Reading japanese


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Reading japanese

  1. 1. The Kanji Café’sREADING JAPANESETHE JAPANESE KANA SCRIPTSCONTENTSeBook License 二 2Introduction 三 3Procedures 四 4Lesson 1 (Katakana) 五 5 Lesson 5 (Hiragana) 八十八 88Lesson 2 (Katakana) 十九 19 Lesson 6 (Hiragana) 百三 103Lesson 3 (Katakana) 四十一 41 Lesson 7 - Not finishedLesson 4 (Katakana) 六十三 63 Lesson 8 - Not finished© 2007-2008
  2. 2. READING JAPANESE二eBook LicenseAs long as you do not make alterations, feel free to disseminate this eBook.The original text was written by Eleanor Harz Jorden with Hamako Ito Chaplin.All other content was written by James Rose. It is a work in progress.This eBook is published by Rolomail Trading, United States Virgin Islands.The most up-to-date version of the book can always be found at can be reached at Trading can be reached at eBook was paid for by your support of Rolomail Trading. Thank you and keep it up!
  3. 3. READING JAPANESE三INTRODUCTIONThis adaptation of READING JAPANESE contains four chapters which teach the katakanasyllabary, and four chapters which teach the hiragana syllabary. It has been formatted so that eachPDF page fits entirely on your screen. It is meant to be given freely without charge to promote thestudy of the Japanese language. Reading Japanese was developed under contract with the U.S.Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. This free version has beenrepublished by, and was underwritten by the generous support of people like you,who have purchased their Japanese educational products at the Rolomail Trading Company, and atMangajin Publishing (Wasabi Brothers Trading Company).The Original textbook was prepared over a number of years, field tested in a number ofinstitutions, and was checked, typed, indexed and proofread by an extensive number of people,hundreds of copies being sent out to participating schools for criticism and classroom reaction.These schools, among others, included Bucknell University, Columbia University, the ForeignService Institute, University of Iowa, University of Pennsylvania, Yale University, the JapanNational Language Research Institute, and most especially Cornell University, where the authorswere from. This book is truly the result of an unusual level of cooperation.READING JAPANESE is not a handbook or a dictionary, but was specifically prepared tointroduce adult foreigners, in particular English speakers, to the Japanese language, and enablethem to begin reading. Material is presented in an ordered fashion, and each increment of newmaterial presupposes mastery of what was studied before, but only what was studied before.
  4. 4. READING JAPANESE四PROCEDURESJapanese is normally written with a mixture of two syllabaries (kana) and Chinese characters(kanji). In kana writing, symbols represent syllables without reference to meaning, whereaskanji regularly stand for sound plus meaning. More will be said about both systems later.The first four lesson of this eBook introduce the katakana. Students should go through theselessons, concentrating first on the reading and then the writing of each new symbol and theexamples provided. They should practice until all the Japanese material included (1) can beread in random order, accurately, rapidly, and without any hesitation, and (2) can be writtenaccurately and rapidly, given either oral dictation of the Japanese, or the romanized equivalentof the Japanese.A final note: Those who conscientiously work through this text, following all recommendedprocedures and moving ahead to a new lesson only after the previous lesson is adequatelyinternalized, can expect to acquire a solid basic foundation in Japanese reading. They will bethoroughly familiar with all the katakana that have been introduced, through recurring contactin assorted contexts, and they will be ready to move ahead into materials that add the hiraganaand kañji to their repertoire.
  5. 5. READING JAPANESE五LESSON 1INTRODUCTIONThe first four lessons introduce katakana, the syllabary used primarily for writing loanwords(i.e., words borrowed from foreign languages). Katakana is also used to represent nativeJapanese items that are intended to stand out in the context in which they occur. The use ofkatakana in Japanese often corresponds to the use of italics in English: katakana occursfrequently in advertisements; it is also used in writing items that represent something strange orunusual from a linguistic point of view (for example, in quoting foreigners errors in Japanese);and it is often used in writing onomatopoeic words—i.e., those that are supposed to representtheir meaning by their sound (example: gatagata representing a rattling sound). In addition,katakana is used in writing telegrams and, together with kañzi, in writing legal documents.While most current linguistic borrowings by the Japanese is from English, there are manyloanwords derived from other languages. For example, among place names, Suisu Switzerland,Itaria Italy, and Doitu Germany, all have non-English origins. The emphasis in the lessons thatfollow, however, will be on the reading of Katakana as it is used to represent loanwords ofEnglish origin. In particular, foreign place names and personal names will be used as examplesin the introduction of each new katakana symbol. The writing of kana should, of course, also bemastered. After learning to read a symbol, students should practice writing, working back fromthe romanization of the examples to the original kana.
  6. 6. READING JAPANESE六NOTESWhen the Japanese borrow English words and phrases, these loanwords are pronounced in away that approximates the original pronunciation but conforms to the sound system of Japanese.This entails many adjustments, since the sound systems of Japanese and English bear littleresemblance to each other. For example, because the sound system of English is more complex,one Japanese sound often represents several sounds in English: Japanese b may representEnglish b or v; Japanese oo may represent the vowel or dipthong of English stalk or stoke;Japanese si may represent English she or see, and so on.A further problem is the fact that while most borrowings are based on pronunciation, there areoften a variety of pronunciations for any given item in English, and some borrowings are derivedfrom the original English spellings. For example, Japanese aruminyuumu comes from BritishEnglish aluminium; and English margarine occurs in Japanese as maagariñ (ma-a-ga-ri-ñ)conforming to its spelling rather than its pronunciation in English.In loanwords, Japanese consonants as represented by romanization generally correspond tothe English consonants represented by the same letters in the writing system, although the actualsounds the letters represent in the two languages are far from identical. Thus, r in Japanese isused to represent the markedly different initial consonant of English road. However, there willalso be many divergences from this kind of correspondence, partly because of the vagaries ofEnglish spelling. For example, the c of cent is represented in Japanese as s, while the c aswell as the k of cake are represented by k. Other divergences, that result from the phonologicalstructure of Japanese, will be discussed below.The most commonly occuring vowel correspondences are as follows.
  7. 7. READING JAPANESE七Japanese corresponds to the English vowel or diphthong of:iiiuuueee or eioooouoiaaaaiau or aosit (or seat)seedlook (or Luke)moodlet (or late)laidcot (or coat)mode or Maudmodeboypat or pad or puttmamycowIn spite of all the adjustments required, katakana representing loanwords based on Englishborrowings will, in most instances, be immediately identifiable to speakers of English as to itsorigin. In some cases, however, identification is difficult, particularly for a student with onlylimited experience in reading such items. When problems are encountered, the followingprocedures (the procedures covered here apply to the examples introduced in this lesson) areoften helpful in providing clues that will make recognition possible.
  8. 8. READING JAPANESE八1. Write out the unidentified item in romanization.2. Are there any short u vowels following consonants? Try eliminating them.Examples: misu = misshosutesu = hostess3. Are there any rs? Check them out for representation of English l as well as r.Examples: arisu = Alicehoteru = hotelarasuka = Alaskasukuuru = schoolrookaru = localterii = Terry or Tellyrarii = Larry or rally4. Are there any ss? Check them out for representation of English th (as in thin) as well as s.Examples: sumisu = Smithruusu = ruse or loose or RuthAnd are there any Japanese si syllables? Check the consonant out for representation ofEnglish sh as well as s.
  9. 9. READING JAPANESE九Examples: takusii = taxisiria = Syriarosia = Russia5. Are there any occurrences of aa ? Check them out for representation of English vowel + r offar or fir (note the variety of English spellings that represent these sounds, in words such asbar, her, sir, fur, purr, hard, herd, bird, word, urban, lighter, color) as well as of longa.Examples: misutaa = misterraitaa = lightermiraa = Millertawaa = towerkuraaku = Clark or clerkkaaru = Karlkaraa = colormootaasukuutaa = motorscooterAdditional procedures will be furnished in subsequent lessons. However, the student mustalways bear in mind that the Japanese word-borrowing system is not completely regular: it isusually possible to predict exactly how an English item will be borrowed into Japanese, but thereare exceptions. Fortunately, even the exceptions usually contain enough evidence of regularity tomake possible the identification of the English source, given the Japanese, and this is sufficient forreading.
  10. 10. READING JAPANESE十SYMBOLS AND EXAMPLESKatakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderス suミ miー (vowel lengthening)1Examples:スミス sumisu Smithミス misu Missミス・2スミス misu・sumisu Miss Smithスー suu Sueスー・スミス suu・sumisu Sue Smithミス・スー・スミス misu・suu・sumisu Miss Sue Smith1In vertical writing, this symbol is written as a vertical line.2The dot represents a boundary between items. It regularly occurs between foreign given names and family name, but in general itsusage tends to be unpredictable.
  11. 11. READING JAPANESE十一Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderア aメ meリ riカ kaExamples:アメリカ amerika America ミス・アメリカ misu・amerika Miss Americaリー rii Lee メリー merii Maryメリー・リー merii・rii Mary Lee スー・リー suu・rii Sue Leeリー・スミス rii・sumisu Lee Smith メリー・スミス merii・sumisu Mary Smithアリス arisu Alice アリス・スミス arisu・sumisu Alice Smithメリー・アリス・リー merii・arisu・rii Mary Alice Leeアリス・メリー・スミス arisu・merii・sumisu Alice Mary Smith
  12. 12. READING JAPANESE十二Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderホ hoテ teル ruExamples:ホテル hoteru hotel ホステル hosuteru hostelホステス hosutesu hostess ホテル・アメリカ hoteru・amerika Hotel Americaホール hooru Hall1ルース ruusu Ruth2ルース・ホール ruusu・hooru Ruth Hall メリー・ホール merii・hooru Mary Hallテリー terii Terry リー・テリー rii・terii Lee Terryテリー・スミス terii・sumisu Terry Smith テリー・ホール terii・hooru Terry Hallカール kaaru Karlルース・アリス・ホール ruusu・arisu・hooru Ruth Alice Hallカール・リー・スミス kaaru・rii・sumisu Karl Lee Smith1Could also represent hole or hoar.2Could also represent ruse or loose.
