wash ourhands at a sink.soapSoap and water helpclean things.toiletToilets are inbathrooms.toothbrushYou can keep your teethhealthy by using atoothbrush to clean them.toothpasteYou use toothpaste toclean your teeth.towelYou can dry thingswith a towel.tubA tub is a largecontainer. Tub isalso another wordfor bathtub.
- 13 -At the Beach:Beach-Related WordsballA ball is roundand fun tobounce, throw,kick, or catch.bathing suitA bathing suit is agarment you wearwhile swimming.beachA beach is where thewater meets the land.You can build sandcastles on the beach.clamClams are animalswith two shells.They burrow underthe sand.coral reefCoral reefs are warm,clear, shallow oceanhabitats that are rich inlife.crabA crab has ahard shell andeyes on stalkson its head.fiddler crabThe fiddler crab issmall crab that liveson beaches. Themale fiddler crabhas one enlargedclaw.fishFish live in the waterand breathe with gills.fishing rodPeople use fishingrods to catch fish.hammockA hammock is a largenet or cloth that is usedfor sleeping orrelaxing; it is hung upby both ends.ice creamconeAn ice creamcone is nice toeat on a hotsummer day.intertidal zoneThe intertidal zoneis where the seameets the land, thearea between hightide and low tide.kelpKelp is brown seaweedthat grows in coldwater.kiteYou can fly a kiteon windy days.netA net is used to catchthings.popsicleA popsicles is asweet, frozentreat on a stick.reefReefs are warm,clear, shallow oceanhabitats that are richin life.sandSand is a loose materialcomposed of finedebris of rock andmineral particles.sandalsS andals are openshoes worn in warmweather.sandcastleA sandcastle is a smallcastle made of dampsand.
- 14 -sand dollarSand Dollars arecoin-shapedspiny-skinnedsea bed animalsthat have 5-partradial symmetry.seaA sea is a largebody of salt waterthat is connected toan ocean. A sea maybe partly orcompletelysurrounded by land.sea gullSea gull is the commonname for some birdsthat live near oceansand lakes.seaweedSeaweed is a plantthat lives in the sea.shellSome animals grow ashell for protection.starfishStarfish (alsoknown as seastars) areanimals that liveon the oceanfloor.SunThe Sun is amedium-sizedyellow star in ourSolar System. Weget our light andmost of our energyfrom the Sun.swimWhen you swim, youmove around in thewater.swim finsPeople wear swimfins on their feet tohelp them swim.towelYou can dry thingswith a towel.trash canA trash canholds garbage.waveThere are waves ofwater in the ocean.whelkWhelks are oceananimals with a hard,spiral shell.
- 15 -Bird-Related WordsalbatrossThe albatross isweb-footed birdthat can fly fora long period oftime.Arctic ternThe Arctic tern is asmall bird that fliesfrom the Arctic to theAntarctic and backagain each year.bald eagleThe bald eagle is alarge bird of prey. Itis the symbol of theUSA.beakA beak is the hard,outer part of a someanimals mouth. Birds,octopi, squid, andother animals havebeaks. Some dinosaurshad them too.bipedA biped is an animalthat walks on two legs.People and birds arebipeds. Tyrannosaurusrex was a biped.birdBirds havefeathers andwings. Mostbirds can fly.blackbirdBlackbirds are black!bluebirdThe bluebird is abeautiful song birdthat is the symbol ofmany of the states inthe USA.blue jayThe blue jay is abeautiful, noisy bluebird.bonesBones are hard,structural parts of thebody of many animals,including birds.cageSome peoplekeep birds incages.Canada gooseThe Canada goose isa large NorthAmerican bird thathonks.canaryCanaries sing verywell.cardinalThe Northern Cardinalis a bird with a short,wide bill. The male isbright red; the femaleis brownish-red.carnivoreCarnivores areorganisms that eatmeat. Many birds, likeeagles, are carnivores.cassowaryA huge,flightless birdfrom Australiawith a helmet-like crest on itshead.chickA chick is a babychicken. Some otherbaby birds are alsocalled chicks.chickenA chicken is a farmanimal.clawA claw is a hard,sharp, curved nail onthe feet of someanimals. Bears, cats,birds, dinosaurs, andmany other animalshave claws.cockatooCockatoos are birdsthat have a large,feathery crest and ahooked bill. They arefrom Australia andIndonesia.
- 16 -craneThe crane is awading bird witha long neck, along bill, and longlegs.crowA crow is a verysmart black bird. cuckooCuckoos are birds whose callsounds like coo-coo.dodoThe dodo is anextinct, flightlessbird that lived onan island in theIndian Oceannear Africa.doveThe dove is a birdthat is a symbolof peace.duckDucks are birdsthat have webbedfeet and aflattened bill.They swim welland live near thewater.ducklingA duckling is ayoung duck.eagleThe eagle is a large bird of prey.It has a hooked bill and sharptalons.egretThe egret is alarge wadingbird.emperorpenguinThe emperorpenguin is thelargest penguin; itlives on ice packsin Antarctica.emuThe emu is a largeAustralian birdthat cannot fly.endangeredspeciesEndangered speciesare types ofanimals or plantsthat may becomeextinct soon. Manybirds species areendangered.extinctWhen a group of animals orplants goes extinct, they aregone forever. Some extinctanimals include dinosaurs,saber-toothed cats, and dodobirds.featherBirds havefeathers.flamingoThe flamingo is apink bird that eatsshrimp.
- 17 -flyThe fly is a small,flying insect.food webThe food web (orfood chain) is all ofthe interactionsbetween predatorsand prey in whichplants and animalsobtain food.goldfishA goldfish is a type of carp thatmakes a nice pet.gooseGeese aremigrating birdsthat honk!goslingA gosling is ababy goosegreat hornedowlThe great hornedowl is a large birdof prey fromNorth and SouthAmerica.groundhogThe groundhog is arodent that is alsocalled thewoodchuck.gullGulls are birds that live nearoceans and lakes.guppyGuppies are atype of smalltropical fish.habitatA habitat is thenatural placewhere a plant oran animal lives.For example, atoucans habitat isthe rainforest.harpy eagleThe harpy eagle isone of the largesteagles in theworld. It lives inrainforests ofCentral Americaand SouthAmerica.hawkThe hawk is a birdof prey, a raptor.henA hen is a female chicken. Henslay eggs.heronA large wadingbird withdistinctiveplumage and along, sharp bill.hummingbirdHummingbirdsare tiny birds thatdrink flowernectar. They canhover in the airand even flybackwards.
- 18 -jayJays are beautiful,noisy birds.juncoThis junco is asmall songbirdfrom NorthAmerica.kakapoThe kakapo is a large, flightless,nocturnal, solitary parrot fromNew Zealand.kiwiThe kiwi is achicken-sizedflightless birdfrom NewZealand. It isgenerallynocturnal (mostactive at night).kookaburraThe kookaburrais an Australianbird whose callsounds likelaughing.macaronipenguinThe macaronipenguin is apenguin from theAntarctic that hasa yellow, featherycrest on its head.macawMacaws are parrotsfrom rainforests inthe Americas.mallardThe Mallard is a common wildduck.meadowlarkThe meadowlarkis a brightly-colored songbirdthat lives inmeadows andgrasslands.moaThe moa werehuge, extinct,flightless birdsfrom NewZealand.mockingbirdThe mockingbirdis a NorthAmerican birdthat can mimic thesongs of manyother birds.neneThe nene isHawaiis state bird.It is an endangeredgoose that lives onvolcanic slopes.nestSome animals, like birds, makenests to hold their young - evensome dinosaurs built nests fortheir eggs.nightingaleThe nightingale isa bird that singsbeautiful songs.nocturnalNocturnalanimals are moreactive at night.Owls arenocturnal birds.
- 19 -nuthatchThe nuthatch is asmall perchingbird that canclimb down treesand opens nutsusing its bill like ahatchet.orioleThe oriole is ablack and orangebird that eats fruitand nectar. It buildsa hanging nest.oropendolaThe crested oropendola is atropical black bird that makeslong, pendulous nests.ostrichThe ostrich is thelargest bird. Itcant fly, but itruns very fast.owlOwls are birds ofprey that havelarge eyes andvery goodeyesight. Mostowls hunt atnight.parrotThe parrot is abeautiful bird thatcan imitatesounds very well.peacockThe peacock is abeautiful bird fromindia. The male hasa large train offeathers.pelicanThe pelican is fish-eating birdwith a huge, pouched bill.penguinPenguins arebirds that cannotfly but swim verywell.peregrinefalconThe peregrinefalcon is thefastest-flyingbird. It prey uponother birds.petsPets are animalsthat live with us,like parrots andcanaries.pigeonThere are a lot ofpigeons in cities.prairie chickenThe prairie chicken is a bird thatlives in grasslands of NorthAmerica.puffinThe puffin is anArctic sea bird.quailA quail is abird; it spends alot of time onthe ground.quetzalThe quetzal is abeautiful rainforest bird withvery long tailfeathers.rainbow lorikeetA small, colorful,brush-tonguedparrot fromAustralia.rheaThe rhea is a large, flightlessbird from South America.roadrunnerThe roadrunner isa bird is a fastrunning bird thatrarely flies.robinThe robin is acommon birdwith red-coloredfeathers on itsbreast.
