Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破

7,937

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
7,937
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
85
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  1. 图书在版编目(CIP)数据新托福iBT词汇分类突破 / 李笑来编著. — 北京:世界知识出版社,2010.8ISBN 978-7-5012-3908-5Ⅰ. ①新… Ⅱ. ①李… Ⅲ. ①英语—词汇—高等教育—自学参考资料 Ⅳ. ①H313中国版本图书馆CIP数据核字(2010)第158883号新托福iBT词汇分类突破作 者 文 李笑来 图 胖兔子粥粥责任编辑 郭磊文字编辑 金天 范励装帧设计 胖兔子粥粥工作坊出版发行 世界知识出版社印 刷 北京画中画印刷有限公司开 本 880x1230 1/32印 张 9印 数 10 000 册版 次 2010年9月第1版 2010年9月第1次印刷书 号 ISBN 978-7-5012-3908-5定 价 39.00元刨根问底儿请至:李笑来 www.lixiaolai.com胖兔子粥粥 www.ptzzz.com本书所有音频请移步至www.lixiaolai.com下载。
  2. 目录前言 6如何使用这本书 12正文(UNIT001-UNIT192) 2WORD LIST 201附录1 253附录2 255附录3 258附录4 261
  3. 5 前 言 真的只是词汇问题吗? 我前一本词汇书《TOEFL核心词汇21天突破》于2003年第一次付印之后,几经再版,多次加印,几年内畅销十几万册(盗版不计其数)。作为作者当然不免为之欣喜,但另一方面却又颇有些难以释怀。为什么呢?因为我总觉得自己在编撰《TOEFL核心词汇21天突破》时尽管已力求做到完美,但仍自觉远远不够。起码我知道仅仅靠一本词汇书无法帮助学生解决所有问题。 这几年的教学经验不断验证我的看法,那就是:尽管词汇量的大小会影响学习者学习语言的效果,但除此之外一定存在更加隐蔽却又更加重要的问题需要解决。缺乏基础词汇量往往让学生举步维艰,但是好不容易跨过这个门槛的学生在筋疲力尽之余却发现自己的境遇不仅没有太大改善,甚至感觉更糟——每个词汇单独拿出来好像都认识,怎么放在一块却死活看不懂呢?如果仅靠词汇量就可以解决一切,又怎么会出现这种无法超越的尴尬? 如果我们把每个单词比喻成一块砖头,而把一篇文章比喻成一栋房子的话,那么就很容易明白文章并不只由词汇构成——除了砖头之外,还要有很多其他材料,最容易想到的起码还有钢筋和水泥。并不是你比别人拥有更多的砖头就意味着你肯定能够盖出比别人更大的房子;如果你只有砖头而没有钢筋水泥的话,你有的只不过是砖堆而已。实际上,我们都宁可砖头少一点,但一定要有足够的钢筋和水泥——这样的话我们就能造出房子。即便因为砖头没那么多因而房子小了一点,但是,毕竟还有房子可住,比既不中看又不中用的砖堆好多了吧?我真的很喜欢这个类比,它可以把事情讲得特别清楚: An essay is written with words just as a house is built withbricks, but merely a collection of words cannot be called anessay any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house. 这就是我一直以来想解决的问题。传统词汇书(包括之前我写的那本)的局限在于只提供砖头,不提供钢筋和水泥。举例来