  13. 13. READING JAPANESE十三Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderタ taク kuシ siExamples:タクシー takusii taxiシリア siria Syriaクリス kurisu Chrisミスター misutaa Mr.ミスター・クリス・リー misutaa・kurisu・rii Mr. Chris Leeミスター・テリー・ホール misutaa・terii・hooru Mr. Terry Hallスクール sukuuru schoolテリー・リー・スクール terii・rii・sukuuru Terry Lee Schoolメリー・ホール・スクール merii・hooru・sukuuru Mary Hall School
  14. 14. READING JAPANESE十四Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderラ raイ iExamples:ライター raitaa lighterタイ tai Thai[land]イラク iraku Iraqスイス suisu (Non-English origin.) Switzerlandアラスカ arasuka Alaskaミラー miraa Millerラリー rarii Larryラリー・ミラー rarii・miraa Larry Millerクリス・ミラー kurisu・miraa Chris Millerミスター・ラリー・ホール misutaa・rarii・hooru Mr. Larry Hallクラーク kuraaku Clarkルイス ruisu Lewisクラーク・ルイス kuraaku・ruisu Clark Lewisルイス・クラーク・ホテル ruisu・kuraaku・hoteru Lewis Clark Hotel
  15. 15. READING JAPANESE十五Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderロ roモ moワ waExamples:ロシア rosia Russiaカイロ kairo Cairoカラー karaa color (as in film, television, etc.)ローカル・カラー rookaru・karaa local colorモスクワ mosukuwa (Non-English origin.) Moscowモーテル mooteru motelタワー tawaa towerクラーク・タワー kuraaku・tawaa Clark Towerスミス・モーテル sumisu・mooteru Smith Motelモーター mootaa motorモータースクーター mootaasukuutaa motorscooter
  16. 16. READING JAPANESE十六ADDITIONAL PRACTICEReview1. ミス・アラスカ2. ミスター・クラーク・ミラー3. ミス・ルース・ルイス4. カイロ・ホテル5. リー・ミラー・スクール6. スミス・タワー7. ミス・スイス8. モスクワ・モーテル9. メリー・アリス・ホール10. クリス・ミラー・スミス1. misu・arasuka Miss Alaska 6. misutaa・kuraaku・miraa Mr. Clark Miller2. misu・ruusu・ruisu Miss Ruth Lewis 7. kairo・hoteru Cairo Hotel3. rii・miraa・sukuuru Lee Miller School 8. sumisu・tawaa Smith Tower4. misu・suisu Miss Switzerland 9. mosukuwa・mooteru Moscow Motel5. merii・arisu・hooru Mary Alice Hall 10. kurisu・miraa・sumisu Chris Miller SmithNew Words:11. カメラ12. タイル13. テラス14. ルール15. メーカー16. クーラー17. ロータリー18. イースター19. ミステーク11. kamera camera12. tairu tile13. terasu terrace14. ruuru rule15. meekaa maker (i.e., manufacturer)16. kuuraa cooler (i.e., air conditioner)17. rootarii rotary18. iisutaa Easter19. misuteeku mistake
  17. 17. READING JAPANESE十七LESSON 1 SUMMARYBelow is the traditional order used for charting the kana syllabary. Its a 5 X 10 table of the “FiftySounds”, or 五十音 (gozyuu-oñ). Usually the table runs from right to left and from top to bottom,although other arrangements also occur. The following includes the katakana symbols which havebeen introduced in this lesson within the basic framework of the五十音.wa ra ya ma ha na ta sa ka aワ ラ や ナ タ カ アri mi hi ni ti si ki iリ ミ シ イru yu mu hu nu tu su ku uル ス クre me he ne te se ke eメ テro yo mo ho no to so ko oロ モ ホ
  19. 19. READING JAPANESE十九LESSON 2NOTESThe following are additional procedures to help identify loanwords that occur in this lesson.1. Is there an occurrence of b in the romanized version of the loanword? Check it out forrepresentation of English v as well as of b.Examples: boruga = Volgababaria = Bavaria2. Are there any occurrences of syllable to or do? Try eliminating the o.Examples: toroi = Troysiatoru = Seattleraito = right or lightdorai = drysadoru = saddle
  20. 20. READING JAPANESE二十3. Is there an occurrence of z before a vowel? It may represent English th as in then as well as thez sound in zebra.Examples: dezaato = dessertmazaa = motherAnd is there an occurrence of z before i? In this position, the z may also represent the initial soundof ‘jeep’ or the medial consonantal sound of ‘Asia’, as well as the correspondences noted above.Examples: baazinia = Virginiaazia = Asiaiizii = easyziiai = G.I.4. Is there an occurrence of the vowel i? Try deleting it. Such deletion is particularly common inword-final position and between voiceless consonants.Examples: sutoraiki = strikepaazi = purgetekisasu = Texasmekisiko = Mexico
  21. 21. READING JAPANESE二十一5. The vowel u, when followed by a vowel, often represents English w, and ku before a vowelcorresponds to kw (= qu).Examples: kuizu = quizsukuizu = squeeze6. Are there any occurrences of oo + consonant? Check them out for representation of Englishvowel + r of horse as well as of the vowel sounds alone of mode or Maud.Examples: noosu = north or Norsenoomaru = normalpooku = Pork or Polk7. A vowel + syllable a may correspond to a vowel + r sequence in English.1Examples: doa = doorhea = hair1Note that Japanese aa, discussed in Lesson 1, is an example of this same correspondence.
  22. 22. READING JAPANESE二十二SYMBOLS AND EXAMPLESKatakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderオ oト toハ haExamples:オタワ otawa Ottawa ラオス raosu Laosオスロ osuro Oslo アイオワ aiowa Iowaスター sutaa star オールスター oorusutaa all-starトロイ toroi Troy シアトル siatoru Seattleオーストリア oosutoria Austria オーストラリア oosutoraria Australiaライト raito light or right テールライト teeruraito taillightハワイ hawai Hawaii オハイオ ohaio Ohioハリス harisu Harris ハリー harii Harryハイライト hairaito highlight ハリー・ハリス harii・harisu Harry Harrisハイクラス haikurasu high class ハイスクール haisukuuru high school
  23. 23. READING JAPANESE二十三Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderノ noサ saExamples:ハノイ hanoi Hanoiイリノイ irinoi Illinoisホノルル honoruru Honoluluノース noosu North or Norseノア noa Noahノラ nora Noraサハラ sahara Saharaサモア samoa Samoaサー saa Sirミスター・ノア・ノース misutaa・noa・noosu Mr. Noah Northミス・ノラ・ノース misu・nora・noosu Miss Nora Northサー・ルイス・ミラー saa・ruisu・miraa Sir Lewis Miller
  24. 24. READING JAPANESE二十四Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderマ maニ niヤ yaExamples:リマ rima Lima マイアミ maiami Miamiオクラホマ okurahoma Oklahoma トーマス toomasu Thomasサマー samaa summer クリスマス kurisumasu Christmasマラヤ maraya Malaya ヤルタ yaruta Yaltaヤールー yaaruu Yaluトーマス・ノース toomasu・noosu Thomas Northサマー・スクール samaa・sukuuru summer schoolメリー・リー・トーマス merii・rii・toomasu Mary Lee Thomasカール・マルクス kaaru・marukusu Karl Marxクリスマス・カロル kurisumasu・karoru Christmas carol
  25. 25. READING JAPANESE二十五Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderヒ hiレ reExamples:ヒマラヤ himaraya Himalayaヒール hiiru heelハイヒール haihiiru high heelローヒール roohiiru low heelマレーシア mareesia Malaysiaレース reesu race or laceオートレース ootoreesu auto raceレーク reeku lakeレーク・ホテル reeku・hoteru Lake Hotelレール reeru railモノレール monoreeru monorail
  26. 26. READING JAPANESE二十六Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderコ koキ kiExamples:メキシコ mekisiko Mexicoコスタリカ kosutarika Costa Ricaコスト kosuto costローコスト rookosuto low costコースター koosutaa coasterローラーコースター rooraakoosutaa roller coasterコーク kooku cokeコーラ koora colaコカコーラ kokakoora Coca Colaテキサス tekisasu Texasキロサイクル kirosaikuru kilocycleキロメートル kiromeetoru kilometer
  27. 27. READING JAPANESE二十七ADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. ノー2. ハロー3. アロハ4. オーライ5. コート6. サラミ7. レタス8. テニス9. スキー10. レスラー11. ハイク12. サーカス13. オート14. トラクター15. ハイヤー16. ヒーター17. タオル18. サラリー1. noo no2. haroo hello3. aroha aloha4. oorai awri[ght](i.e., all right)5. kooto coat6. sarami salami7. retasu lettuce8. tenisu tennis9. sukii ski[ing]10. resuraa wrestler11. haiku hike12. saakasu circus13. ooto auto14. torakutaa tractor15. haiyaa [car for] hire16. hiitaa heater17. taoru towel18. sararii salary
  28. 28. READING JAPANESE二十八19. レシート20. トータル21. ノート22. サークル23. ステレオ24. マイク25. オスカー26. コーラス27. キリスト28. ハレルヤ29. ヒーロー30. ハート31. スイートハート32. キス33. ノーマル34. トラスト35. ストライク36. スト(ライキ)19. resiito receipt20. tootaru total21. nooto note22. saakuru circle23. sutereo stereo24. maiku mic[rophone]25. osukaa Oscar26. koorasu chorus27. kirisuto Christ28. hareruya halleluja29. hiiroo hero30. haato heart (card suit)31. suiitohaato sweetheart32. kisu kiss33. noomaru normal34. torasuto trust35. sutoraiku (baseball) strike36. suto or sutoraiki (protest) strike
  29. 29. READING JAPANESE二十九DIACRITICS1(a) Compare the following pairs of symbols:タ and ダテ and デト and ドThe symbols on the left are already familiar. They are equivalent to the romanized syllables ta, te,and to. The corresponding symbols on the right are equivalent to the romanized syllables da, de, anddo. In other words, the addition of a ゛(called nigori1) to a kana symbol which represents a syllablewith an initial t- changes its value to the corresponding syllable beginning with d-.Compare: トライ torai tryドライ dorai dry1The green letter ‘g’ in nigori is a convention used solely in this text to represent a nasal pronunciation of ‘g’, as in the ng of singer,produced by holding the tongue in the g position, but allowing the air to escape through the nostrils. This type of g sound neveroccurs in the beginning of a word. The ‘g‘ sound is considered an aspect of the Tokyo dialect, though many Tokyo residents use theregular ‘g’ sound instead, and still others alternate between the two forms. Hence, where ‘g’ is written, ‘g’ can always be used, butwhere ‘g’ is written, ‘g’ cannot be used.