- 20 -rockhopperpenguinThe rockhopperpenguin is asmall, aggressive,crested bird thatcannot fly.sea gullThe sea gull is thecommon name forsome birds that livenear oceans andlakes.snow gooseThe snow goose is a migratorybird from North America.snowy owlThe snowy owl isa white owl thatlives in the NorthAmerican tundra(a cold, snowyenvironment).sparrowThe sparrow is asmall, commonsongbird.spotted owlThe spotted owl isan owl from thePacific coast ofNorth America.swanSwans are long-necked water birds.ternTerns are birds that aresometimes called "seaswallows."toucanThe toucan is arainforest birdthat has a big,colorful beak.turkeyTurkeys arelarge birds thatnest on theground.umbrellabirdThe Umbrellabirdis a rain forestbird with a largetuft of feathers onits head.vultureThe vulture is abig, bald-headedbird that eats deadanimals.woodpeckerThe woodpecker is a bird thatcan peck holes in trees.xenopsXenops is arainforest birdfrom theAmericas.
- 21 -Birthday-Related WordsballoonsBalloons are rubbersacks that are filledwith air or othergases.birthdayYou have abirthday everyyear.birthday cakeBirthday cakes aresweet and delicious!cakeCake is a sweetdessert.candleA candle is a stick of waxwith a wick that can burn.candyCandy is very sweet. childrenChildren areyoung people.chocolateChocolate is a tastytreat made fromcocoa beans andsugar.clownClowns are peoplewho dress up infunny clothes andtry to make youlaugh.cupcakeA cupcake is a tiny cake.giftIts nice to givegifts. Its nice to getthem too.ice creamIce cream iscold, creamy,and sweettreat.juiceJuice is pressed fromfruit or vegetables.lollipopA lollipop is candyon a stick.paper plateA paper plate is adisposable plate that ismade out of paper. Peopleuse paper plates at picnicsand some parties.pizzaPizza is made ofdough that iscovered with tomatosauce and cheese; itis baked in an oven.popsicleA popsicles isa sweet, frozentreat on astick.presentA present is a gift,something you giveto someone.ribbonYou can tie a bowin a ribbon todecoratesomething.toysWe play with toys.
- 22 -Body-Related WordsanatomyAnatomy is ascience thatstudies the body.ankleThe ankle is thejoint between yourfoot and leg.bandageA bandage is a clean padthat is used to cover andprotect cuts and otherinjuries.bipedA biped is an animalthat walks on two legs.People are bipeds.Tyrannosaurus rex wasa biped.bodyEveryone has abody.bonesBones are hard,structural parts ofthe body of manyanimals. We have206 bones in ourskeleton.brainWe think with ourbrain. The brain isprotected by theskull.cheekThe cheeks are the sidesof the face between themouth area and the ear.chinThe chin is the part ofthe face below themouth.earWe hear thingswith our ears.Our ears give usa sense ofhearing.elbowThe elbow is thejoint in the middleof your arm.eyeWe see with oureyes. Our eyes giveus a sense of sight.eyebrowThe eyebrows are densepatches of hair above theeyes.eyelashEyelashes are longhairs on the edges ofthe eyelids.eyelidEyelids are flapsof skin that coverand protect oureyes.faceThis is a funnyface!feetWe have ten toeson our feet.femurThe femur is the upperleg (thigh) bone. It is thelongest bone in thehuman body.fingerWe have five fingerson each hand.fingernailFingernails growat the ends ofyour fingers.
- 23 -fingerprintThe pattern markson our fingertipsare fingerprints.footWe have five toeson each foot.foreheadThe forehead is the partof the face that is abovethe eyebrows and belowthe hair.hairHair grows on allmammals.handWe can doamazing thingswith our hands.headWe all have ahead on ourshoulders.healthyWhen you arehealthy, you are notsick. heartYour heart pumps bloodthroughout your body.heelThe heel is the backpart of the foot.hipsYour hips arebelow your waistand above yourlegs.intestinesIntestines are apart of thedigestive system.The intestineshelp digest food,absorb it into thebody, and excretewaste.irisThe colored part ofthe eye around thepupil is the iris.jawsJaws let you open andclose your mouth andtake bites.kidneyThe kidney are bean-shaped organs that takewaste from the bloodand produce urine.kneeThe knee iswhere the legbends. It itbetween thelower leg and theupper leg (thethigh).legsMany animalshave legs. Peoplehave two legs,cows have fourlegs, insects havesix legs, andspiders have eightlegs. Tables andchairs also havelegs.lipsChickens donthave lips, butpeople do.lungsSome animals use lungsto breathe. People havelungs.mouthWe use our mouths toeat and talk.nailNails are hardscales that growat the ends ofyour fingers.
- 24 -nakedWhen you arenaked, you arentwearing anyclothes.neckYour neck isbetween your headand your shoulders.noseWe use the nose tobreathe; it also gives us asense of smell.nurseA nurse takes care ofyou when youre sick orhurt.pupilA pupil is theopening in thecenter of theeyes iris - thepupil looks like ablack circle in themiddle of theeye.shoulderYour shouldersare under yourneck.skeletonA skeleton is theset of bones in abody. People haveskeletons, and sodo many otheranimals.skinThe skin is the outercovering of our body.skullThe skull is the bonystructure of head thatencloses the brain andsupports the jaws. Thisis a T. rex skull.tongueOur tongue helpsus eat, taste, andtalk.spineThe spine (alsocalled thebackbone) is aseries ofconnected bonesin the back thatsurround andprotect the spinalcord.stomachThe stomach is apouch-like organthat is part of thedigestive system.The stomach helpsdigest food bychurning it in anacid bath.thumbThe thumb is the widestfinger on a persons hand.The thumb is next to thepointing finger. All apes(like gorillas and chimps)have thumbs.toeWe have five toes oneach foot.toenailToenails grow atthe ends of yourtoes.toothWe use our teethto chew food.Teeth are held inthe gums by roots.vertebraA vertebra is one of the seriesof small, connected bones inthe spine that surround andprotect the spinal cord. Theplural of vertebra isvertebrae.waistThe waist is the middleof the body, between thechest and the hips.x-rayAn x-ray is a picture ofyour bones or teeth.
- 25 -Building-Related WordsarchAn arch is a curvedopening.bankYou can put yourmoney in a bankfor safe keeping.brickThis fireplace ismade out of bricks.buildingA building is astructure built bypeople.cabinA cabin is a small,simple house.castleA castle is a huge,fancy building where aking or queen lives.churchSome peopleworship inchurches.doghouseSome dogs live indoghouses.doorYou can go in and outthrough a door.elevatorAn elevator carriespeople and things upand down a tallbuilding.entranceYou can go into anarea through anentrance.exitYou can leave anarea through anexit.factoryMany items, likecars, are made infactories.gargoyleGargoyles are stonesculptures of grotesquecreatures that sitperched atop somebuildings; they act aswaterspouts.greenhouseA greenhouse is abuilding, usuallymade out of glass, inwhich people growplants.homeHome is where youlive.houseSome people livein houses.hutA hut is a small,simple shelter.iglooAn igloo is a housemade out of blocks ofice. Brr!libraryLibraries have books,tapes, and computerprograms.
- 26 -lighthouseA lighthouse shines avery bright light soships wont sail ashoreor into rocks bymistake.log cabinA log cabin is ahouse made oflogs.marketWe can buy thingsat a market.museumMuseums exhibit art,historic objects, andscientific finds - likedinosaur fossils.palaceA palace is a hugehouse where a kingor queen lives.pyramidThe pyramids in Egyptare huge buildings thathave a square base andtriangular sides.roofThe roof is thetop covering of abuilding.schoolA school is a placewhere you learnthings.skyscraperA skyscraper is a verytall building.stadiumA stadium is a largebuilding in whichsports events areheld.storeA store is where wecan buy things.tentA tent is atemporary sheltermade of fabric.tepeeA tepee is a housemade by someNative Americans.urbanUrban means relatingto or located in a city.wallA wall is a side of abuilding or a room ora fence.White HouseThe White House iswhere the President ofthe United States livesand works. Theaddress of the WhiteHouse is 1600Pennsylvania AvenueNW, Washington,D.C.windmillA windmill usesthe wind togenerate power.
- 27 -Camping-Related WordsbackpackA backpack is a sack thatis worn on the back and isused to carry things.cabinA cabin is a small,simple house.cameraYou can takepictures with acamera.camperYou can traveland sleep in acamper.camp fireA camp fire is a firemade during acampout; it is used tocook food and towarm up people incold weather.campingWhen people go camping,they go into an outdoorarea and sleep in a tent,cabin or camper.candleA candle is a stickof wax with a wickthat can burn.canoeA canoe is a smallboat.compassA compassalways pointsnorth.eastEast is a compassdirection. East isopposite west.flashlightA flashlight helps youfind your way in the dark.forestA forest is a largegroup of trees andunderbrush wheremany animals live.kayakA kayak is a smallboat with anopening in thecenter for a person.lakeA lake is a largebody of watersurrounded byland on allsides. Reallyhuge lakes areoften calledseas.lanternA lantern is a devicethat gives off light.logA log is a short piece of atree trunk.log cabinA log cabin is ahouse made of logs.mapA map shows thefeatures of an area.You can find yourway around byusing a map.mountainA mountain is avery tall high,natural place onEarth - higherthan a hill. Thetallest mountainon Earth is Mt.Everest.northNorth is a compassdirection. North isopposite south.