  4. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破6 说,“habitat”这个单词,学生背过,知道是“栖息地”的意思; “destruction”这个学生单词早就认识,知道是“破坏”的意思; 但是由于缺乏“水泥”,并不知道“habitat destruction”是“one of the most significant predicaments that endangered species are confronting with…”注意,我不是在说学生们看着“habitat destruction”猜不出“栖息地破坏”这个字面意思;我是在说, 学生们看着“habitat destruction”往往并不能把这两个词拼起来 之后再与“protecting endangered species”或者“biological diversity”等概念联系起来。 习惯的力量是惊人的。好的习惯需要很长时间积累才能发挥作 用,然而坏习惯无需积累就可以时时暗自发挥作用。很多学生由于一 直以来放眼“房子”的同时只关注“砖头” ,而忽视“钢筋与水泥”, 在每天遇到的尴尬数不胜数却又不明就里。有一个例子可以说明这个 问题。“prey”这个单词,很多学生在词汇书中背过,知道是“名 词,1) 被捕食的动物;2) 牺牲者、牺牲品”,然而,加上另外一个不 可能不认识的词“bird”——“birds of prey”,很多学生就会“以 为自己认识”。这个词组“birds of prey”是什么意思呢?很可能与 他们想的(其实是猜的)恰恰相反,“birds of prey”的意思是, “猛禽、食肉鸟”。 我在讲座中经常提到这个例子,每次都会有人在台下惊呼“天 哪!”每次我都会宽慰大家“相信我,你并不孤独 ……”并且我会接着 说,“其实,你不知道并不可怕;真正可怕的是你并不知道‘你不知 道’。”现在已经知道了自己的窘境来自于何处了,那摆脱困境就有了 希望。在此之前,那种“并不知道自己不知道”的窘迫,曾经使得多 少人好似玻璃瓶中的苍蝇,总是“看得见光明却找不到出路”…… 前几年,我曾经一度尝试着使用“分类词汇”的方式帮助学生们 扩大词汇量。尽管这么做在效果上来看显然要比“只提供单词列表” (就算加上例句)强出许多。但依然存在一些可以明显感受到的局 限。现在,我可以用“砖头、钢筋、水泥和房子”的类比很生动地解 释“分类词汇”的局限了:传统词汇书提供了“砖头”,分类词汇书不 仅提供了“砖头”,还提供了“钢筋”(即,分类)——但在一定程度 上,它并没有提供“水泥”,所以当然还有所欠缺。 近两年,我一直在尝试“细分专题+精简篇章+短词汇表”的模式 帮助学生打造“扎实的基础词汇量”,效果非常明显——因为在这种模 式中,砖头、钢筋、水泥、小房子一应俱全。很多学生往往在一个月 内就可以基本掌握两千左右的核心词汇,并且掌握了词汇与词汇、概
  5. 7 念与概念之间的联系,了解词汇在不同语境中、概念在不同领域中的区别。 如果不通过篇章学习词汇,学生就很难把“L列表中的‘limb’”与“T列表中的‘twig’”联系起来——“limb”是“主干”,“twig”是“枝叉”(事实上,大多学生只知道“limb”是“人的四肢”,而从来没想过这个单词与“树”有什么关系)——这是词汇与词汇之间的联系;很多学生不知道“rodent”(啮齿动物)必须不停地“gnawing”(磨牙)(很多学生甚至不知道“啮齿动物”是什么东西;而另外一些学生可能就算背过各种“高级词汇书”却只知道这是个名词:“不断的苦痛”)——这就是概念与概念之间的联系;“fault”在大多数语篇中是“错误”的意思,然而在涉及到“earthquake”(地震)的语篇中,往往更可能是“断层”的意思——这是词汇在不同语境中的区别;“adaption”(适应)这个概念在生物学中是一种竞争力的表现,但是在哲学中往往被当做是无力坚持而最终妥协的表现——这是概念在不同领域中的区别。 