  30. 30. READING JAPANESE三十Examples:ダ daダラス darasu ‘Dallas’アイダホ aidaho ‘Idaho’ノースダコタ noosudakota ‘North Dakota’デ deデリー derii Delhiデトロイト detoroito Detroitド doドミニカ dominika Dominica[n Republic]カード kaado cardクリスマス・カード kurisumasu・kaado Christmas card
  31. 31. READING JAPANESE三十一ADDITIONAL PRACTICENew Words:1. ダイヤ2. ダイアリー3. ダイレクト・メール4. デモ5. データ6. デート7. デスカ8. デモクラシー9. メー・デー10. ドル11. ドア12. サドル13. ドラマ14. ドクター15. ドライヤー16. ドライアイス17. サイドワーク18. サイドスロー1. daiya dia[mond]2. daiarii diary3. dairekuto・meeru direct mail4. demo demo[nstration]5. deeta data6. deeto date7. desuku desk8. demokurasii democracy9. mee・dee May Day10. doru doll[ar]11. doa door12. sadoru saddle13. dorama drama14. dokutaa doctor15. doraiyaa dryer16. doraiaisu dry ice17. saidowaaku side work(side job)18. saidosuroo side throw(as in baseball)
  32. 32. READING JAPANESE三十二(b) The addition of nigori to kana symbols representing syllables with initial k- changes the value tothe corresponding syllables beginning with g- / or -g-1/.Compare: コースト koosuto coastゴースト goosuto ghostExamples:ガ ga / or –ga /マダガスカル madagasukaru Madagascarグ gu / or –gu /グアテマラ guatemara Guatemalaニカラグア nikaragua Nicaraguaギ gi / or –gi /イギリス igirisu Englandギニア ginia Guineaゴ go / or –go /シカゴ sikago Chicagoグラスゴー gurasugoo Glascow1The -g- alternant is comparatively rare in loanwords.
  33. 33. READING JAPANESE三十三ADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. ガス2. タイガー3. ガード4. ガイド5. ギター6. グリル7. ニグロ8. ゴール9. グロテスク10. ダイアローグ11. カタログ1. gasu gas2. taigaa tiger3. gaado guard[ing]4. gaido guide5. gitaa guitar6. guriru grill7. niguro Negro8. gooru goal9. gurotesuku grotesque10. daiaroogu dialogue11. katarogu catalogue(c) Nigori added to symbols representing syllables with initial s- changes the value to thecorresponding syllables beginning with z-.Compare: ロース roosu roas[t]ローズ roozu rose
  34. 34. READING JAPANESE三十四Examples:ザ za ズ zuザール zaaru the Saar ミズーリ mizuuri Missouriジ ziアジア azia AsiaADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. デザート2. イージー3. ジーアイ4. アジテーター5. クイズ6. スクイズ7. マザー8. マザースデー9. シーザー1. dezaato dessert2. iizii easy3. ziiai G.I.4. aziteetaa agitator5. kuizu quiz6. sukuizu squeeze7. mazaa mother8. mazaasudee Mothers Day9. siizaa Caesar
  35. 35. READING JAPANESE三十五(d) Nigori added to symbols representing syllables with initial h- changes the value to thecorresponding syllables beginning with b-.Compare: ホール hooru holeボール booru ball or bowlバ ba ビ biバリ bari Bali ビルマ biruma Burmaアラバマ arabama Alabama リビア ribia Libyaババリア babaria Bavaria ビキニ bikini Bikiniバージニア baazinia Virginia アラビア arabia Arabiaボ boボゴタ bogota Bogotaボルガ boruga Volgaボリビア boribia Boliviaアイボリーコースト aiboriikoosuto Ivory Coast
  36. 36. READING JAPANESE三十六ADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. バス 5. バレー 9. タバコ 13. バスデー2. ビル 6. ビール 10. ホビー 14. ダービー3. ボス 7. ボート 11. ボーグ 15. ボルト4. ボレロ 8. ボイルド 12. ボレー 16. バレーボール1. basu bus 5. baree ballet 9. tabako tobacco 13. basudee birthday2. biru buil[ding] 6. biiru beer 10. hobii hobby 14. daabii derby3. bosu boss 7. booto boat 11. boogu vogue 15. boruto bolt or volt4. borero bolero 8. boirudo boiled 12. boree volley 16. bareebooru volleyball2. The addition of a small circle ゜(called maru) to any kana symbol which represents a syllablewith initial h- changes the value to the corresponding syllable with initial p-.Compare: ハイ hai highパイ pai pie
  37. 37. READING JAPANESE三十七Examples:パ paパリ pari Paris1パラグアイ paraguai Paraguayパールハーバー paaruhaabaa Pearl Harborピ piピサ pisa Pisaパイクス・ピーク paikusu・piiku Pikes Peakポ poポー poo Po (river)ポルトガル porutogaru Portugalポートサイド pootosaido Port Side1This is a borrowing from French.
  38. 38. READING JAPANESE三十八ADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. パパ2. パス3. パズル4. パージ5. パーマ6. パーラー7. パステル8. デパート9. パラダイス10. パトロールカー11. ピアノ12. ピストル13. ピクルス14. ピーアール15. ポーク16. ポーズ17. ポスト18. ポスター19. ポーター20. ポーカー21. ポニーテール1. papa papa2. pasu pass3. pazuru puzzle4. paazi purge5. paama perma[nent wave]6. paaraa parlor7. pasuteru pastel8. depaato depart[ment store]9. paradaisu paradise10. patoroorukaa patrol car11. piano piano12. pisutoru pistol13. pikurusu pickles14. piiaaru P.R. (public relations)15. pooku Polk or pork16. poozu pause17. posuto post18. posutaa poster19. pootaa porter20. pookaa poker21. poniiteeru pony-tail
  39. 39. READING JAPANESE三十九LESSON 2 SUMMARYwa ra ya ma ha na ta sa ka aワ ラ ヤ マ ハバパ タ ダ サ ザ カ ガ アri mi hi ni ti si ki iリ ミ ヒビピ ニ シ ジ キ ギ イru yu mu hu nu tu su ku uル ス ズ ク グre me he ne te se ke eレ メ テ デro yo mo ho no to so ko oロ モ ホボポ ノ ト ド コ ゴ オ
  41. 41. READING JAPANESE四十一LESSON 3NOTESThe following additional procedures will help identify Japanese loanwords that occur in this lesson.1. Is there an occurrence of syllabic ñ?1In word-final position or before a vowel it representsEnglish n; with a following gu (or gu), it represents English ng; elsewhere it assimilates tothe following sound, representing m, n, or ng.Examples: zooñ = zonenoosumookiñgu = no smokingkañbozia = Cambodiaroñdoñ = Londonbañkoku = Bangkok2. Is there an occurrence of t before i? The t may represent the initial sound of English cheap orteam, or (rarely) theme.Examples: tiri = Chilebatikañ = Vaticansutiiru = steeletiopia = Ethiopia1We use the diacritical ñ in this text to distinguish syllabic ‘n’ from the ‘n’ used in other romanized kana (na, ni, nu, ne, and no).
  42. 42. READING JAPANESE四十二3. Is there an occurrence of s before e? The s in this environment may represent the initialconsonant of English Chet, but more usually, of set.Examples: sero = celloseroteepu = cello[phane] tapeSimilarly, z (the voiced equivalent of s) before e may represent the voiced initial consonant ofEnglish jet, but more usually, of zero.Examples: zerii = jellyzero = zero4. Is there an occurrence of h? It may represent the initial sound of English hood or food Thelatter correspondence is particularly common when h is followed by the vowel u.Examples: uuzuhuu = whos whohurañsu = Franceserohañ = cellophaneIs there an occurrence of ho before wa? This combination may represent English wh + vowel,as in why, whine, etc. It approximates the hw pronunciation used by some speakers ofEnglish.Example: howaito = white
  43. 43. READING JAPANESE四十三5. Is there an occurrence of t before u? The t may represent the closest English equivalent̶i.e.,ts as in tsetse̶but more commonly it corresponds to the initial consonant of English too.Examples: pootumasu = Portsmouthtuu = twosuutu = suitomuretu = omelet6, The consonant z before i, already identified as corresponding to the initial consonant of Englishjeep, zebra, and these, and the medial consonant of Asia, may also represent the initialconsonant of English deep.Example: sauziarabia = Saudi Arabia7. Is there an occurrence of a long e vowel? This may represent English y + diphthong as wellas the more usual correspondence without the y.Example: eeru = ale or YaleJapanese i before e may also correspond to English y preceding the e vowel, as in yes, yet,etc.Examples: iesu = yesiesumañ = yes-man
  44. 44. READING JAPANESE四十四SYMBOLS AND EXAMPLESKatakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderン ñExamples:インド iñdo Indiaコンゴ koñgo Congoロンドン roñdoñ Londonミシガン misigañ Michiganサイゴン saigoñ Saigonバンコク bañkoku Bangkokワシントン wasiñtoñ Washingtonカンボジア kañbozia Cambodiaキング kiñgu kingコーニング kooniñgu Corning
  45. 45. READING JAPANESE四十五Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderフ huブ buプ puExamples:フランス hurañsu Franceアフリカ ahurika Africaフロリダ hurorida Floridaサンフランシスコ sañhurañsisuko San Franciscoブラジル buraziru Brazilアルプス arupusu Alps
  46. 46. READING JAPANESE四十六Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderエ eExamples:エジプト eziputo Egyptイスラエル isuraeru Israelエクアドル ekuadoru Ecuadorスイーデン sueedeñ Swedenエープリル eepuriru Aprilエープリル・フール eepuriru・huuru April Foolエール eeru Yale or aleイエス iesu yesイエスマン iesumañ yes-man
  47. 47. READING JAPANESE四十七Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderソ soゾ zoExamples:ソビエト sobieto Soviet [Union]エルパソ erupaso El Pasoソマリア somaria Somaliaソルトレーク sorutoreeku Salt Lakeアマゾン amazoñ Amazonアゾレス azoresu Azoresソロ soro soloソプラノ sopurano sopranoメゾソプラノ mezosopurano mezzosopranoゾーン zooñ zoneアメリカン・ゾーン amerikañ・zooñ American Zone
  48. 48. READING JAPANESE四十八Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderウ uExamples:ソウル souru Seoulウルグアイ uruguai Uruguayサウスダコタ sausudakota South Dakotaサウジアラビア sauziarabia Saudia Arabiaホワイトハウス howaitohausu White Houseウエスト uesuto westウエストポイント uesutopoiñto West Pointウエストバージニア uesutobaazinia West Virginiaウエーター ueetaa waiterウエートレス ueetoresu waitressウエー uee wayワンウエー wañuee one wayゴーイングマイウエー gooiñgumaiuee going my wayウーマンリブ uumañribu woman lib (i.e., womens lib)
  49. 49. READING JAPANESE四十九Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderケ keゲ ge /(or ge)Examples:ケニア kenia Kenyaケープタウン keeputaun Capetownケーブル keeburu cableケーブルカー keeburukaa cablecarケミカル kemikaru chemicalケミストリー kemisutorii chemistryケース keesu caseカードケース kaadokeesu cardcaseケースバイケース keesubaikeesu case-by-caseバーゲン baageñ bargain
  50. 50. READING JAPANESE五十Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderチ ti(ヂ occurs only rarely in modern spelling. It will be discussed in Lesson 8. Insofar as it occurs, itsromanized equivalent is zi, for which the usual katakana equivalent is ジ.)Examples:チリ tiri Chileハイチ haiti Haitiカラチ karati Karachiバチカン batikañ Vaticanエチオピア etiopia Ethiopiaチーズ tiizu cheeseチーズケーキ tiizukeeki cheese cakeスイスチーズ suisutiizu Swiss cheezeスモークチーズ sumookutiizu smoke[d] cheeseピメントチーズ pimeñtotiizu pimento cheeseチーズバーガー tiizubaagaa cheeseburger
  51. 51. READING JAPANESE五十一Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderセ seゼ zeExamples:セイロン seiroñ Ceylon サンホセ sañhose San Joseセントルイス señtoruisu St. Louis セントポール señtopooru St. Paulセントローレンス señtorooreñsu St. Lawrence ロサンゼルス rosañzerusu Los Angelesアンゼラ añzera Angela ソーセージ sooseezi sausageセント señto cent センチメートル señtimeetoru centimeterセルフサービス seruhusaabisu self-service セルフタイマー seruhutaimaa self-timerセロ sero cello セロハン serohañ cellophaneセロチープ seroteepu cello[phane] tape セロヤーン seroyaañ cello[phane] yarnイタリアンソーセージ itariañsooseezi Italian sausage ゼラチン zeratiñ gelatinスモークソーセージ sumookusooseezi smoke[d] sausage ゼリー zerii jellyスライスソーセージ suraisusooseezi slice[d] sausage ゼロ zero zeroミセス・アンゼラ・セントローレンス misesu・añzera・señtorooreñsu Mrs. Angela St. Lawrence
  52. 52. READING JAPANESE五十二Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderヌ nuExamples:セーヌ1seenu Seine (river)ローザンヌ roozañnu Lausanneヌード nuudo nudeヌードバー nuudobaa nude barヌードモデル nuudomoderu nude modelヌードダンサー nuudodañsaa nude dancerヌードル nuudoru noodleヌードルスープ nuudorusuupu noodle soupカヌー kanuu canoeカヌーレース kanuureesu canoe race1This is a borrowing from French.