- 28 -sleeping bagA sleeping bag is a fabricsack you can sleep in.southSouth is a compassdirection. South isopposite from north.tentA tent is atemporary sheltermade of fabric.water bottleA water bottleholds water.westWest is a compassdirection. West isopposite east.City-Related WordsalleyAn alley is a narrowroad betweenbuildings.ambulanceAn ambulance takes sickpeople to the hospital.art galleryYou can see worksof art at an artgallery.automobileAn automobile is acar.avenueAn avenue is awide street.bankYou can put yourmoney in a bank forsafe keeping.bridgeA bridge is a structureover water, or overanother thing that isdifficult to cross.buildingA building is astructure built bypeople.busA bus is a largevehicle that cantake manypassengers toplaces.cabCab is anotherword for taxi.carYou can travel in acar.churchSome people worship inchurches.cityA city is a placewhere a lot ofpeople live.crosswalkA crosswalk is amarked area on astreet where it issafer to cross.elevatorAn elevator carriespeople and thingsup and down a tallbuilding.
- 29 -factoryMany items, likecars, are made infactories.fire hydrantFire fighters hook a hoseup to a fire hydrant toget water.fire truckFire fighters on afire truck help putout fires.garbage truckA garbage truckpicks up garbageand hauls it to thedump.houseSome people livein houses.hydrantFire fighters hook ahose up to a firehydrant to get water.intersectionAn intersection is awhere two or morethings, like roads, meet.laneA lane is a smallroad.libraryLibraries havebooks, tapes, andcomputerprograms.mail carrierA mail carrierdelivers the mail.marketWe can buy things ata market.motorcycleA motorcycle has twowheels and can gofassssttttttt!museumMuseums exhibitart, historic objects,and scientific finds- like dinosaurfossils.neighborhoodA neighborhood isthe place whereyou and the peoplearound you live.obeliskAn obelisk is a tall,four-sided towertopped with apyramid.palaceA palace is a hugehouse where a kingor queen lives.roadA road is a wide pathmade for travelling.schoolA school is a placewhere you learnthings.sidewalkA sidewalk is apaved path forpeople to walk on.skyscraperA skyscraper is avery tall building.stadiumA stadium is a large building inwhich sports events are held.stop signA stop sign is a traffic sign that tellscars to stop moving before theycontinue; it has eight sides.storeA store is where we can buythings.streetA street is a public road.taxiPeople pay a taxi driver todrive them places.
- 30 -townA town is a verysmall city.traffic lightA traffic light directstraffic safely. Greenmeans go, yellow meansprepare to stop, and redmeans stop.trainA train has anengine that pullsrailroad cars alonga track.truckA truck is a vehiclethat can carry bigloads.urbanUrban meansrelating to orlocated in a city.vanA van is a truck usedto haul people andthings from oneplace to another.villageA village is a very smalltown.wallA wall is a side of abuilding or a roomor a fence.
- 31 -Clothing and Grooming-Related WordsapronAn apron protectsclothing fromgetting dirty.backpackA backpack is asack that is wornon the back and isused to carrythings.bathing suitA bathing suit is agarment you wear whileswimming.beadsBeads are small objectswith a hole through themso that they can be strungtogether to make jewelryor other things.blouseA blouse is ashirt, a type ofgarment wornon the upperpart of the body.bootsBoots are a type ofshoe. Boots coverthe feet and part ofthe lower legs.bowA bow is loops ofribbon or sting thatare tied together.braceletA bracelet is jewelryyou wear on your wrist.braidA braid is three or morestrands that are woventogether into a rope-likeshape.buttonA button is usedto fastenclothes.caneA cane is awalking stick.capA cap is a type ofhat.capeA cape is a flowingpiece of clothing thathangs loose on yourshoulders.change purseCoins are carried in achange purse.clothesPeople wearclothes.clothes hangerWe hang upclothes on clotheshangers.clothespinClothespins areused to hang wetlaundry on aclothes line to dry.coatA coat helps you keepwarm when it is cold.costumePeople wear costumes topretend they are someoneor something else.crownA crown is afancy hat wornby kings andqueens.
- 32 -dressA dress is a pieceof clothing with atop and a skirt.earmuffsEarmuffs keepyour ears warm.earringEarrings are jewelry forthe ears.eyeglassesEyeglasses help somepeople see more clearly.glassesGlasses helpsome people seemore clearly.gloveWe wear gloves toprotect our hands.gownA gown is a fancydress.hairbrushA hairbrush is used tobrush and untangle hair.hangerWe hang up clothes onhangershatSome hatsprotect youfrom the sun.Some hats arejust for fun!helmetA helmet protectsyour head.ice skateWhen you wearice skates, you canglide across ice.ironIrons press the wrinklesout of clothes.jacketA jacket is a short coat.jeansJeans are pantsmade fromdenim fabric.jewelJewels sparkle andshine.jewelryRings, pins,earrings andnecklaces arejewelry.kimonoA kimono is a beautifulgown worn by Japanesewomen.knittingSweaters and socks aremade by knitting.laceLace is a verydelicate fabric.laundryDoing the laundrymeans washingand drying clothes.laundry basketLaundry is put inlaundry baskets.loafersLoafers are a type ofslip-on shoe.lorgnettesLorgnettes are glasses (oropera glasses, which aresmall binoculars) that aremounted on a handle.This type of glasses wasused a long time ago.mittenMittens keepyour handswarm.
- 33 -mortar boardA mortar board isa square hat that isworn by peoplewhen theygraduate fromschool.necklaceA necklace isjewelry for yourneck.necktieA necktie is a narrowband of fabric tiedaround the neck.nightgownA nightgown is a long,loose garment worn tobed.overallsOveralls arebaggy pantswith shoulderstraps and apiece of fabriccovering thechest.overcoatAn overcoat willkeep you warmwhen it is cold.pajamasSome people wearpajamas to bed atnight.pantsPants are clothes thatcover the legs and up tothe waist.pinA pin is a small, sharppiece of metal used insewing.purseA purse is asmall bag inwhich somegirls andwomen carrytheir money andother things.raincoatA raincoat keepsyou dry when itrains.safety pinA safety pin is atype of pin that isused to fastenclothes anddiapers.sandalsSandals are open shoesworn in warm weather.scarfA scarf is a piece of cloththat people wear aroundtheir neck or on theirhead.sewYou can sewusing a needleand thread.Clothes aremade bysewing.sewing machineA sewing machinesews stitches veryquickly and easily.The sewingmachine wasinvented in 1846by Elias Howe.shirtSome shirts haveshort sleeves,some have longsleeves, and somehave no sleeves atall.shoePeople wear shoes ontheir feet.shortsShorts are pants that reachabove or around theknees.silkSilk is a delicatethread that isused to makefine fabric. Silkis obtained fromthe cocoon ofthe silkwormmoth.
- 34 -skirtA skirt is a pieceof clothing that isworn on the lowerpart of the body.slipperA slipper is acasual shoe wornaround the house.sneakerA sneaker is a type ofshoe used for manysports.sockWe wear socks under ourshoes.spectaclesSpectacles isanother wordfor glasses.suitA suit is a set ofmatching clothes.suitcaseWhen you travel,you carry yourclothing in asuitcase.sunglassesSunglasses help toprotect your eyes fromtoo much sunlight. swimsuitA swimsuit is a garmentyou wear whileswimming.tieA tie is anarrow band offabric tiedaround the neck.t-shirtA t-shirt is asimple shirtwithout buttons ora collar.tutuBallerinassometimes weartutus when theydance.umbrellaAn umbrella protectsyou from the rain.undershirtAn undershirt is a shirtthat is sometimes wornunder clothes.underwearPeople wearunderwearunder theirclothes.uniformA uniform is aspecial outfit wornby members of agroup.vestA vest is asleeveless piece ofclothing that isusually worn overa shirt.walletPeople carry money in awallet.watchA watch is a small clockyou can take with you totell time.wigA wig is fakehair.yarnSweaters are madeout of yarn.zipperYou can open andclose a zipper.
- 35 -ContainersbackpackA backpack is a sackthat is worn on theback and is used tocarry things.bagYou can putthings in a bag.barrelA barrel is a large,wooden container.basketYou can carry things in abasket.bottleA bottle is acontainer with anarrow neck andmouth.boxA box can holdthings.containerA container canhold things.bucketA bucket is a containerwith a handle.cageSome people keep birdsin cages.canSome food anddrinks come incans.cartonSome liquids (likemilk and orangejuice) are packaged incartons.corkA cork is used asa bottle stopper. Itis made from treebark.egg cartonAn egg carton holdseggs and keep themfrom breaking.envelopeAn envelope holds aletter.jarJars arecontainers witha large openingand a lid.lidA lid is a top for apan or othercontainer.oilcanAn oilcan is acontainer for oil.packageA package is awrapped box thatcontains something.pailA pail is a container witha handle.sackA sack is acontainer. Youcan put things ina sack.spray canA fine mist of liquidcomes out of a spraycan.suitcaseWhen you travel,you carry yourclothing in asuitcase.trunkA trunk is a very largetraveling case.tubeSome pastes and gels(like toothpaste) come intubes.urnAn urn is a largevase.