常识的重要性 在TOEFL/GRE/SAT培训中,流行一种在我看来比较奇怪的看法,而这种看法信奉者甚众:“不要用常识解题”。我很奇怪这些人怎么想的,常识是我们最有力的武器之一,为什么要缴械?每每仔细探究就会发现,但凡解题解错了,往往只有两种情况:1) 在正确常识的基础上逻辑推断错误;2) 逻辑推断正确却常识错误。逻辑推断非常重要,但要建立在合理的常识基础之上才可以。也许有人会反驳“那如果考试里的文章不符合科学常识怎么办?”答案是“在ETS的考试中这种情况不存在”——ETS的所有文章,都是符合现如今广泛接受的科学自然常识的。所以,我建议学生在考试的时候,大胆运用常识,前提有两个:1) 你的常识确实是正确的;2) 你所参加的考试是ETS设计的。 先看个例子: 科学家们很奇怪为什么在squirrel(松鼠)这种rodent(啮齿动物)身上竟然同时存在两种相反的品性:一方面它们“未雨绸缪”地accumulate(收集)acorns(橡果)以便度过寒冬,另外一方面它们又不停地squander(浪费、挥霍)——每个橡果它们都只吃掉1/3,而litter up(扔掉)2/3?经过调查之后,科学家们的解释是这样的:rodent(啮齿动物)的牙,外侧是坚硬的enamel(牙釉质),内侧却只有不停生长的dentine(牙质)。于是,它们必须不
  6. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破8 停地gnawing(磨牙)才能保持incisors(门牙)keen(锋利)。所 以说,实际上这些squirrel(松鼠)并没有squander(浪费),因为 它们只要gnawing(磨牙)1/3的acorn(橡果)就使牙齿相当keen (锋利),那2/3当然要litter up(扔掉)——事实上(这是科学家们 后来观察到的),当它们为了果腹而吃acorn(橡果)的时候,从来都 是能吃多少就吃多少。 其实,上面的内容实际上是某次托福考试中的听力lecture的完整 内容。 想象一下,当一考生被考到这样一个段子的时候,他究竟能听懂 多少呢?乍一看来,好像他必须起码认识这些词汇:  accumulate  acorn  dentine  enamel  gnaw  incisor  keen  litter (up)  rodent  squander  squirrel 可事实上,就算他背过这些词汇,也不见得听懂。原因有很多, 比如,其中一个原因是很多学生背单词的时候并不理会拼写,也不理 会发音;于是,很多考生可能就算认得enamel,却不知道这个单词怎 么读(重音到底在第几个音节上?),在这种情况下,录音里正确读 出来的enamel会在这些考生的脑海里唤出正确的对应概念么? 然而,从另外一个角度来说,但凡有一点点科学自然常识的人, 只要听得懂squirrel和gnawing,剩下的内容可能仅凭猜测也能八九
  7. 9 不离十地弄清楚。为什么呢?因为科学事实是几乎不变的,尤其不会因为ETS的托福考试改革了而发生变化的。很难想象一群小松鼠在开会,一个小松鼠对其它的松鼠说: 大家听好了!现在ETS的托福改革了,不再是pBT,也不是cBT了,而是iBT了……为了配合ETS的改革,我们从现在开始用橡果磨牙的时候不能再像以前那样用1/3扔2/3,而要统一改变行为,一定要用2/3扔1/3…… “细分专题+精简篇章+短词汇表”的模式在这方面对学生有极大的帮助。不仅在记忆词汇的过程中通过上下文联系使学生能够更快更牢地记住单词,另外一方面还可以使学生用英文建立一个完整的、脉络清楚的、层次分明的概念体系,使他们即便在信息不尽然完整的情况下同样的拥有更好的理解能力和更靠谱的推测能力。 (说明:关于“啮齿动物”这个专题,由于已经在这里当做例子讲解清楚了,所以,正文中不再重复收录。) ETS在《新托福官方指南》中清楚地说明了TOEFL iBT考试所涉及的话题范围(见“附录一”)。