  53. 53. READING JAPANESE五十三Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderネ neExamples:ネバダ nebada Nevadaテネシー tenesii Tennesseeミネソタ minesota Minnesotaセネガル senegaru Senegalネパール nepaaru Nepalネブラスカ neburasuka Nebraskaインドネシア iñdonesia Indonesiaネオン neoñ neonネオンサイン neoñsaiñ neon signネクタイ nekutai necktieネクタイピン nekutaipiñ necktie pin
  54. 54. READING JAPANESE五十四Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderナ naExamples:カナダ kanada Canada パナマ panama Panamaモナコ monako Monaco ナイル nairu Nile (river)バナナ banana banana バナナパイ bananapai banana pieナイフ naihu knife バタナイフ batanaihu butter knifeステーキナイフ suteekinaihu steak knife ナイトクラブ naitokurabu nightclubナンバー nañbaa number ナンバーワン nañbaawañ number oneナンバリング nañbariñgu numbering ナイチンゲール naitiñgeeru nightingaleアラビアン・ナイト arabiañ・naito Arabian Night[s]ノースカロライナ noosukaroraina North Carolinaナンバリング・マシン nañbariñgu・masiñ numbering machine
  55. 55. READING JAPANESE五十五Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderヘ heベ beペ peExamples:ヘルシンキ herusiñki Helsinki シベリア siberia Siberiaベルリン beruriñ Berlin ペルー peruu Peruペキン pekiñ Peking スペイン supeiñ Spainコペンハーゲン kopeñhaageñ Copenhagen ヘア hea hairヘアピン heapiñ hair pin ヘアブラシ heaburasi hair brushヘリポート heripooto heliport ヘリコプター herikoputaa helicopterベスト besuto best ベストテン besutoteñ best tenベストセラー besutoseraa bestseller ペン peñ penボールペン boorupeñ ball[point] pen ペンパル peñparu pen palペンフレンド peñhureñdo pen friend
  56. 56. READING JAPANESE五十六Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderム muExamples:グアム guamu Guamベトナム betonamu Vietnamアムステルダム amusuterudamu Amsterdamネーム neemu nameペンネーム peñneemu pen nameネームプレート neemupureeto name plateチーム tiimu teamチームワーク tiimuwaaku teamworkゲーム geemu gameゼロ・ゲーム zero・geemu zero game (tennis)ハム hamu hamハムサンド hamusañdo ham sand[wich]ハムサラダ hamusarada ham salad
  57. 57. READING JAPANESE五十七Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderツ tu(ヅ occurs only rarely in modern spelling. It will be discussed in Lesson 8. Insofar as it occurs, itsromanized equivalent is zu, for which the usual katakana equivalent is ズ).Examples:ドイツ1doitu Germany ツール2tuuru Toursポーツマス pootumasu Portsmouth ツー tuu twoツーピース tuupiisu two-piece [dress] ツーボール tuubooru ball two (baseball)ツーダン tuudañ or ツーダウン tuudaun two down (baseball)ツアー tuaa or ツーア tuua tourスキーツアー sukiituaa ski tour ツーリスト tuurisuto touristスーツ suutu suit スーツケース suutukeesu suitcaseツーストライク tuusutoraiku strike two (baseball)ワン・ツー・スリー wan・tuu・surii one, two, threeツーリスト・クラス tuurisuto・kurasu tourist class1This is a borrowing from German.2This is a borrowing from French.
  58. 58. READING JAPANESE五十八Katakana symbol: Romanization Stroke Orderユ yuヨ yoExamples:ユタ yuta Utah ユートピア yuutopia Utopiaユーラシア yuurasia or ユーレージア yuureezia Eurasiaユー・エス・エー yuu・esu・ee U.S.A. ユーゴスラビア yuugosurabia Yugoslaviaユネスコ yunesuko UNESCO ユニセフ yunisehu UNICEFユース yuusu youth ユースホステル yuusuhosuteru youth hostelユーモア yuumoa humor ユーモラス yuumorasu humorousユーモリスト yuumorisuto humorist ヨーク yooku Yorkリヨン1riyoñ Lyon ヨセミテ yosemite Yosemiteヨハネスブルグ yohanesuburugu Johannesburg1This is a borrowing from French.
  59. 59. READING JAPANESE五十九ADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. ナイロン 9. アセテート 17. ダクロン2. ポリエステル 10. レーヨン 18. ウール3. ブラウス 11. スカーフ 19. チムニー4. エレベーター 12. プール 20. ゴルフ5. バドミントン 13. ブレーキ 21. ホーン6. ベーコン 14. オムレツ 22. セロリ7. ヨーグルト 15. ブランデー 23. ソーダ8. ソフトアイスクリーム 16. スプーン 24. ステンレス・スチール1. nairoñ nylon 9. aseteeto acetate 17. dakuroñ dacron2. poriesuteru polyester 10. reeyoñ rayon 18. uuru wool3. burausu blouse 11. sukaahu scarf 19. timunii chimney4. erebeetaa elevator 12. puuru pool 20. goruhu golf5. badomiñtoñ badminton 13. bureeki brake[s] 21. hooñ horn6. beekoñ bacon 14. omuretu omelet 22. serori celery7. yooguruto yogurt 15. burañdee brandy 23. sooda soda8. sohutoaisukuriimu soft ice cream 16. supuuñ spoon 24. suteñresu・sutiiru stainless steel
  60. 60. READING JAPANESE六十25. ペリカン 33. ゼブラ 41. エメラルド26. ウクレレ 34. セミナー 42. スピーチ27. ページ 35. レンズ 43. ネガチブ28. ヨガ 36. セーラー 44. バーテン(ダー)29. ゲリラ 37. ユニーク 45. ナイーブ30. エレガント 38. ユー・ターン 46. ノースモーキング31. ノーコメント 39. フリースタイル 47. ウイークポイント32. トラブル 40. フーズフー 48. エトセトラ25. perikañ pelican 33. zebura zebra 41. emerarudo emerald26. ukurere ukelele 34. seminaa seminar 42. supiiti speech27. peezi page 35. reñzu lens 43. negatibu negative28. yoga yoga 36. seeraa sailor 44. baateñ(daa) bartender29. gerira guerilla 37. yuniiku unique 45. naiibu naive30. eregañto elegant 38. yuu・taañ U-turn 46. noosumookiñgu no smoking31. nookomeñto no comment 39. huriisutairu free style 47. uiikupoiñto weak point32. toraburu trouble 40. huuzuhuu Whos Who 48. etosetora etc.
  61. 61. READING JAPANESE六十一LESSON 3 SUMMARYn wa ra ya ma ha na ta sa ka aン ワ ラ ヤ マ ハバパ ナ タ ダ サ ザ カ ガ アri mi hi ni ti si ki iリ ミ ヒビピ ニ チ シ ジ キ ギ イru yu mu hu nu tu su ku uル ユ ム フブプ ヌ ツ ス ズ ク グ ウre me he ne te se ke eレ メ ヘベペ ネ テ デ セ ゼ ケ ゲ エro yo mo ho no to so ko oロ ヨ モ ホボポ ノ ト ド ソ ゾ コ ゴ オ
  63. 63. READING JAPANESE六十三LESSON 4LONG CONSONANTSCompare the following items:ピークピックThe first has a long vowel indicated by the special katakana symbol for vowel lengthening. Thesecond includes the katakana equivalent of tu, written slightly smaller and lower than thesurrounding symbols.1This usage of ッ signifies the lengthening of the initial consonant of thefollowing syllable, regularly indicated by a double consonant in romanization; the combinationnever occurs initially.2Thus:ピーク represents piiku peakピック represents pikku pickIn traditional Japanese words, this writing convention (i.e., using a kana equivalent of tu to signify1In vertical writing, the ツ symbol is written slightly smaller and to the right.2Occasionally, the reduced ッ occurs in final position, as an indication of a glottal stop. For example, the exclamation a!, endsabruptly with a catch in the throat, the sound made when the vocal cords are pressed together to stop the flow of air, and would bewritten アッ.