- 36 -vaseVases are holders forflowers.vatA vat is a largetub that holdsliquids.water bottleA water bottle holdswater.watering canYou can water plantswith a watering can.DevicesabacusAn abacus is aancient device thatis used forarithmeticcalculations.aileronAilerons are theouter flaps on therear surface of thewings of an airpane.Ailerons are used tokeep the airplanefrom rollling fromside to side.airplaneAirplanes fly inthe sky.bulbA light bulb turnselectricity into light.cameraYou can takepictures with acamera.can openerA can opener is adevice that openscans.deviceA device is a pieceof equipment thatdoes a job. Forexample, a canopener is a devicethat opens cans.engineThe engine of atrain pulls therailroad cars alongthe track.engineThe engines of an airplanepropel it through the air.fanA fan is a machinethat makes abreeze.flashlightA flashlight helpsyou find your wayin the dark.freezerA freezer keepsthings icy.funnelA funnel is adevice that letsyou pour thingsfrom onecontainer toanother.gyroscopeA gyroscope is a spinningwheel set in a movableframe. When the wheelspins, it is very hard tomove the gyroscope - itessentially stays in itsoriginal orientation.incandescentlight bulbAn incandescentlight bulb turnselectricity into lightas an electriccurrent causes afilament to glow inan air-freeenclosure.
- 37 -inventorAn inventor designs andcreates new, useful things.ironIrons press thewrinkles out ofclothes.joystickA joystick is usedto play somecomputer games.lockYou can lock and unlock alock with a key.magnifyingglassA magnifying glassis a lens that makesthings look largerthan they reallyare.microscopeA microscope lets you seevery tiny things.microwave ovenMicrowave ovens heat upfood quickly.mirrorYou can see yourreflection in amirror.padlockYou can lock and unlock apadlock with a key.pliersPliers are tools thathold things.radarRadar is a device that usesreflected radio waves tolocated objects at adistance. Radar is shortfor "radio detection andranging."radioA radio lets you hearbroadcast music and talkshows.refrigeratorA refrigerator is amachine thatkeeps food cold.remote controlA remote control lets youoperate a machine fromfar away.rocketA rocket is amachine thatpropels itself intospace.safety pinA safety pin is a type ofpin that is used to fastenclothes and diapers.scaleA scale is a machine forweighing things.sewingmachineA sewing machinesews stitches veryquickly andeasily. Thesewing machinewas invented in1846 by EliasHowe.sonarIn sonar (also calledecholocation), a high-pitched sound (usuallyclicks) is sent out. Thesound bounces off theobject and some returns.The returning echo isinterpreted to determinethe objects shape,direction, distance, andtexture. Dolphins (andother toothed whales) andsome bats use sonar tonavigate and find prey.telephoneYou can talk withpeople who are faraway by using atelephone.
- 38 -telescopeA telescope is a opticaldevice that makesfaraway objects appearcloser and larger,allowing us to see distantobjects in space.televisionA television is a machinethat receives pictures andsounds. People watch andlisten to shows ontelevision.thermometerA thermometer isused for tellingwhat thetemperature is.toasterA toaster is a machine thatheats up slices of bread,making toast.vacuum cleanerA vacuum cleaner is a deviceused to clean rugs and floors.yokeA yoke is a device thatholds two workinganimals (like oxen)together.Farm-Related WordsbarnA barn is a farmbuilding where animalsand animal feed arekept.bullA bull is a male cow.bunnyA bunny is a youngrabbit.calfA calf is ayoung cow.catCats are mammalsand are great pets.Cats were reveredby the ancientEgyptians.chickA chick is a babychicken. Some otherbaby birds are alsocalled chicks.chickenA chicken is a farmanimal.cowMost of the milk wedrink comes fromcows.dogDogs wagtheir tailswhen theyrehappy.donkeyDonkeys can be verystubborn.duckDucks are birds thathave webbed feet and aflattened bill. Theyswim well and live nearthe water.ducklingA duckling is a youngduck.farmFarms are where plantsare grown and animalsare raised.farmanimalsFarm animalsare veryuseful topeople.farmerFarmers producefood by growingplants and tendinganimals.
- 39 -fenceA fence is a type ofbarrier.gooseGeese are migratingbirds that honk!goslingA gosling is a babygoose.haystackA haystack isa big pile ofhay.henA hen is a femalechicken. Hens layeggs.hoeA hoe is a garden tool.hogA hog is a hoofedmammal that issimilar to a pig.honey beeHoney bees are insectsthat live in a hive andmake honey.horseHorses arevery fastrunners.horseshoeA horseshoe is ametal protector for ahorses hoof.kidA kid is a young goat.kittenA kitten is a youngcat.lambA lamb is a baby sheep.milkMilk comesfrom cowsand othermammals.oxOxen are large,hairy mammals thatlive in the far north.pigPigs are hoofedmammals that oink!pigletA piglet is a youngpig.puppyA puppy is a youngdog.rabbitA rabbit is asmall, cutemammal withbig ears.roosterA rooster is a malechicken.scarecrowA scarecrow is a figureof a person that is madeof straw. It is used toscare crows away fromcrops.sheepSheep are farmanimals that areraised for wool andmeat.sheepdog, oldEnglishThe old Englishsheepdog is anaffectionate, long-haired dog that wasoriginally bred in GreatBritain.shovelShovels areused to dig.siloA silo is a buildingin which bulk food,like wheat, is stored.
- 40 -tractorA tractor is a powerfulvehicle that can pull aplow or other farmtools.wellA well is a deep holein the ground fromwhich you get water.Flower-Related Words: Little Explorers PictureDictionarybluebellBluebells are bell-shaped flowers. bouquetA bouquet is abunch of flowers.bulbA plant bulb wil sproutinto a new plant. Tulipsgrow from bulbs.California poppyThe California poppy is asmall, cup-shaped flowerthat lives in dry areas.carnationA carnation is aflower; it canbe white, pink,or red.daffodilThe daffodil is ayellow flower thatblooms early inthe spring.daisyThe daisy is apretty flower.dandelionDandelions are weedswith pretty yellowflowers that turn intoseed puff-balls.flowerA flower makes seeds.Flowers are a plantsreproductive organs.Hummingbirds, bees,butterflies, and otheranimals drink the sweetnectar that is made byflowers.forget-me-notsForget-me-notsare plants thathave beautifulblue flowers.
- 41 -gardenPlants grow in agarden.greenhouseA greenhouse is abuilding, usuallymade out of glass,in which peoplegrow plants. Someflowers are grownin greenhouses.irisIrises are beautifulflowers with long, thin,flat leaves.lilyA lily is a funnel-shapedflower.nasturtiumNasturtiums areplants withbright, prettyflowers andround leaves.orchidOrchids arecolorful flowersthat live in warmareas.poppyA poppy is adelicate flower.rootsThe roots are the partsof a plant that getswater and othernutrients from the soil.Roots also store energyand provide support forthe plant. Most rootsgrow underground.roseThe rose is a beautifulflower with a sweet scent.seedSeeds grow intoplants.stemThe stem is thepart of a plant thatprovides supportfor the plant.tulipThe tulip is a cup-shaped flower.Venus flytrapThe Venus flytrap is aplant that catches anddigests bugs.violetsViolets are deep purpleflowers.yuccaYucca is aflowering plantwith stiffleaves; it livesin dry areas.zinniaZinnias are prettyflowers.
- 42 -Food-Related Words: Little Explorers PictureDictionaryalmondAn almond is atype of nut.appleAn apple is ajuicy fruit thatgrows on an appletree.Appleseed, JohnnyJohnny Appleseed wasa legendary man whoplanted apple treesthrough the USA. Hisreal name was JohnChapman, but he wascalled JohnnyAppleseed because ofhis love for growingapple trees.artichokeThe artichoke is a spiny,green vegetable.avocadoThe avocado is anoily, green fruit; it issometimes called thealligator pear.Avocados grow ontrees in warm areas.bagelA bagel is achewy kind ofroll.bakerA baker bakesfood in the oven,like breads, cakes,and cookies.bananaBananas are a sweet,yellow fruit.batterA batter is an uncooked,liquid mixture of flour,eggs, butter and otheringredients. When abatter is cooked, itbecomes solid. Cookies,cakes, and muffins aremade from batter.birthday cakeBirthday cakes aresweet and delicious!blackberryBlackberries aredark-colored,edible berriesthat grow onprickly vines.bowlYou can eat soupor cereal in abowl.breadBread is made fromflour and is baked in anoven.breakfastBreakfast is a meal thatis eaten in the morning.broccoliBroccoli is a greenvegetable.bubble gumYou can chewbubble gum andblow bubbles.bunA bun is a sweetroll.butterButter is a rich spreadmade from cream.cakeCake is a sweet dessert.candyCandy is very sweet.