所以,考生在背单词扩充词汇量的同时,一定要把相关的概念、常识,以及它们之间的必要背景弄清楚。ETS声称不会考“过分专业”的内容,事实上ETS也确实如此身体力行。然而,有些时候,所谓的“专业”是相对的。例如,从来不关注《生物》课程的我当初就确实不知道“啮齿动物”是什么东西,都包括哪些常见的动物,为什么它们被称为“啮齿动物”,它们的习性又是什么……还有另外一个因素就是由于地域的不同,很多概念可能并不在两种文化中完全重合:比如,在中国人的常识里,松鼠是吃松塔(pinecone)的;在美洲大陆常见的灰色小鸟是wren(鹪鹩) ,但亚洲大陆常见的灰色小鸟是sparrow(麻雀) ,乃至于TOEFL考试中出现过无数次的wren,却从来没有提过sparrow;我们知道的老鹰是eagle,而美国人熟悉的却是bald eagle和condor,连字典里的解释都是“(南美) 秃鹰”…… 这就是为什么当前这本词汇书非常有用的重要原因。因为这本书用192个小专题完整覆盖了ETS《新托福官方指南》中所给定的话题范围。书中所有的文字摘自精简改编的权威微软百科全书(MicrosoftEncarta)以保持文字的地道,而且每个单词的释义经过精确的筛选而不是盲目收录。 上述三条中的最后一条尤为重要。很多学生只顾背词汇书而不在意语篇,其结果是往往只记住了“其实并不常用、并不常考的词
  8. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破10 义”——其实,很多凭空编撰的词汇书对此也有不可推卸的责任。 比如,很多学生对于cardinal这个单词,只记住了托福中不会考的名 词词性含义“红衣主教”(因为托福几乎不涉及宗教)而不知道这个 词在科学文章中常见的形容词词性含义是:“重要的、首要的” ;对于 radical这个单词,只记住了不会考到的“激进的”,而不知道常考的 “剧烈的”(因为托福几乎不涉及政治) ;关于canopy,只知道这个 单词在字典里的第一个意思“天蓬、华盖”,却不知道常考的那个字 典里的第二个释义“树冠”(因为托福考试中只有说明性文字,很少 使用文艺性语言) ;关于preoccupation这个单词,只背过“深入, 全神贯注”,殊不知这个单词每次被考到的时候,意思从来都是“偏 见”……
  9. 11 如何使用本书 1. 第一件事:“快速通读” 这个阶段建议在三天之内完成。这期间,最主要的任务并不是记忆单词,而是熟悉话题。一定要在最快的时间里了解托福考试所涉及的话题。因为一直以来,国内的种种英语教学材料的文本中——无论是体制内的教科书,还是体制外的“教辅书籍”,以及各种学习杂志,都有意无意地把话题更多地定位在“社科类”领域中——或许是因为很多人都觉得外语属于“文科”吧。最终,很多中国学生(哪怕是“理科生”)平时尽力读的英文内容也很少涉及自然科学。 然而,在TOEFL这个衡量考生英语实用能力的考试中,英语被定义为一个必要工具——到英语国家学习任何学科都必须使用的工具。所以,在托福考试中,自然科学和人文科学的话题几乎是平分天下,各占一半。于是在托福的考试内容中至少有一半会让很多考生“感觉”非常不适应。比如,关于地理地质(冰河、火山)的话题,或者关于微生物(浮游生物)古生物(恐龙)的话题。就算是一些在我们眼里常常被划分到“文科”的话题,实际上也不是中国学生经常阅读的,比如,关于考古学(化石)、人类学(古碑文)的话题。 所以,建议读者在最快的时间完成第一遍的“通读”。在通读的过程中,留意一下那些“一看就头晕”的话题,做出记号;在下一步制定计划的过程中,有意为这些话题多留一点时间。事实上,这些话题只是平时读得少而已,并没有那么可怕。相对其他原本就大致熟悉的话题来说,只不过需要多重复几遍就好。其实,背单词的诀窍只有一个:“重复”;对那些词汇中的“顽固分子”要做的更简单——“重复许多遍”。 2. 确定自我能力,制定合理计划。 这个阶段只需要一两个小时就够,但非常重要。认真核算一下每天能够用来学习词汇的时间,是两个小时,还是四个小时?你拥有的时间最终决定你可能完成的任务最多是多少。 在这里,先要弄清楚一个最重要的常识:“谁都无法百分之百