  64. 64. READING JAPANESE六十四consonant lengthening) occurs only in combination with the following syllables beginning with p-, t-,s-, and k-; but in words recently borrowed from foreign languages, it occurs both with these and withfollowing syllables having initial b-, d-1, z , and g-. Note that the occurrence of the latter group ischaracteristic of a more innovative variety of Japanese. For example, the English word bedborrowed into Japanese occurs both as betto and beddo, the first being more traditional and thesecond more innovative.A long consonant kk, gg, tt, dd, pp, or bb, in a Japanese loanword often represents thecorresponding English consonant when it occurs at the end of a word or syllable following a simplevowel as opposed to a diphthong (for example, let as opposed to late). The simple vowels arerepresented as short vowels in Japanese, whereas diphthongs are usually represented as long vowelsor vowel sequences. Compare:ネット netto net and ネート neetoor ネイト neito Nateヒット hitto hit and ヒート hiito heatスモック sumokku smock and スモーク sumooku smokeルック rukku look and ルーク ruuku Luke1Syllables with initial d- are da, de, and do only.
  65. 65. READING JAPANESE六十五Examples:—ッパ —ppa —ッバ —bba—ッピ —ppi —ッビ —bbi—ップ —ppu —ッブ —bbu—ッペ —ppe —ッベ —bbe—ッポ —ppo —ッボ —bboヨーロッパ yooroppa Europeミシシッピー misisippii Mississippiノッブヒル nobbuhiru1Nob Hillハッピー happii happyハッピーエンド happiieñdo happy end[ing]ハッピーバースデー happiibaasudee happy birthdayアップル appuru appleアップルパイ appurupai apple pieパイナップル painappure pineapple1Also ノブヒル nobuhiru.
  66. 66. READING JAPANESE六十六—ッタ —tta —ッダ —dda—ッチ —tti—ッツ —ttu—ッテ —tte —ッデ —dde—ット —tto —ッド —ddoカルカッタ karukatta Calcuttaマンハッタン mañhattañ Manhattanリッチモンド rittimoñdo Richmondサンモリッツ sañmorittu St. Moritzピッツバーグ pittubaagu Pittsburghロッテルダム rotterudamu Rotterdamチベット tibetto Tibetスコットランド sukottorañdo Scotlandバグダッド bagudaddo Baghdadバット batto batバッター battaa batterバッテリー batterii batteryユナイテッド・ステーツ・オブ・アメリカ yunaiteddo・suteetu・obu・amerika United States of America
  67. 67. READING JAPANESE六十七—ッサ —ssa —ッザ —zza—ッシ —ssi —ッジ —zzi—ッス —ssu —ッズ —zzu—ッセ —sse —ッゼ —zze—ッソ —sso —ッゾ —zzoオデッサ odessa Odessaアッサム assamu Assamアッシリア assiria Assyriaゲッセマニ gessemani Gethsemaneケンブリッジ keñburizzi Cambridgeハッスル hassuru hustleバッスル bassuru bustle (clothing)
  68. 68. READING JAPANESE六十八—ッカ —kka —ッガ —gga—ッキ —kki —ッギ —ggi—ック —kku —ッグ —ggu—ッケ —kke —ッゲ —gge—ッコ —kko —ッゴ —ggoメッカ mekka Mecca ロッキー rokkii Rocky [Mountains]ケンタッキー keñtakkii Kentucky ブルックリン burukkuriñ Brooklynストックホルム sutokkuhorumu Stockholm モロッコ morokko Moroccoデッキ dekki deck テープデッキ teepudekki tapedeckブック bukku book ブックエンド bukkueñdo bookendハンドブック hañdobukku handbook スクラップブック sukurappubukku scrapbookバック bakku back バックアップ bakkuappu back-upバックストレッチ bakkusutoretti back-stretch バッグ baggu bagハンドバッグ hañdobaggu handbag ビッグ biggu bigビッグゲーム biggugeemu big game ビッグスリー biggusurii big threeビッグビジネス biggubizinesu big business
  69. 69. READING JAPANESE六十九ADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. コップ2. マッチ3. モップ4. モッブ5. ベッド6. エッジ7. バッジ8. エッグ9. ホットドッグ10. クリーン・カット11. スイッチ12. スリッパ13. モットー14. パッシブ15. スモック16. サッカー17. トイレット18. ハムエッグ19. グッドセンス20. コンプレックス21. ビスケット22. ホットケーキ23. レッツ・ゴー24. マジック・ドア25. ニーソックス26. マジック・アイ27. ノータックス28. レッドテープ29. ダイナミック30. バックナンバー1. koppu drinking glass2. matti match3. moppu mop4. mobbu mob5. beddo bed6. ezzi edge7. bazzi badge8. eggu egg9. hottodoggu hotdog10. kuriiñkatto cleancut11. suitti switch12. surippa slipper13. mottoo motto14. passibu passive15. sumokku smock16. sakkaa soccer17. toiretto toilet18. hamueggu ham [and] egg19. guddoseñsu good sense20. koñpurekkusu complex21. bisuketto biscuit, cookie22. hottokeeki hotcake23. rettu・goo lets go24. mazikku・doa magic door25. niisokkusu knee socks26. mazikku・ai magic eye27. nootakkusu no tax28. reddoteepu red tape29. dainamikku dynamic30. bakkunañbaa back number
  70. 70. READING JAPANESE七十31. カセット・テープ32. ノーヒット・ノーラン・ゲーム33. ウエスタン・ルック31. kasetto・teepu cassette tape32. noohitto・nooran・geemu no-hit-no-run game33. uesutan・rukku western lookReduced katakana ツ may also be followed by a syllable with initial h-. The combination ッフ oftencorresponds to the English spelling doublet ff, and ッハ, ッヒ, and ッホ approximate the kind offinal sound that occurs in German ach, ich, and och. Thus:スタッフ sutahhu staff or stuffバッハ bahha Bachハインリッヒ haiñrihhi Heinrichバンゴッホ bañgohho Van GoghThe last three examples are borrowings from languages other than English. Note that in these words,the vowel following -hh- in the Japanese, which is not present in the original language, is the sameas the vowel preceding the lengthened consonant.
  71. 71. READING JAPANESE七十一SYLLABLES CONSISTING OF CONSONANT + y + VOWELExamine the following combinations:キャ ギュ ショ チャ ビュ ピョThe first katakana symbol in each group represents a syllable consisting of a consonant + i, and thesecond, a syllable consisting of y + a vowel1. In each case, the second symbol is written slightlysmaller and lower2than the surrounding symbols. Such combinations represent single syllablesromanized as consonant + y + vowel.Thus, ビヤ is equivalent to the romanized two-syllable sequence biya, but ビャ is equivalent to theromanized single syllable bya.This writing convention is used for traditional Japanese words as well as recent borrowings into thelanguage.1The only vowels possible are a, u, and o.2Further right, in vertical writing.
  72. 72. READING JAPANESE七十二Summary of Consonant + y + Vowel Syllablesキャ kya1シャ sya2チャ tya3ニャ nya ヒャ hya ミャ mya リャ ryaキュ kyu シュ syu チュ tyu ニュ nyu ヒュ hyu ミュ my リュ ryuキョ kyo ショ syo チョ tyo ニョ nyo ヒョ hyo ミョ myo リョ ryoギャ gya4ジャ zya5ビャ bya ピャ pyaギュ gyu ジュ zyu ビュ byu ピュ pyuギョ gyo ジョ zyo ビョ byo ピョ pyoWhen the vowel of the consonant + y + vowel syllable is lengthened, the symbol indicating length iswritten in line with the symbols of regular size. Thus:ニュー nyuu newNote that the consonant + y + vowel combination may be immediately preceded or followed byreduced ツ, indicating consonant lengthening. Thus:ネールポリッシュ neeruporissyu nail polishショッピング syoppiñgu shopping1キャ occurs frequently as a representation of the initial consonant + vowel of English cab, alternating with カ ka.2Sy combinations (シャ、シュ、ショ) regularly correspond to the initial consonant of English show.3Ty combinations (チャ、チュ、チョ) regularly correspond to the initial consonant of English chin.4ギャ oocurs frequently as a representation of the initial consonant + vowel of English gab, alternating with ガ ga.5Like z before i, zy (ジャ、ジュ、ジョ) may correspond to the medial consonant of English ledger or of measure.
  73. 73. READING JAPANESE七十三Examples:チャド tyadoチャッド or tyaddo Chadキューバ kyuuba Cubaヒューロン hyuuroñ Huronシャンハイ syanhai Shanghaiジョージア zyoozia Georgiaキャンベラ kyañbera Canberraジャカルタ zyakaruta Jakartaバミューダ bamyuuda Bermudaニューヨーク nyuuyooku New Yorkアリューシャン aryuusyañ Aleutian (islands)マサチューセッツ masatyuusettu Massachusettsリオデジャネイロ riodezyaneiro Rio de Janeiro
  74. 74. READING JAPANESE七十四ADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. ジュース2. ニュース3. チョーク4. ヒューズ5. パジャマ6. ギャップ7. ギャング8. ジャンボ9. レジャー10. ローション11. シャンプー12. ジョーカー13. ボリューム14. ヒューマン15. ピューレー16. ビューロー17. ミュージック18. ピューリタン19. ヒューネラル20. プッシュホン21. バーベキュー22. ベビーショップ23. ジャイロスコープ24. ニュースバリュー25. コンピューター26. マッシュルーム27. キャブレター28. ニューロチック29. ヘアローション30. ユナイテッド・ネーションズ1. zyuusu juice2. nyuusu news3. tyooku chalk4. hyuuzu fuse5. pazyama pajama[s]6. gyappu gap7. gyañgu gang8. zyañbo jumbo9. rezyaa leisure10. roosyoñ lotion11. syañpuu shampoo12. zyookaa joker13. boryuumu volume14. hyuumañ human15. pyuuree pure16. byuuroo bureau17. myuuzikku music18. pyuuritañ puritan19. hyuuneraru funeral20. pussyuhoñ push [button] phone21. baabekyuu barbecue22. bebiisyoppu baby shop23. zyairosukoopu gyroscope24. nyuusubaryuu news value25. koñpyuutaa computer26. massyuruumu mushroom27. kyaburetaa carburetor28. nyuurotikku neurotic29. hearoosyoñ hair lotion30. yunaiteddo・neesyoñzu United Nations
  75. 75. READING JAPANESE七十五INNOVATIVE PRONUNCIATIONFor the representation of sounds and combinations of sounds that occur only in the more innovativeJapanese pronunciation of recent loan words, special conventions for the use of katakana have beenadopted.1. The combinations テュ、デュ、フュ exemplify the same principle that was described in thepreceding section, i.e., the initial symbols retain their consonantal value but lose their vocalicvalue, and the combinations represent unit syllables. They will be represented in ourromanization as t(e)yu, d(e)yu and h(u)yu respectively.Examples:テューバ t(e)yuuba tubaエデュケーション ed(e)yukeesyoñ educationフューネラル h(u)yuuneraru funeralIn the less innovative variety of Japanese, チュ tyu, ジュ zyu, and ヒュ hyu occur instead.2. A vowel symbol written smaller and lower1than surrounding symbols also indicates that thepreceding symbol has its consonant value only. For example, the combination フェ representsa single syllable consisting of the sound symbolized by the h- of hu + the e vowel. This will be1Further right, in vertical texts.