- 43 -carrotA carrot is anorange vegetablethat growsunderground.cauliflowerCauliflower is awhite vegetable;it is related tobroccoli.celeryCelery is a crisp, greenvegetable.cheeseCheese is a food madefrom milk.chefA chef cooks food.cherriesCherries are asweet, tangy, redfruit.chocolateChocolate is atasty treat madefrom cocoa beansand sugar.chopsticksChopsticks are eatingutensils used by manypeople in Asia.coffeeCoffee is a drink madefrom roasted coffeebeans.cookieCookies are small,sweet, baked treats.corkA cork is used asa bottle stopper.It is made fromtree bark.cornCorn is a yellowvegetable you caneat on its cob.Corn was grownby NativeAmericans forthousands ofyears before theEuropeans settledin North America.cornucopiaA cornucopia, alsocalled a horn of plenty,is a horn-shaped basketthat is filled with fruitand grains. It is asymbol of abundanceand prosperity.cotton candyCotton candy is a sweettreat that is spun fromsugar.creamCream is the richestpart of milk. Butterand ice cream aremade from cream.cucumberCucumber is acool, crispvegetable that isgood in salad.cuisineA cuisine is astyle of preparingfood.cupboardThings are stored incupboards.cupYou can drink from acup.cupcakeA cupcake is a tinycake.dessertDesserts aresweet treats.dietA balanced diet isgood for you.dinnerDinner is a meal that iseaten in the evening.dishWe eat food on a dish.doughnutDoughnuts are sweetand have a hole intheir middle.
- 44 -drinkPeople need todrink waterevery day.egg cartonAn egg cartonholds eggs andkeep them frombreaking.eatWe eat when we arehungry.eggMany animals hatchfrom eggs. Dinosaurshatched from eggs.People eat a lot ofchicken eggs.eggplantAn eggplant is apurple vegetable.flourFlour is groundup grain (likewheat). Bread ismade from flour.foodWe eat food toget energy and togrow.food pyramidThe food pyramid is adiagram that lets youknow the USgovernmentsrecommended diet.food webThe food web (or foodchain) is all of theinteractions betweenpredators and prey inwhich plants andanimals obtain food.forkForks are used foreating solid food.freezerA freezer keepsthings icy.fruitFruit is the part ofsome plants thatcontains theseeds. Apples,strawberries,oranges, andbananas are fruit.frying panYou can cook food in afrying pan.gingerbreadGingerbread is a spicycookie. Gingerbreadmen and gingerbreadwomen are cookiesshaped like little people.glassWe drink out ofglasses.grapefruitGrapefruits are atype of citrusfruit thatsometime squirtyou when youeat them.grapesGrapes aredelicious fruit thatgrow on vines.graterA grater is a tool usedto cut food into tinypieces.green beanA green bean is a long,thin, green vegetable. Itis pod that containsbean seeds. It is alsocalled a string bean.hamHam is a type ofmeat that comesfrom the top part of apigs leg.
- 45 -hamburgerA hamburger is acooked patty ofground beef,usually served ina bun.honeyHoney is a sweetsubstance madeby bees.hot dogA hot dog is a type ofcooked meat in theshape of a sausage; it isusually served in a longbun.hungryWhen youre hungry,you want to eat somefood.iceIce is frozen water.ice creamIce cream iscold, creamy,and sweet treat.ice cream coneAn ice creamcone is nice to eaton a hot summerday.iced teaIced tea is a cold drink.jamJam is a spread madefrom fruit.jellyJelly is a spreadmade from fruitjuice.jellybeansJellybeans arecolorful andsweet.jugA jug holds aliquid, like water.juiceJuice is pressed fromfruit or vegetables.kettleA kettle is a pot inwhich you boil water.kitchenPeople prepare andstore food in akitchen.kiwiThe kiwi is a tangy fruitthat grows in warm areas.knifeYou can cut things with aknife.ladleA ladle is a large spoon used toserve soup and gravy.lemonA lemon is a sour, yellow fruit.lemonadeLemonade is a drink madefrom water, lemon juice, andsugar.lettuceLettuce is a leafyvegetable that isgood in salads.licoriceLicorice is a typeof candy.limeA lime is a sour, greencitrus fruit.lollipopA lollipop is candy on astick.lunchLunch is a mealeaten in the middleof the day.lunch boxSome peoplecarry their lunchin a lunch box.macaroniMacaroni is atube-shapednoodle.mealBreakfast, lunch, anddinner are meals.measuring cupA measuring cup isuseful in baking andcooking.meatMeat is a type offood that comesfrom animals. Sometypes of meat arebeef and ham.
- 46 -melonMelons are fruitsthat have a rind.microwaveovenMicrowave ovensheat up foodquickly.milkMilk comes from cowsand other mammals.muffinMuffins are small,baked goods made froma batter.mugA mug is a largecup.mushroomMushrooms arefast-growingfungi. They growin dark, dampplaces.napkinAfter you eat, youcan clean yourface with anapkin.nectarineA nectarine is a sweet,juicy fruit with smoothskin; it is related to thepeach.noodlesNoodles are flat stripsof pasta. Noodles wereinvented in China.nutA nut is a dry seedor fruit with a hardshell.oatmealOatmeal is acereal.oilOil is a greasyliquid.oliveAn olive is an oily fruitthat grows on anevergreen tree.omeletAn omelet is a dishmade from eggs.omnivoreAn omnivore is ananimal that eatsplants and meat.People areomnivoresonionOnions are sharptastingvegetables.orangeOranges aresweet, juicy fruit.orange juiceOrange juice is madefrom oranges.ovenOvens get very hot. Youcan bake food in anoven.oven mittAn oven mittprotects your handwhen you put thingsin or out of an oven.oysterThe oyster is asoft-bodiedmarine animalthat is protectedby two hardshells.panYou can cookfood in a pan.paper plateA paper plate is adisposable plate that ismade out of paper.People use paper platesat picnics.pastaPasta is a type of foodmade from flour.Spaghetti and macaroniare types of pasta.peachPeaches are sweet,juicy fruit with fuzzyskin.
- 47 -peanutPeanuts growundergound; they area type of legume.pearThe pear is asweet fruit with athin skin.pea podPeas grow in peapods.peasPeas are small, roundvegetables.pepperPepper is a spice thatmany people use toseason their food.pepperA pepper is a sharp-tasting, hollowvegetable. Peppers canbe red, green, yellow,and orange.pickleA pickle is acucumber that ispreserved in brine.pieA pie is a dessertthat is made withfruit and has a crust.pitcherA pitcher is acontainer for pouringliquids.pizzaPizza is made ofdough that is coveredwith tomato sauceand cheese; it isbaked in an oven.plateA plate is a flat dishon which we put food.plumA plum is a sweet,juicy, purple fruit.podPeas grow in peapods.popsicleA popsicles is asweet, frozen treat ona stick.potPeople cook food inpots.potatoPotatoes are starchyvegetables that growundergound.pretzelPretzels are salty,knotted snacks.pruneA prune is a driedplum.pumpkinThe pumpkin is alarge, orangevegetable that growson a vine.pumpkin piePumpkin pie is adessert made frompumpkins.radishA radish is a sharp-tasting vegetable thatgrows underground.raisinRaisins are driedgrapes.raspberryRaspberries are atype of edible berrythat grows on aprickly vine.recipeA recipe is a set ofinstructions formaking a type offood.refrigeratorA refrigerator is amachine that keepsfood cold.
- 48 -riceRice is a food. It is agrain that grows inwarm, wet soil. Rice isan important food inmuch of Asia.rollA roll is a smallpiece of bakeddough.rolling pinA rolling pin is usedto roll out dough.saladA salad is a type offood that is usuallymade with lettuceand other vegetables.salamiSalami is a type ofsalty, spicy meatproduct, usuallymade from beefand/or pork.saltSalt is an importantcrystalline mineralthat we use to seasonour food.sandwichA sandwich ischeese,peanutbutter,meat, or anotherfilling betweentwo slices ofbread.sausageSausage is a type ofmeat.sliceWhen something issliced, thin pieces arecut from it.soupSoup is a type offood. Vegetable soupand chicken soup aretwo kinds of soup.spatulaA spatula is a tool thathas a wide, flat end.spoonA spoon is usedfor eating foodlike soup andcereal.squashSquash grows in warmweather.steakSteak is a slice of meat.stoveYou can cook food on astove.strawberryThe strawberry is asweet, red fruit.string beanA string bean is along, thin, greenvegetable. It ispod that containsbean seeds. It isalso called a greenbean.sugarSugar is a sweetfood.sunflowerA sunflower is aplant that turns toface the sun.teaTea is a drink that isbrewed from tealeaves.
- 49 -teapotYou can brew tea in ateapot.toasterA toaster is amachine that heatsup slices of bread,making toast.tomatoTomatoes are softand tangy; theygrow on vines.tunaThe tuna is a verylarge, bony fish thatlives in the ocean.People eat a lot oftuna.turkeyTurkeys are largebirds that nest on theground.utensilsUtensils are tools usedin the kitchen, likeknives, forks, andspoons.vegetableVegetables arevery good for you.vinegarVinegar is a sourliquid that is used toflavor or preservefoods.walnutA walnut is an ediblenut from the walnuttree.waterWater is a liquid thatwe drink and use towash. Water coversover two thirds of thesurface of the Earth,and much of ourbody is made ofwater.water bottleA water bottle holdswater.watermelonWatermelon is alarge, delicious,red fruit with athick green rind.wheatWheat is a grain.Flour is made fromground-up wheat.whiskA whisk is used tobeat eggs or batter.wokA wok is a cookingpot used in Asia.yamYams are sweetvegetables that growunderground.yogurtYogurt is a dairyfood made frommilk.yolkThe yolk of an eggis yellow andcontains stored foodfor a bird or reptilebefore it hatches.zucchiniZucchini is a type ofsquash.Furniture WordsarmchairAn armchair is achair with arms.bedPeople sleep in beds.benchA few people can siton a bench.bookcaseBooks are stored inbookcases.chairA chair is apiece offurniture thatpeople sit on.