  10. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破12 地高效率工作”。你肯定会被电话或者短信打断,如果你不像我一样 永远把手机设定为“静音状态”;你肯定会在某个时刻不得不把书放 下,因为有人敲门或者你自己需要去一趟洗手间 ……所以,制定计划的 时候,一定要给自己的工作设置“冗余度”,给自己的时间设置“损 耗值”。也就是说,如果你确定你每天能够花两个小时背单词的话, 一定记得给自己分配的工作量最多应该在一个半小时之内就能完成。 确定自己每天能够用来做这项工作的时间之后,建议把每天背单 词的时间划分为一次以上,比如两次——“早上一次,晚上一次”; 或“下午一次,晚上一次”。因为这是一项特殊的工作,刚刚才提及 到,背单词的诀窍其实只有一个,就是“重复”。 本书配有专题文本的MP3录音,建议每天重复收听多次。建议把 零散的时间抽出来做这件事情,比如在路上的时候,比如在等车的时 候,比如在健身的时候。听的时候不要只默默地听,要尽量跟读(哪 怕读得不准,读得不顺)。为了能够通过跟读慢慢进步,最好只有一 只耳朵戴着耳机,而空出另外一只耳朵才可以听到自己的声音,以便 多多少少可以随时调整自己的发音。当然,还有个前提,相应的文本 已经提前认真阅读过。 实施计划的最后一个建议是,整本书的第一遍记忆一定要在一 个月之内完成。没有人能只用一遍就可以牢牢记住所有内容——大家 都得靠重复。记住,第一遍不需要过分要求完美,不过一定要快,因 为所有人的耐心都是有限的,第一遍拖太久,就很可能再也不想做第 二遍了——那就注定要失败了。很多人做不好的原因其实只有一个, 第一遍都没有完成,为什么呢?除了可能是因为本身的惰性之外,更 可能的原因是因为他们第一遍就想完美,殊不知那是不可能的!但凡 一个正常人(智商超过145的除外),基本上需要起码三遍以上的重 复。 3. 最重要的单词记忆工具——拼读规则 “基础很重要”是经常地被忽视的老生常谈。其实,所谓的“基 础差”只有一个原因——当初学习的时候缺乏耐心。缺乏耐心几乎是 所有人的本性,也是绝大多数人最终未能矫正的习惯。很多人在生活 的方方面面都因为缺乏耐心而处处吃亏却又从不自知;处处吃亏的结 果是越来越急于求成,越来越缺乏耐心——于是一生都只能在这个死 循环中左冲右撞而后最终混个死因不详。 “英文单词的拼读规则”就是这样一个被大多数人忽视却非常
  11. 13 重要的基础知识。如果你从未忽视过这个重要的基础知识,那么恭喜你,可以不用接着读下去了,直接跳过本小节——不过,如果你至今还是个有着那种“学英语也已经很多年了,怎么越学越差呢?”感觉的人,那么我将吐血推荐你耐下心来继续阅读下去——其实并不需要太多的时间。 很多人(这个比例很可能远远超过80%)记忆英文单词的时候是以字母为单位的,比如exorbitant这个单词,他们要总计记忆10个字母的组合(e-x-o-r-b-i-t-a-n-t);而另外那些少数熟悉 “英文单词的拼读规则”的人记忆这个单词,只须记忆三个音节(exor-bi-tant) 。再比如ichthyosaur这个单词,其实一样只需要记忆三个音节(ich-thyo-saur) 。 以音节(一个或者多个字母构成的组合)为单位而不是以字母为单位,会使背单词不知道轻松多少倍。尽管并非所有的英文单词都符合拼读规则,但是,根据Hanna、 Hodges、和Rudorf (1966)的统计调查,保守估计超过96%以上的英文单词是符合基本的拼读规则的 。有些人会反驳说,不符合拼读规则的单词多着呢!