  76. 76. READING JAPANESE七十六indicated in romanization as h(u)e. The more commonly occurring combinations in thiscategory are:ティ t(ei シェ s(i)e ファ h(u)aディ d(e)i ジェ z(i)e フィ h(u)iトゥ t(o)u フェ h(u)eドゥ d(o)u フォ h(u)oチェ t(i)eExamples:ケープ・ケネディー keepu・kened(e)ii Cape Kennedyチェコスロバキア t(i)ekosurobakia Czechoslovakiaアルジェリア aruz(i)eria Algeriaナイジェリア naiz(i)eria Nigeriaファーイースト h(u)aaiisuto Far Eastニューファウンドランド nyuuh(u)auñdorañdo Newfoundlandフィリピン h(u)iripiñ Philippine[s]フィンランド h(u)iñrañdo Finlandフィラデルフィア h(u)iraderuh(u)ia Philadelphia
  77. 77. READING JAPANESE七十七In the less innovative variety of Japanese the following alternations occur:チ for ティジ for ディツ for トゥズ for ドゥチ for チェセ for シェゼ for ジェハ for ファヒ for フィヘ for フェホ for フォ3. The katakana combination クォ occurs in loanwords only, as a representation of the soundsequence k + w + o. This combination will be symbolized by kwo in romanization.Example:ラテンクォーター rateñkwootaa Latin QuarterIn the less innovative variety of Japanese, クオ kuo (i.e., two syllables) occurs instead.4. When katakana ウ is followed by a reduced vowel symbol ィ、ェ、 or ォ, it is assumes theconsonantal value of the w- of wa. Thus, while ワ is equivalent to romanized wa both in nativeJapanese words and loanwords, ウィ, ウェ, ウォ represent wi, we, wo which occur only inloanwords. In the less innovative variety of Japanese, ウイ ui, ウエ ue, ウオ uo̶all two-syllable sequences—occur instead. A long u vowel (ウー) continues to be the correspondencefor English w + u (as in wool, woman, etc.).
  78. 78. READING JAPANESE七十八Examples:ウィンブルドン wiñburudoñ Wimbledonウェーク weeku Wakeミルウォーキー miruwookii Milwaukee5. Katakana ウ with nigori is used to represent the voiced labiodental1v which occurs in Japaneseonly in loanwords in the more innovative variety of the language. When followed by a reducedvowel a, i, e, or o, ヴ represents the v only. Without a following reduced vowel, ヴ representsthe syllable vu.Thus: ヴァ va ヴィ vi ヴ vu ヴェ ve ヴォ voIn the less innovative variety of Japanese, バ ba, ビ bi, ブ bu, ベ be, ボ bo occur instead ofthese special combinations.Examples:ヴァチカン vatikañ Vatican ヴァンクーヴァー vañkuuvaa Vancouverヴィシー visii Vichy ヴォルガ voruga Volga (river)サーヴ saavu serve1Consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  79. 79. READING JAPANESE七十九6. When katakana イ is followed by a reduced vowel symbol ェ, it assumes the consonantal valuesof the y of ya, and the combination represents the syllable ye which occurs only in loanwords.In the less innovative variety of Japanese, a two-syllable sequence イエ or エー occurs instead.Example:イェーメン yeemeñ YemenADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. ファン2. フォト3. フォイル4. ビュッフェ5. ヴィデオ6. ソファー7. ファション8. ハイファイ9. チィーポット10. フォーマル11. アイスティー12. フェアプレー13. フェンシング14. ウェイトレス15. ヨッティング1. h(u)añ fan (i.e., enthusiast)2. h(u)oto photo3. h(u)oiru foil4. byuhh(u)e buffet5. video video6. soh(u)aa sofa7. h(u)assyoñ fashion8. haih(u)ai hi-fi9. t(e)iipotto teapot10. h(u)oomaru formal11. aisut(e)ii ice[d] tea12. h(u)eapuree fair play13. h(u)ensiñgu fencing14. weitoresu waitress15. yott(e)iñgu yachting
  80. 80. READING JAPANESE八十16. スパゲッティ17. カーディガン18. ヌーディスト19. クォータリー20. ヴァイオリン21. ヴォランティア22. フォークダンス23. フェザーウェート24. フェード・アウト25. フィールドワーク26. フィフティフィフティ27. フォームラバー28. ディルピックルス29. ヴォキャビュラリー30. ファウルスロー31. ティーンエイジャー32. サードクォーター33. ヴァキュームクリーナー34. フォゲットミーナット16. supagett(e)i spaghetti17. kaad(e)igañ cardigan18. nuud(e)isuto nudist19. kwootarii quarterly20. vaioriñ violin21. vorañt(e)ia volunteer22. h(u)ookudañsu folk-dance23. h(u)ezaaweeto featherweight24. h(u)eedo・auto fadeout25. h(u)iirudowaaku field work26. h(u)ihut(e)ih(u)ihut(e)i fifty-fifty27. h(u)oomurabaa foam rubber28. d(e)irupikkurusu dill pickles29. vokyabyurarii vocabulary30. h(u)aurusuroo foul throw31. t(e)iiñeizyaa teenager32. saadokwootaa third quarter33. vakyuumukuriinaa vacuum cleaner34. h(u)ogettomiinatto forget-me-not
  81. 81. READING JAPANESE八十一SUMMARY OF COMMON VARIANT CORRESPONDENCES1Romanized: may correspond to English: as in:aa ar, er, ir, or, ur maaku markraitaa lighterb v banira vanillado d dorai dryee y + vowel eeru Yalegy (before a) g gyappu gaph f hooku forkho + wa wh +vowel howaito whitei — matti matchi + vowel y + vowel iesu yesky (before a) k kyabaree cabaretñ/2(or before a vowel) n zooñ zoneñgu or ñgu ng kiñgu kingoo or pooku porkr l hoteru hotel1Not included here are the usual, predictable correspondences such as Japanese b representing English b, Japanese sy representingEnglish sh, etc.2In this list the symbol / represents word-final position.
  82. 82. READING JAPANESE八十二s th sumisu Smiths (before e) ch sero cellos (before i)1s siiñ scenet (before i)2t tiimu teamto t toroi Troyt (before u)3t tuu twou — misu missu + vowel w + vowel uuru woolz th mazaa motherz (before e) j zerii jellyz (before i)4z iizii easyd sauziarabia Saudi Arabiavowel + a vowel + r hea hair1S before i more closely corresponds to English sh.2T before i more closely corresponds to English ch.3T before u more closely corresponds to English ts.4Z before i more closely corresponds to English j, or the medial consonant of Asia.
  83. 83. READING JAPANESE八十三SUPPLEMENTThe following are lists of katakana loanwords and loan-phrases that appeared in three seperatearticles in well-known Japanese publications. Contemporary foreign personal names, as well astraditional Japanese words written in katakana in these particular articles for special effect, havebeen omitted.1. The following items occurred within a one-page sports article concerning Japanese mothers ofchildren who are being pushed as prospective swimming champions. It appeared in a popularJapanese weekly magazine that includes articles on a wide variety of subjects.1. メモ2. テスト3. メドレー4. タオル5. コーチ6. エリート7. アメリカ8. オリンピック9. ウォッチ10. ストップウォッチ11. グループ12. エージグループ13. クラブ14. スイミングクラブ15. スポーツ16. スポーツママ17. プール18. プールサイド19. プールサイドママ1. memo memo2. tesuto test3. medoree medley4. taoru towel5. kooti coach6. eriito elite7. amerika America8. oriñpikku Olympic9. wotti watch10. sutoppuwotti stop-watch11. guruupu group12. eeziguruupu age group13. kurabu club14. suimiñgukurabu swimming club15. supootu sports16. supootumama sports mama17. puuru pool18. puurusaido poolside19. puurusaidomama poolside mama
  84. 84. READING JAPANESE八十四2. The same publication included a political article on an American presidential visit. Within thatarticle the following loanwords (excluding contemporary personal names) occurred.Place Names1.アジア2.タイ3.バンコク4.ベトナム5.サイゴン6.マニラ7.グアム8.インド9. ニューデリー10. ルーマニア11. ブカレスト12. チェコスロバキア13. プラハ14. ポーランド15. アメリカ1.azia Asia2.tai Thai[land]3.bañkoku Bangkok4.betonamu Vietnam5.saigoñ Saigon6.manira Manila7.guamu Guam8.iñdo India9. nyuuderii New Delhi10. ruumania Rumania11. bukaresuto Bucharest12. t(i)ekosurobakia Czechoslovakia13. puraha Prague114. poorando Poland15. amerika America1This borrowing is based on the native pronunciation of ‘Prague’.
  85. 85. READING JAPANESE八十五Miscellaneous terms and references16. ハロー17. グッドバイ18. アルファ19. オメガ20. メリッド21. エゴイズム22. イニシアチブ23. アプローチ24. ムード25. プラス26. ドミノ27. オーバー・コミットメント28. テリビ29. プレゼント30. テンピン31. パレード32. アポロ33. イソップ34. ガンジー16. haroo hello17. guddobai good-bye18. aruh(u)a alpha19. omega omega20. meritto merit21. egoizumu egoism22. inisiatibu initiative23. apurooti approach24. muudo mood25. purasu plus26. domino domino27. oobaa・komittomeñto over-commitment28. terebi televi[sion]29. purezeñto present30. tenpiñ ten-pin31. pareedo parade32. aporo Apollo33. isoppu Aesop34. ganzii Gandhi3. In a short newspaper article on the varieties of breads that are becoming popular in Japan, thefollowing katakana loanwords appeared, borrowed from several languages.