- 50 -couchA couch is a big, softpiece of furniturethat many people cansit on.cradleA cradle is a small bedfor a baby.cupboardThings are stored incupboards.dresserA dresser is a pieceof furniture in whichyou can store things.footstoolA footstool is asmall piece offurniture.furnitureTables, chairs, sofas,and beds arefurniture.grandfather clockA grandfather clock isa large, free-standingpendulum clock.shelfA shelf is a smallplatform on whichthings can be placed.sofaA sofa is a large, softpiece of furniturethat many people cansit on.stoolA stool is a seatwith neitherarms nor a back.tableA table is a piece offurniture with a flattop and legs.Geology-Related WordsatomEverything ismade up of tinyatoms.crystalCrystals are solidswhose atoms forma very regularpattern.diamondA diamond is a veryhard, shiny jewel.emeraldAn emerald is a hard,shiny, deep greenjewel.gemGems sparkle andshine.geyserA geyser is anatural hot springthat occasionallysprays water andsteam above theground.geologyGeology is thestudy of the Earthsstructure, includingrocks and minerals.glacierA glacier is a large,slowly-moving riverof ice.goldGold is a preciousmetal. Coins andjewelry are made fromgold. The Sacajawea USdollar coin above lookslike gold.graniteGranite is a commontype of igneous rock.Granite is formed in aslow cooling process.
- 51 -igneous rockWhen molten rockcools, igneousrock is formed.impact craterImpact craters arethe remains ofcollisions betweenan asteroid ormeteorite and theEarth.ironIron is a commonmetal that is used formany things, like traintracks, pots, andpipes.lavaLava is molten rock. Itcomes out of eruptingvolcanoes.limestoneLimestone is a type ofsedimentary rock thatis made of theskeletons of tinymicroorganisms.magnetA magnet attractsthings made ofiron.marbleMarble is abeautifulmetamorphic rock.metalA metal is an elementthat has a crystallinestructure when it is solidform. Many metals areshiny and many conductelectricity. Some metalsinclude iron, copper,silver, and gold.metamorphic rockMetamorphic rocksare compacted bypressure and heat fromdeep inside the earth.mineralA mineral is a naturally-occurring solid whosemolecules form a regularpattern (usually formingcrystals). Some commonminerals include quartz,salt, diamond, andfeldspar.pebbleA pebble is asmall, smoothstone.quartzQuartz is acommon crystallinemineral.rockA rock is a stone. TheEarths crust is madeof rock.rubyA ruby is a hard,shiny, red jewel.saltSalt is an importantcrystalline mineralthat we use to seasonour food.sandSand is a loosematerialcomposed of finedebris of rock andmineral particles.sedimentaryrockSedimentary rockis rock that hasformed fromsediment and iswhere most fossilsare found.silverSilver is a valuablemetal; it is also theshiniest metal. Somecoins and jewelry aremade from silver.soilPlants grow in soil.solidA solid is a matter inwhich the moleculesare very close togetherand cannot movearound. Ice, quartz,and diamonds aresolids.
- 52 -stoneA stone is a rock.streakA streak is a longmark or stripe ofcolor.tsunamiA tsunami is a rare,giant series of wavescaused by anunderwaterearthquake or otherlarge-scale,underwaterdisturbance.volcanoA volcano is amountainous vent inthe Earths crust.When a volcanoerupts, it spews outlava, ashes, and hotgases from deep insidethe Earth.waterWater is a liquid thatwe drink and use towash. Water coversover two thirds of thesurface of the Earth,and much of our bodyis made of water.wellA well is a deephole in the groundfrom which youget water.House-Related WordsarmchairAn armchair is achair with arms.bathtubYou take a bath in abathtub.bedPeople sleep in beds.benchA few people can sit ona bench.bookcaseBooks are storedin bookcases.brickThis fireplace ismade out of bricks.broomYou can sweep thefloor with a broom.can openerA can opener is adevice that openscans.carpetA carpet is a floorcovering made ofwoven yarn or thickfabric.chairA chair is a pieceof furniture thatpeople sit on.chimneyA chimney is astructure in whichyou can build afire.chinaChina is well-madepottery that was firstmade in China.clothespinClothespins are usedto hang wet laundryon a clothes line todry.couchA couch is a big, softpiece of furniture thatmany people can sit on.cradleA cradle is a smallbed for a baby.
- 53 -cuckoo clockA cuckoo clockhas a mechanicalbird that singsevery hour.cupboardThings are stored incupboards.curtainsCurtains are clothhung on and around awindow.doorYou can go in and outthrough a door.drapesDrapes are clothhung on andaround a window.dresserA dresser is a pieceof furniture inwhich you canstore things.fanA fan is a machinethat makes a breeze.faucetYou can turn waterflow on or off at afaucet.fenceA fence is a type ofbarrier.fireplaceYou can make afire in a fireplaceto keep you warm.footstoolA footstool is asmall piece offurniture.framePeople put picturesand photos inframes to protectthem and makethem look nice.freezerA freezer keepsthings icy.furnitureTables, chairs, sofas,and beds are furniture.garbage canGarbage cans holdgarbage.gardenPlants grow in agarden.gateA gate is a door in afence.grandfather clockA grandfather clock isa large, free-standingpendulum clock.homeHome is where you live.houseSome people livein houses.hutA hut is a small,simple shelter.iglooAn igloo is a housemade out of blocksof ice. Brr!kettleA kettle is a pot inwhich you boil water.keyWe use keys to lock andunlock doors.kitchenPeople prepareand store food in akitchen.
- 54 -lampA lamp gives outlight.lawnA lawn is a placeoutside where grassgrows.lawn mowerYou can cut the grasswith a lawn mower.living roomA living room is a largeroom in an apartment orhouse.log cabinA log cabin is ahouse made oflogs.matYou can wipe yourshoes on a floormat.microwave ovenMicrowave ovensheat up foodquickly.mirrorYou can see yourreflection in a mirror.mobileA mobile is a hanging sculpture.ovenOvens get veryhot. You can bakefood in an oven.oven mittAn oven mittprotects your handwhen you putthings in or out ofan oven.pillowA pillow is a softcushion that you canrest upon.quiltQuilts keep you warmat night.roofThe roof is the topcovering of a building.roomA room is a partof a building thatis separated off bywalls.rugA rug is a floorcovering made ofwoven yarn orthick fabric.shelfA shelf is a smallplatform on whichthings can beplaced.showerWhen you shower,you wash your bodyin a stream of fallingwater.sinkWe can wash our handsat a sink.soapSoap and waterhelp clean things.sofaA sofa is a large,soft piece offurniture that manypeople can sit on.spongeSponges areabsorbent objectsused to clean things.stoolA stool is a seat withneither arms nor aback.stoveYou can cook food on astove.tableA table is a pieceof furniture with aflat top and legs.
- 55 -toasterA toaster is amachine that heatsup slices of bread,making toast.toiletToilets are inbathrooms.trash canA trash can holdsgarbage. vacuum cleanerA vacuum cleaner is adevice used to cleanrugs and floors.wallA wall is a side ofa building or aroom or a fence.wastebasketPeople throw trash in awastebasket.welcome matYou can wipe your shoeson a welcome mat.windowA window is a glass-coveredopening in a wall or vehicle.You can see out a window.yardA yard is a small outside area.
- 56 -In the Sea:Ocean-Related WordsAfrican penguinThe Africanpenguin is a small,flightless bird thatlives on islands offthe coast ofsouthern Africa.anchorAn anchor is aheavy metaldevice that holdsa ship in place.boatBoats float inthe water.blue sharkThe blue shark is asleek, fast-swimmingshark with blue skin.blue whaleThe blue whale isthe biggest animalthat ever lived. Iteats tiny food thatit sieves throughbaleen.conchThe conch is alarge, shelledanimal from warmseas.cookiecuttersharkThe cookiecuttershark is a smallshark that takescircular bites outof its prey. Alsoknown as theluminous or cigarshark.coralCoral is a tinyocean animalthat lives incolonies. Somecorals leave ahard, stonyskeleton whenthey die.coral reefCoral reefs are warm,clear, shallow oceanhabitats that are richin life.crabA crab has a hardshell and eyes onstalks on its head.In the Sea:Ocean-Related Words
- 57 -cuttlefishThe cuttlefish is aclose relative of theoctopus and thesquid.angelfishAngelfish are brightly-coloredfish that live in warm water.angelsharkAngelsharks are sharksthat have flat bodiesand live on the oceanfloor.basking sharkThe basking shark is hugeand eats very tiny animalsthat float in the ocean.beluga whaleThe beluga is a small, white, toothedwhale that lives mostly in cold,arctic waters.coral reefCoral reefs arewarm, clear,shallow oceanhabitats that are richin life.dogfish sharkThe dogfish shark is a small,very common shark that isfound all over the world. It isnot dangerous to people.dolphinA dolphin is a marinemammal with a longnose and teeth.Dolphins are whales.dugongDugongs are gentle, slow-swimming, aquaticmammals.echolocationIn echolocation (also called sonar), ahigh-pitched sound (usually clicks) issent out. The sound bounces off theobject and some returns. The returningecho is interpreted to determine theobjects shape, direction, distance,and texture. Dolphins (and othertoothed whales) and some bats usesonar to navigate and find prey.eelThe eel is a long,snake-like fish.elephant sealThe elephant seal is a huge sealthat lives in the Pacific Ocean.emperor angelfishThe emperor angelfishis a brightly-colored,flattened fish that livesin shallow warmwaters.emperor penguinThe emperor penguin isthe largest penguin; it liveson ice packs in Antarctica.fiddler crabThe fiddler crab is small crab thatlives on beaches. The male fiddler crabhas one enlarged claw.finFish use their fins toswim.fin whaleThe fin whale is a very largebaleen whale. It is the secondlargest animal in the world.fishFish live in the waterand breathe with gills.flipperFlippers are wide, flatlimbs that many marineanimals use for swimming.Seals and whales haveflippers.flukesThe tail of whales and dolphins is calledthe flukes (each half of the tail is calleda fluke). Flukes have no bones in them.Whales swim by moving their flukesup and down in the water(fish move their tail left to right).giant squidGiant Squid swimdeep in the oceans.They have ten armsand their eyes arethe size ofbasketballs.gillsGills are organs thatfish and amphibians useto breathe underwater.goblin sharkThe Goblin sharkhas a very longsnout.gray whaleThe gray whale is abaleen whale thateats tiny organismsfrom the mud onthe bottom on theocean.great white sharkThe Great White shark is alarge, meat-eating fish.
- 58 -gullGulls are birdsthat live nearoceans andlakes.hammerhead sharkThe hammerhead sharkhas a head shaped like ahammer.harp sealThe harp seal is amarine mammalthat lives in theNorth Atlanticand in the ArcticOcean.hatchetfishHatchetfish areoddly-shaped fishfrom South andCentral America.hermit crabHermit crabs are crabs thatlack a hard shell; they use adiscarded shell for protection.horseshoecrabThe horseshoecrab is a hard-shelled animalthat lives inwarm coastalwaters on thesea floor.hullThe hull is the mainbody or frame of a ship.humpbackwhaleHumpbacks arevery acrobaticwhales that singbeautiful,complex songs.intertidal zoneThe intertidal zoneis where the seameets the land, thearea between hightide and low tide.jellyfishJellyfish are animals thathave stinging tentacles.keelThe keel is thebottom of aship.kelpKelp is brown seaweedthat grows in coldwater.killer whaleKiller whales arealso known asorcas. Thesewhales eatshundreds ofpounds of fishand marinemammals everyday.krillKrill are smallmarine animals thatare eaten by manybig animals,including somewhales.lanternfishLanternfish are fish that havelight-producing organs andvery large eyes.lemon sharkThe lemonshark is ayellowishshark.limpetThe limpet is a marineanimal with a soft bodyand a flattened, cone-shaped shell.lobsterA lobster lives onthe ocean floorand has five pairsof legs. Lobstershave blue blood.lobtailingLobtailing is when a whalesticks its tail out of thewater into the air, swingsthe tail around, and thenslaps the tail on the waterssurface. Lobtailing makesa very loud noise.macaroni penguinThe macaroni penguin is apenguin from the Antarcticthat has a yellow, featherycrest on its head.
- 59 -mako sharkThe makoshark is a veryfast shark withbluish skin.manateeManatees are gentle,slow-swimming,aquatic mammals.man-of-warThe Portugueseman-of-war is afloating colony ofanimals that hasvery long, stingingtentacles. It lives inwarm oceanwaters.manta rayManta rays areharmless fish andare related tosharks. Mantas arethe biggest rays.marine mammalsMarine mammals live inthe sea and breathe air.Seals, sea lions, whales,and others are marinemammals.moray eelThe moray eelis a long,snake-like fishthat hascircular gills.narwhalThe narwhal is anArctic whale; the malehas a huge tooth.nautilusThe nautilus is asea animalrelated to thesquid andoctopus!nurse sharkThe nurse shark is alarge predator thatlives in warm waterin coral reefs.octopusOctopi have eight armsand live on the sea floor.orcaOrcas are alsoknown as killerwhales. Anorca eatshundreds ofpounds of fishand marinemammalsevery day.otterAn otter is a playfulaquatic mammal.oysterThe oyster is asoft-bodiedmarine animalthat is protectedby two hardshells.pelicanThe pelican is fish-eating bird with ahuge, pouched bill.penguinPenguins are birds that cannotfly but swim very well.planktonPlankton are tinyorganisms that floatin the seas and otherbodies of water.Plankton is the baseof the oceanic foodweb.podA group of whales iscalled a pod.polar bearPolar bears arelarge meat-eaterslive in the farnorth. They haveclear-colored hairand black skin.porpoiseA porpoise is a marinemammal with a longnose and teeth. They arealso known as dolphins;they are a type oftoothed whales.portholeA porthole is a windowin a ship.
- 60 -propellerA propeller is adevice withblades that isturned by anengine; itmakes boats(and someairplanes)move.prowThe prow is front partof a ship.pufferfishAlso calledblowfish, thispoisonous fishcan swallowwater to doubleits size.queen conchThe queen conch isa large, shelledanimal from warmseas. It is in dangerof extinction.rayA ray is a flat fish that isrelated to the sharks.Many have a long tailthat stings.reefReefs arewarm, clear,shallow oceanhabitats thatare rich in life.right whaleRight whales are baleenwhales with a hugehead and an archedmouth. They werealmost hunted toextinction.rockhopperpenguinThe rockhopperpenguin is asmall, aggressive,crested bird thatcannot fly.sailA sail is a largepiece of strongfabric that catchesthe wind andpropels a boat orsailboard throughthe water.sailboatA sailboat is a boat thathas sails and is poweredby the wind.sailfishThe sailfish isa deep-sea fish.It is the fastestfish in the seaand can swimup to 68 milesper hour (110kph).salmonSalmon are fish thatlive in the sea andspawn in fresh water.sandSand is a loosematerialcomposed of finedebris of rockand mineralparticles.sand dollarSand Dollars arecoin-shaped spiny-skinned sea bedanimals that have 5-part radialsymmetry.scalesScales are thin, hard,overlapping plates onsome animals. Fish arecovered with scales.Butterfly wings aremade of scales.scallopScallops are animalsthat have two shellsand live on the oceanfloor.scuba diverScuba divers swimunder the water andcarry their own air in a tank ontheir back.seaA sea is a large body ofsalt water that isconnected to an ocean. Asea may be partly orcompletely surrounded byland.sea anemoneA sea snemone is a predatorysea animal that looks like aflower and lives on the oceanfloor.sea cowSea cows (also called manatees)are gentle, slow-swimming,aquatic mammals.
- 61 -seacucumberSea cucumbersare cylinder-shaped animalsthat live on thesea floor.sea gullThe sea gull is thecommon name for somebirds that live nearoceans and lakes.sea horseThe sea horse is avery strange typeof fish - it has along snout and acurled tail.sealSeals are animalsthat live in theocean but breatheair. They are marinemammals.sea lionSea lions are eared seals thatlive off the coast of westernNorth America.sea otterSea otters aremarinemammals withvery dense,waterproof fur.sea starSea stars, another namefor starfish, are animalsthat live on the oceanfloor.sea urchinThe sea urchin isa spiny, globularanimal that liveson the oceanfloor.seaweedSeaweed is a plantthat lives in the sea.sharkSharks are meat-eaters thathave no bones, only cartilage(which is softer than bone)in their skeleton.shellSome animalsgrow a shellfor protection.shipA ship is a very largeboat.shrimpShrimp are smallanimals that livein the water.snailA snail is a small,slow animal with itsown shell.spongeA sponge is a primitiveanimal that lives in the water.spyhoppingSpyhopping iswhen a whalepokes its headup out of thewater and turnsaround,perhaps to lookaround.squidSquids swim in theoceans. They have tenarms and an ink sac.starfishStarfish (alsoknown as seastars) are animalsthat live on theocean floor.stingrayA stingray is a flatfish with cartilageinstead of bones. Itssting is in its tail.submarineA submarine is a vessel thatcan travel underwater andcarry people.
- 62 -sunfishThe sunfish isa large fishwith an almostcircular,flattened body.swimWhen you swim, youmove around in thewater.swordfishThe swordfish isa large fish with along, sharp bill.ternTerns are birds thatare sometimescalled "seaswallows."thresher sharkThe thresher shark has a agreatly-elongated top part ofthe tail.tiger sharkTiger sharksare large,fierce sharksthat have faintstripes.tugboatA tugboat is a sturdyboat that guides largeboats in and out ofharbors.tunaThe tuna is a verylarge, bony fishthat lives in theocean. People eata lot of tuna.walrusA walrus is anorthern marinemammal with ivorytusks.waterWater is a liquid that wedrink and use to wash.Water covers over two thirdsof the surface of the Earth,and much of our body ismade of water.waveThere arewaves of waterin the ocean.Weddell sealThe Weddell seal is alarge, nocturnal marinemammal fromAntarctica (near theSouth Pole).whaleWhales are largemarine mammals.Whales breatheair using lungs.whale sharkThe whale shark isthe biggest sharkand the biggest fish,but it eats tiny foodthat it sievesthrough its gills. Itis not a whale; it isa shark.whelkWhelks are ocean animalswith a hard, spiral shell.XiphiasXiphias is the group(genus) of swordfish,fast-swimming fishthat have a long, sharpbill.yachtA yacht is a very nicesmall ship.zooplanktonZooplankton aretiny animals thatfloat in the seasand other bodiesof water.