  86. 86. READING JAPANESE八十六1. パン2. ドイツパン3. フランスパン4. ライブレッド5. レーズンブレッド6. カイザーロール7. テーブルロール8. バゲット9. クレッセント10. クロワッサン11. ブリオッシュ12. パン・ド・カンパーニュ13. デニッシュ・ペストリー14. スープ15. ナッツ16. チーズ17. ハム18. ソーセージ19. バター20. ジャム21. チョコレート22. クリーム23. コーヒー24. ワイン25. スナック26. ヨーロッパ27. デンマーク28. オランダ1. pañ bread2. doitupañ German bread3. hurañsupañ French bread4. raibureddo rye bread5. reezuñbureddo raisin bread6. kaizaarooru Kaiser roll7. teebururooru table roll8. bagetto baguette9. kuresseñto crescent10. kurowassañ croissant11. buriossyu brioche12. pañ・do・kañpaanyu pain de campagne13. denissyu・pesutorii Danish pastry14. suupu soup15. nattu nuts16. tiizu cheese17. hamu ham18. sooseezi sausage19. bataa butter20. zyamu jam21. tyokoreeto chocolate22. kuriimu cream23. koohii coffee24. waiñ wine25. sunakku snack26. yooroppa Europe27. deñmaaku Denmark28. orañda Holland
  87. 87. READING JAPANESE八十七ROLOMAIL TRADING COMPANYKATAKANA WALL CHART Elementary School Katakana Syllabary Wall Charts are used throughout the Japaneseeducational system at the very youngest age. Each katakana symbol in the chart is accompanied byan example Japanese word and picture.
  88. 88. READING JAPANESE八十八LESSON 5INTRODUCTIONThe next four lessons (i.e. 5 through 8) introduce hiragana, the kana that is used to write all verbaland adjectival endings, all forms of desu, and particles. Many other items are regularly written inhiragana, either because no Chinese characters have ever been assigned to them, or because theirrepresentation by Chinese characters has fallen into disuse in accordance with currently approvedwriting regulations.For each symbol in the katakana syllabary there is a corresponding hiragana symbol having thesame phonetic value. For these two overlapping sets to exist side by side represents redundancy inthe extreme. In terms of utilization, however, the two sets are kept distinct: katakana is associatedprimarily with sound—particularly the pronunciation of foreign words that have been recentlyborrowed into the language, of native words disassociated from their usual contexts or meanings, ofwords misused or mispronounced, etc.; hiragana is associated primarily with representation of itemsthat are regarded as native to the Japanese language, being used in a traditional sense. Thus thesetwo syllabaries, both of which operate on the general principle of using one symbol to represent onesyllable, actually have distinctive connotations for the Japanese. The written representation of aword like tabako is a clear indication of the distinction: as a new loanword it was regularly written inkatakana, but today, after many years of constant use within the Japanese language, it has lost itsforeign connotation and is often written in hiragana.
  89. 89. READING JAPANESE八十九Foreign students who know only kana are actually able to write anything that occurs in theJapanese language: katakana is used to represent recently borrowed loanwords and hiragana foreverything else. However, native Japanese who have completed even one year of school would notnormally write any connected text in this way: they would regularly use a number of Chinesecharacters along with the two systems of kana. Nevertheless, by introducing only carefully selectedphrases and short drill sentences as examples, it is possible to practice katakana and hiraganawithout resorting to any distortion as a concession to beginning foreign students.In developing the material that follows in this text, there was strict adherence to the followingprinciple: anything written in kana in these lessons must represent language that would also bewritten in kana by adult Japanese—if not always, at least often. Accordingly, the examples ofLesson 5, and every subsequent lesson, can stand as written even after students have progressed tothe end of the book and beyond. In other words, suru, kore, koko, etc. are introduced in hiragana inLesson 5 not because the beginning student hasn’t yet learned the Chinese characters for these words,but rather because this is in fact the way these words are regularly written.Please note that unlike the katakana, which can be neatly drawn within the confines of a perfectsquare, the hiragana are circular forms which are perhaps best conceptualized as being drawn withinthe confines of a circle. In fact, Japanese schoolchildren practice drawing hiragana inside of suchcircles. As the hiragana symbols are presented below, the stroke order is shown inside of a such apractice circle.
  90. 90. READING JAPANESE九十SYMBOLS AND EXAMPLESHiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderす ス suる ル ruし シ siま マ maExamples:する suru ‘do’アナウンスする anauñsu suru ‘announce’します simasu ‘do’ F1コピーします kopii simasu ‘copy’ F1F = formal.
  91. 91. READING JAPANESE九十一Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderて テ teい イ iあ ア aり リ riれ レ reExamples:している site iru ‘be doing’しています site imasu ‘be doing’ Fストライキしています sutoraiki site imasu ‘be on strike’ Fある aru ‘there is’; ‘have’あります arimasu ‘there is’; ‘have’ Fあれ are ‘that thing (over there)’
  92. 92. READING JAPANESE九十二Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderそ ソ soこ コ koか カ kaExamples:それ sore ‘that thing’これ kore ‘this thing’ここ koko ‘this place’そこ soko ‘that place’あそこ asokoあすこ or asuko ‘that place (over there)’しますか simasu ka ‘do [you] do?’ Fしていますか site imasu ka ‘are [you] doing?’ Fコントロールしていますか koñtorooru site imasu ka ‘are [you] controlling?’ Fありますか arimasu ka ‘is there?’; ‘do [you] have?’ F
  93. 93. READING JAPANESE九十三Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderは ハ ha; wa1を ヲ 2wo; o3ヲExample:はい hai ‘yes’これは kore wa ‘concerning this’あそこは asoko wa ‘concerning that place (over there)’ハワイは hawai wa ‘concerning Hawaii’これをします kore o simasu ‘do this’ Fそれをしています sore o site imasu ‘be doing that’ Fあれをタイプしています are o taipu-site imasu ‘by typing that one (over there)’ F1は is pronounced wa when used as a topic particle.2In the table of the Gozyuuoñ, these symbols are traditionally included in the w- row. Since katakana ヲ does not ordinarily occur inloanwords, it was not introduced in Lesson 1-4.3を only occurs as a particle. Insofar as を and ヲ are otherwise used, they indicate historical, not modern, spelling.
  94. 94. READING JAPANESE九十四Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderと ト toも モ moExamples:これと kore to ‘with this’これとそれ kore to sore ‘this and that’こことあそこ koko to asoko ‘this place and that place (over there)’ワシントンとボストン wasiñtoñ to bosutoñ ‘Washington and Boston’これとあれをします kore to are o simasu ‘do this and that (over there)’もしもし mosimosi ‘hello (on telephone)’; ‘say there!’これもある kore mo aru ‘have this, too’; ‘there is this, too’これもあれも kore mo are mo ‘both this and that (over there)’ここもそこも koko mo soko mo ‘both this place and that place’マッチもライターも matti mo raitaa mo ‘both matches and a lighter’あれもこれもします are mo kore mo simasu ‘do both that (over there) and this’ Fこれもあれもあります kore mo are mo arimasu ‘have both this and that (over there)’;‘there are both this and that (over there)’ F
  95. 95. READING JAPANESE九十五LESSON 5 SUMMARYワ ラ ヤ マ ハ ナ タ サ カ アや ま は な か あリ ミ ヒ ニ チ シ キ イり し いル ユ ム フ ヌ ツ ス ク ウる すレ メ ヘ ネ テ セ ケ エれ てヲ ロ ヨ モ ホ ノ ト ソ コ オを も と そ こ
  96. 96. READING JAPANESE九十六DIACRITICSThe use of nigori and maru with hiragana is parallel to their use with katakana. Thus:Hiragana Katakana Romanizationが = ガ = ga or gaご = ゴ = go or goじ = ジ = ziず = ズ = zuぞ = ゾ = zoで = デ = deど = ド = doば = バ = baぱ = パ = paExamples:どれ dore ‘which one?’ どこ doko ‘what place?’どれですか dore desu ka ‘which one is it?’ F どこですか doko desu ka ‘what place is it?’ Fいかがですか ikaga desu ka ‘how is it?’ F どこでも doko de mo ‘whatever place it is’どれでも dore de mo ‘whichever it is’ これでする kore de suru ‘do with (i.e. by means of) this’ここでする koko de suru ‘do here’ ここまでする koko made suru ‘do up to here’これがあります kore ga arimasu ‘have this one’; ‘there is this one’ Fそれありますが sore wa arimasu ga ‘have that one, but’; ‘there is that one, but’ F
  97. 97. READING JAPANESE九十七READING DRILLS1Varieesyoñ • doriri ‘Variation Drill’.2Imeeziappu-suru ‘improve one’s image’ (based on ‘image-up’).⒜ヴリエシン・ドリル1⑴ストライキする⑵コピしている⑶タイプしています⑷アナウンスします⑸コントロルします⑹イメジアプします2⒝ヴリエシン・ドリル⑴ラジオがあります⑵ここまでコピする⑶タイプライタがある⑷スピチをコピする⑸ラジオでアナウンスする⑹ポタブルでタイプします⑺ニスをアナウンスします⑻ハンドブクをタイプしている⑼アナウンサがインタビします⑽ワシントンでアナウンスしています⑾ボリムをコントロルしている⑿テンエジヤとダンスしています
  98. 98. READING JAPANESE九十八1Risupoñsu • doriru ‘Response Drill’.2Gaadomañ ‘security guard, literally guard(man)’.⒞リスポンス・ドリル1⑴それどこですかあそこです⑵タイプライタどこですかここです⑶ガスストブどれですかあれです⑷テプレコダどこですかあそこです⑸トランジスタラジオどれですかこれです⑹スパマケトどこですかあそこです⑺バスどこまでですかホテル・ニ・ジパンまでです⑻ポタブル・タイプライタどれですかそれです⒟リスポンス・ドリル⑴それどこでアナウンスしますかロンドンでアナウンスします⑵これどこまでコピしますここまでコピします⑶レコデングどこでしますかスタジオでします⑷それどこでボイコトしていますかカリフルニアでボイコトしています⑸ガドマン2どこをガドしていますかあそこをガドしています
  99. 99. READING JAPANESE九十九1Koñbineesyoñ • doriru ‘Combination Drill’⒠リスポンス・ドリル⑴これをしますかはいこれとあれをします⑵ビルがありますかはいビルとワインがあります⑶あれをタイプしますかはいあれとこれをタイプします⑷ドイツをサイクリングしますかはいドイツとフランスをサイクリングします⑸アメリカでアナウンスしますかはいアメリカとヨロパでアナウンスします⒡コンビネシン・ドリル1スポツ・カがある⑴コンパクト・カもあるスポツ・カもコンパクト・カもあるゴルフをします⑵テニスもしますゴルフもテニスもしますテレビでアナウンスします⑶ラジオでもアナウンスしますテレビでもラジオでもアナウンスしますボイ・スカウトとハイキングする⑷ガル・スカウトともハイキングするボイ・スカウトともガル・スカウトともハイキングするヨロパでインタビします⑸アメリカでもインタビしますヨロパでもアメリカでもインタビします⒢リスポンス・ドリル⑴マチがありますかはいマチもライタもあります⑵タクシがありますかはいタクシもバスもあります⑶スツケスがありますかはいスツケスもトランクもあります⑷バレがありますかはいバレもオペラもあります⑸ホテルがありますかはいホテルもアパトもあります⑹ピアノがありますかはいピアノもオルガンもあります
  100. 100. READING JAPANESE百1Saabisu-suru ‘provide free as part of the services’ (based on ‘service’).2Appuru-suru ‘appeal’, ‘have appeal’.⒣リスポンス・ドリル⑴これもあれもしますかこれはしますが⑵シングル・ルムもツイン・ルムもありますかシングル・ルムはありますが⑶マカロニもスパゲテもサビスします1かスパゲテはサビスしますが⑷オペラもジズもアピルして2いますかジズはアピルしていますが⑸ハイキングもクライミングもしますかハイキングはしますが⒤ヴリエシン・ドリル⑴ここはインフレ̶シンですがあそこはデフレ̶シンです⑵テニスはラケトでしますがゴルフはクラブでします⑶これはペンでコピしますがあれはタイプライタでコピします⑷これはクリスマスまでですがそれはイスタまでです⑸それはタイム・スイチでスタトしますがこれはコンピタでスタトします⑹カリフルニアではゴルフとテニスをしますがコロラドではスキをします⑺ここではレタスをボイコトしていますがあそこではタバコをボイコトしています⑻アメリカではタクシがストライキしていますがロンドンではバスがストライキしています
  101. 101. READING JAPANESE百一PRACTICEReadingPractice reading the preceding drills aloud until you can read them rapidly and without anyhesitation. As you practice, change the order of the drills and the sentences within them, to avoidreliance on knowing what is coming next through frequent reading of the same material. Are youunderstanding as you read? Consciously aim to acquire this skill. There should be immediateassociation of the written sequences with sound and meaning.Writing1. Using the romanization and/or English glosses at the beginning of the lesson, practice writing theJapanese equivalents. Be sure to use the prescribed stroke order in writing the kana symbols.2. Write out the English translations of a sampling of the drill sentences. From this Englishmaterial, reconstruct the original, written Japanese equivalents.