- 63 -At the Post Office:Mail-Related WordsaddressAn address tells thePost Office where tobring a letter orpackage.boxA box can hold things.cardYou can senda card to afriend.envelopeAn envelope holds aletter.letterYou can write aletter tocommunicatewith a person.mailboxA mailbox is whereyou leave letters to bemailed.packageA package is a wrappedbox that containssomething.paperWe write andpaint onpaper. It ismade fromplant fibers,usually trees.postcardA postcard is a cardyou can mail withoutan envelope. Peoplewho collect post cardsare called deltiologists.scaleA scale is amachine forweighing things.stampYou must put a stampon a letter for it to bedelivered.tapeTape is a long, stickyribbon that is used to stickthings together.Math-Related WordsabacusAn abacus is anancient device that isused for arithmeticcalculations.acute angleAn acute angle isless than 90degrees.1+1=22+3=5additionAddition is theadding ofnumbers to gettheir sum.angleAn angle is theamount of rotationit would take toput oneintersecting lineon top of another.1+1=27-4=3arithmeticArithmetic is the study ofaddition, subtraction,multiplication, and division.
- 64 -1,000,000,000billionA billion is a thousandmillion. The Earth isbillions of years old.chartA chart is adiagram, like agraph or a table,that shows therelationshipsbetween things.circleAll of the pointson a circle arethe samedistance fromthe center.coneA cone is a shapethat has a point atone end and acircular openingat the other end.In mathematics,this shape is a halfcone.coupleA couple refers to twopeople or two objects.crescentA crescent is the shapeof the moon a littlebefore of after the timeof the new moon.cubeA cube is a solidgeometric figurewith six squarefaces.curveA curve is awavy line.cylinderA cylinder is afigure with a longround body .denominatorThe denominator is thebottom number in a fraction.diameterThe diameter is thelongest distance fromone side of a circle (ora sphere) to the other.diamondA diamond is afour-sided figurewhose sides areall the samelength. Peopleplay baseball on adiamond-shapedfield.dividendThe dividend isthe number thatis divided (inlong division).The dividenddivided by thedivisor is thequotient (plus aremainder).divisionDivision is anoperation thatdivides a numberinto portions.divisorThe divisor is the numberthat the dividend is dividedby (in long division). Thedividend divided by thedivisor is the quotient (plusa remainder).dodecahedronA dodecahedron is atwelve-sided geometricsolid whose faces arepentagons.2 xdoubleDouble meanstwice or twotimes.************12dozenDozen is anotherword for twelve.eightSpiders have eightlegs. Stop signshave eight sides.18******************eighteenEighteen is the numberbetween seventeen andnineteen.
- 65 -80eightyEighty is the numberbetween seventy-nineand eighty-one.11***********elevenEleven is ten plusone.ellipseAn ellipse is aflattened circle.=equalWhen two thingsare equal they areexactly the samein number,quality, oramount.equilateral triangleThe sides of an equilateraltriangle are all the samelength.0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10,...even numberAn even number isdivisible by two.FahrenheitFahrenheit is ameasure oftemperature thatis abbreviated F.Water freezes at32°F and boils at212°F.firstThe first personor thing comesbefore theothers.15***************fifteenFifteen is thenumber afterfourteen (14) andbefore sixteen(16).50**************************************************fiftyFifty is the number afterforty nine (49) and beforefifty one (51).fivePeople have fivefingers on each hand.40****************************************fortyForty is the numberafter thirty nine (39)and before forty one(41).fourSquares have foursides. Cats and dogshave four legs.14**************fourteenFourteen is thenumber after thirteen(13) and beforefifteen (15).fractalFractals are patterns withinpatterns within patterns.1/2fractionA fraction is a part of awhole. Half of an appleis a fraction of anapple. The top numberin a fraction is calledthe numerator; thebottom number in afraction is called thedenominator.geometryGeometry is themathematicalstudy of points,lines, angles, andsolids.graphA graph is adiagram thatshowsrelationshipsbetween things.>greater thanThe mathematicalsymbol > means"greater than."When one numberis greater than asecond number,the first one isbigger than thesecond. Forexample, 4 isgreater than 2, or4 > 2.1/2halfWhen something is dividedinto two equal parts, each ofthese two parts is half of theoriginal object.
- 66 -heartThe heart is a shape that oftensymbolizes love.heptagonA heptagon is aseven-sidedfigure.hexaflexagonA hexaflexagon isa foldedgeometric figurethat can be"flexed" toexpose its manysides.hexagonA hexagon is asix-sidedfigure.Beehives havehexagonalcells.100hundredOne hundred isthe numberafter 99 andbefore 101.icosahedronAn icosahedron is a twenty-sidedgeometric solid.isoscelestriangleAn isoscelestriangle has twosides that are thesame length andtwo angles thatare the same.kiteA kite is a four-sided figure inwhich the twopairs of adjacentsides have thesame length.<less thanThemathematicalsymbol <means "lessthan." Whenone number isless than asecond number,the first one issmaller thanthe second. Forexample, 1 isless than 2, or 1< 2.line segmentA line segmentis a portion of aline.long divisionIn long division, the dividend is divided by the divisor,resulting in a quotient plus a remainder.5 4 66 5 44 6 5magic squareIn a magic square, therows, columns, anddiagonals all add up to thesame number.mathematicsMathematics is the studyof numbers, shapes,patterns, and logicalreasoning.1,000,000millionA million is a thousandthousands. Thedinosaurs livedmillions of years ago.-minusThe mathematicalsymbol - means"minus." Four minusthree is written, 4 - 3.Möbius stripA Möbius strip is a piece of paperwith only one side!1 x 2 = 22 x 3 = 6multiplicationMultiplication isa mathematicaloperation used tocompute areasand do othercalculations.xmultiplyThe mathematicalsymbol x means"multiply." Fourtimes three iswritten, 4 x 3.nineThere are nineplanets in oursolar systemand nineplayers on abaseball team.number lineNumberscorrespond topoints on anumber line.
- 67 -numberNumbers tell you "how many" or"how much."numeratorThe numerator is thetop number in afraction.obtuse angleAn obtuse angleis greater thanninety degrees.octagonAn octagon isan eight-sidedfigure. Stopsigns areoctagons.octahedronAn octahedronis an eight-sidedgeometric solid.1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, ...odd numberAn odd number is not divisibleby two.oneOne is a smallnumber.1/2one halfWhen somethingis divided intotwo equal parts,each of these twoparts is one halfof the originalobject.orbA ball-shapedobject is an orb.ovalAn oval is anegg-shapedfigure.parallelParallel lines extend in the samedirection, are always the samedistance apart, and never meet.parallelogramA parallelogram is afour-sided figurewhose opposite sidesare parallel.patternA pattern issomething that isrepeated.pentagonA pentagon is afive-sidedfigure.perimeterPerimeter is thedistance around theedges of a figure. Forexample, theperimeter of a squarewith side length of ais a+a+a+a=4 times a.perpendicularWhen two lines areperpendicular, they are at rightangles (90 degrees).pie chartA pie chart (alsocalled a circle graph)is a diagram that isuseful for displayinginformation about thepercentages or partsof a whole..pointA point is anexact location, aspot with nowidth orthickness.polygonA polygon is amany-sidedfigure withstraight edges.polyhedronPolyhedra aresolids whosefaces arepolygons.
- 68 -2,3,5,7,11,13,17...prime numberA prime number is a positivenumber that has exactly two factors,1 and itself. Alternatively, you canthink of a prime number as anumber greater than one that is notthe product of smaller numbers. Forexample, 13 is a prime numberbecause it can only be dividedevenly by 1 and 13. For anotherexample, 14 is not a prime numberbecause it can be divided evenly by1, 2, 7, and 14. The number one isnot a prime number because it hasonly one factor, 1 itself.protractorA protractor is adevice that measuresangles.pyramidA pyramid is ashape that has aflat polygonalbase andtriangular sidesthat meet at apoint on the top.The pyramids inEgypt are hugebuildings buildby ancientEgyptians.quadrilateralA quadrilateralis a four-sidedfigure. Thesquare,rectangle,rhombus,trapezoid, kite,andparallelogramarequadrilaterals.quotientThe quotient isthe answer inlong division.The dividenddivided by thedivisor is thequotient (plus aremainder).radiusThe radius is the distance fromthe center of a circle (or asphere) to the edge.1/2ratioA ratio is therelationship betweentwo numbers, asdefined by the resultyou get when youdivide one by the other.rectangleA rectangle is afour-sided figurewhose sides areat right angles toeach other.remainderThe remainder isthe fractional part ofthe answer in longdivision. Thedividend divided bythe divisor is thequotient plus theremainder.rhombusA rhombus is aparallelogramwith equal-length sides.right angleA right angle looks like thecorner of a square; it extendsninety degrees.right triangleA right triangle hasone angle that is aright angle(extending 90degrees).RomannumeralsThousands ofyears ago, inancient Rome, theRomans used asystem of numbersthat we call Romannumerals. In thissystem, I=1. V=5,X=10, L=50,C=100, D=500,and M=1,000.scalene triangleThe sides of ascalene triangle areall different lengths.secondThe secondperson or itemcomes after thefirst and beforethe third.