  103. 103. READING JAPANESE百三LESSON 6SYMBOLS AND EXAMPLESHiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderな ナ naら ラ raExamples:なる naru ‘become’ ならない naranai ‘doesn’t become’ない nai ‘there isn’t’; ‘doesn’t have’ ここから koko kara ‘from here’しない sinai ‘doesn’t do’ サムから samu kara ‘from Sam’してない site nai ‘hasn’t been done’ それから sore kara ‘after that’していない site inai ‘isn’t doing’ ないから nai kara ‘because there isn’t’アナウンスしていない anauñsu-site inai ‘isn’t announcing’するから suru kara ‘because [I] do’してから site kara ‘after doing’しているから site iru kara ‘because [I] am doing’してあるから site aru kara ‘because [it] has been done’
  104. 104. READING JAPANESE百四Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderせ セ seぜ ゼ zeん ン ñExamples:しません simaseñ ‘doesn’t do’ Fなりません narimaseñ ‘doesn’t become’ Fありません arimaseñ ‘there isn’t’; ‘doesn’t have’あんまりしません añmari simaseñ ‘doesn’t do to any great extent’ Fなぜ naze ‘why?’なぜしませんか naze simaseñ ka ‘why don’t [you] do?’ Fこんなすし koñna susi ‘sushi like this’どんなすし doñna susi ‘what kind of sushi?’あんなペン añna peñ ‘that kind of pen’
  105. 105. READING JAPANESE百五Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderた タ taだ ダ daExamples:した sita ‘did’ したい sitai ‘wants to do’しました simasita ‘did’ F しましたが simasita ga ‘did but’ Fしたいんですが sitai ñ desu ga ‘would like to do but’ F どなた donata↑1‘who?’しませんでした simaseñ desita ‘didn’t do’ F だれ dare ‘who?’だれでも dare de mo ‘whoever it is’ どなたでも donata↑de mo ‘whoever it is’これだ kore da ‘is this’ タクシーだ takusii da ‘is a taxi’あそこだ asoko da ‘is that place (over there)’ これでした kore desita ‘was this one’ Fだれですか dare desu ka ‘who is it’ F まだです mada desu ‘(is) not yet’ Fどなたでしたか donata↑desita ka ‘who was it’ F まだしない mada sinai ‘hasn’t yet done’1↑ = polite—honorific; ↓ = polite—humble; ⇄ = polite—neutral.
  106. 106. READING JAPANESE百六Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderく ク kuぐ グ gu /(or gu)/よ ヨ yoExamples:したくない sitaku nai ‘doesn’t want to do’ したくなる sitaku naru ‘get to want to do’なりたくない naritaku nai ‘doesn’t want to become’ すこしぐらい sukosi-gurai ‘(about) a little’したくありません sitaku arimaseñ ‘doesn’t want to do’ F よい yoi ‘is good’ここだよ koko da yo ‘is this place’ (informative) よくなる yoku naru ‘become good’よくする yoku suru ‘do [it] a good deal’ それより sore yori ‘more than that’これよりよい kore yori yoi ‘is better than this’ それですよ sore desu yo ‘is that’ Fヨーロッパより yooroppa yori ‘more than Europe’ よくない yoku nai ‘isn’t good’レコーディングしたくありません rekood(e)iñgu-sitaku arimaseñ ‘doesn’t want to record’ F
  107. 107. READING JAPANESE百七Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderの ノ no1ち1チ tiExamples:このすし kono susi ‘this sushi’ あのそば ano soba ‘that soba (over there)’どのぐらい dono-gurai ‘about how much?’ ここのすし koko no susi ‘the sushi here’どこのそば doko no soba ‘the soba where?’ こちら kotira ‘this way’ or ‘this alternative’こんなのだ koñna no da ‘is one like this’ ここのです koko no desu ‘is the one here’ Fどちらも dotira mo ‘both’ どちらでも dotira de mo ‘either one’あちらでする atiri de suru ‘do [it] over that way’どちら dotira ‘which way?’ or ‘which alternative?’こちらだ kotira da ‘is this way’ or ‘is this alternative’そのディスカッション sono d(e)isukassyoñ ‘that discussion’どこのメーン 2・ストリート doko no meeñ・sutoriito ‘the main street where?’メーン・ストリートのどこ meeñ・sutoriito no doko ‘where on the main street?’1For ち with nigori, see Lesson 8.2Or メイン
  108. 108. READING JAPANESE百八Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderう ウ u1つ1ツ tuExamples:これとそれとあれのうちで kore to sore to are no uti de ‘among (i.e., given the alternatives of) this one and thatone and the one over there’こことそことあそこのうちで koko to soko to asoko no uti de ‘among (i.e., given the alternatives of) this place and thatplace and that place over there’あのグループのメンバーのうちで ano guruupu no meñbaa no uti de ‘among the members of that group’いつ itu ‘when?’いつも itu mo ‘always’いつでも itu de mo ‘any time’いつしますか itu simasu ka ‘when will [you] do?’ Fいつからいつまで itu kara itu made ‘from when until when?’いつからしていますか itu kara site imasu ka ‘how long have [you] been doing?’ (lit. ‘since when are[you] doing?’) F1For つ with nigori, see Lesson 8.
  109. 109. READING JAPANESE百九Hiragana symbol: Katakana Equivalent Romanization Stroke Orderき キ ki1ぎ ギ gi /(or gi)/お オ oExamples:できる dekiru ‘can do’できた dekita ‘could do’できない dekinai ‘can’t do’つぎだ tugi da ‘is next’このつぎです kono tugi desu ‘is next after this’ Fしておる site oru ‘be doing’しておりました site orimasita ‘was doing’ Fおいしい oisii ‘is delicious’おいしくない oisiku nai ‘isn’t delicious’おいしくなる oisiku naru ‘become delicious’
  110. 110. READING JAPANESE百十LESSON 6 SUMMARYン ワ ラ ヤ マ ハ ナ タ サ カ アん ら な ま は な た か あリ ミ ヒ ニ チ シ キ イり ち し き いル ユ ム フ ヌ ツ ス ク ウる つ す く うレ メ ヘ ネ テ セ ケ エれ て せヲ ロ ヨ モ ホ ノ ト ソ コ オを よ も の と そ こ お
  111. 111. READING JAPANESE百十一LONG CONSONANTS AND LONG VOWELS1. The hiragana representation of long consonants1is parallel to that of the katakana: a reduced つ,the hiragana equivalent of ツ, precedes a symbol representing a syllable that begins with theconsonant that is being lengthened. Thus:—っか = —ッカ = kka—っし = —ッシ = ssi—っつ = —ッツ = ttu—っぱ = —ッパ = ppaIn hiragana, the only long consonants that are normally written this way are kk, ss, tt, and pp.Other such combinations that occur are present only in loanwords and therefore would notordinarily be written in hiragana2.1Other than long nasals; the first syllable of these is regulary written with the syllabic nasal symbol ん.2As discussed in Lesson 3.
  112. 112. READING JAPANESE百十二Examples:あった atta ‘there was’; ‘had’よかっ yokatta ‘was good’したかった sitakatta ‘wanted to do’これだった kore datta ‘was this one’よかったです yokatta desu ‘was good’ Fしなかった sinakatta ‘didn’t do’できなかった dekinakatta ‘couldn’t do’したくなった sitaku natta ‘got to want to do’したくなかった sitaku nakatta ‘didn’t want to do’できなくなった dekinaku natta ‘became unable to do’よくならなかった yoku naranakatta ‘didn’t become good’もっとしたい motto sitai ‘wants to do more’それよりずっとよくなった sore yori zutto yoku natta ‘became much better than that one’2. Unlike the katakana representation of long vowels, which uses a straight line to indicate length,the hiragana representation regularly specifies a long vowel by writing a second hiraganasymbol.
  113. 113. READING JAPANESE百十三Thus:Hiragana Katakana Romanizationいい イー iiきい キー kiiくう クー kuuまあ マー maaHowever, what is pronounced as ee is usually written as ei in hiragana. Romanization in this e-book will hereafter reflect kana spelling and tradition rather than pronunciation.Examples:きれい kirei ‘pretty’たいてい taitei ‘usually’Long o (romanized oo) is spelled with a final う in hiragana. In this case, the oo romanizationwill be continued in this e-book, conforming to both pronunciation and tradition.
  114. 114. READING JAPANESE百十四Examples:どう doo ‘how?’どうも doo mo ‘in every way’どうぞ doozo ‘please’どういたしまして doo itasimasite↓‘don’t mention it’ Fそうだ soo da ‘is that way’そうします soo simasu ‘do that way’ Fありがとう arigatoo ‘thank you’おはよう ohayoo ‘good morning’もうした moo sita ‘has done already’もうある moo aru ‘there already is’; ‘already has’