但那只是感觉,因为英文的词汇太多,所以,很小的比例也会让人“感觉很多”。 有关拼读规则,要切记以下两个原则: 1) 不能把这些规则当作推测单词发音的工具。 也就是说,你绝对不应该看着一个生词仅仅根据拼读规则就去猜测这个单词的发音,你应该做的是先搞清楚这个单词的发音,而后运用拼读规则进行辅助记忆。很多人都常常不经意地违背这个原则,所以才会经常读错单词。 比如,很多人可能会读错以下五个单词中的至少三个:“cellist”、“facade”、“heir”、“niche”、“specific”。 2) 无需死记硬背所有的拼读规则。 花时间死记硬背这些拼读规则的意义其实并不大,其中一个原因是因为它只是辅助工具。就好像木匠在制作家具的时候,更多的时候他的注意力应该放在要制作的家具上,而不是全神贯注在诸如刨子之类制作家具所需要的工具上。最有效的学习方法是这样:先大致了解这些规则,而后再反复复习若干次,再然后要经常在新近习得的生词中反复“发现”这些规则的应用。用得多了,自然而然地就记住了,最终,你就会发现你记忆单词的时候早已经变得轻松许多。 另外,也没必要想一下子搞定所有的拼读规则。比如[ee]非常
  12. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破14 常见,并且几乎只被读成/i:/,想记不住都难;[ea]往往要么被读做 [i:]要么被读做/e/,也很容易记住。但另外一些规则不是那么常见。 比如,/ieu/读成/e/的情况只在“lieutenant”中出现——并且还 是在英式英语中,而美式英语中,这个单词中的音节 “lieu”干脆 被简化为读成/lu/。而像[ae/ée/ee/er/et/e/é]可能被读成/ei/,比 如(vertebrae, café,épée, soiree,foyer,bouquet,dente, saké …… ),几乎全部是来自法文的词汇——基本可以暂时忽略,先 把那些最常见的都搞定再说。 关于常见的元音拼法请参阅“附录二”,而常见的辅音拼法请参 阅“附录三”。一般来说,想要一下子记住所有的拼读规则很难,其 难度并不亚于想要一下子背下来一本词典。方法是先大致有个了解, 而后反复查询参照——同样是通过“重复”巩固记忆。实际上,在阅 读过程中,为了能够在下一次阅读的时候有效地提醒自己,通常情况 下我最多标注的其实只有两个:1) 元音的长短;2) 重音所在位置。只 要把握这两样东西,往往大部分问题都解决了。 比如之前提到过的单词enamel,第一个音节“e”究竟应该读做 /e/,还是/i/呢?第一个音节如果是重音,那么应该是/e/,如果不是 重音,那么就应该是/i/;/n/是没有什么其他读法的,同时因为重音是 落在“na”这个音节上的,所以,这个音节应该被读做/næ/;而后面 的“mel”只能是/məl/——这个单词读做/inæməl/,于是,我只需 要在第一个音节“e”和第二个音节“na”之间的上方标记上一个重音 符号,就可以记住这个单词的发音了。再比如,遇到“beak”这个单 词,究竟应该读/bi:k/呢,还是/bek/呢?因为“ea”可以读/i:/也可以 读/e/。查过词典之后,我知道它应该读/bi:k/,于是,我会在“ea” 的上方画一条横线,用来表示这是长元音——甚至没必要标记/i:/,因 为也没有什么其他的读法了。这其实不难,用多了,自然就熟悉了。 但是,一旦熟悉了拼读规则,背单词的效率就会大大提升。 4. 学以致用——如何快速提高阅读理解能力? 认识了一定的单词量之后,就一定要不停地用才可以真正把握。 多读文章是扩充巩固词汇量的唯一有效手段。而读文章还是有一点点 的方法的,考试(TOEFL/IELTS/SAT/GRE/GMAT)里的阅读文章更 是如此。提高阅读理解的方法并不神秘,而真正有效的方法也往往非 常简单。 当我们读进来第一句话(标识为S1)的时候,任务只有一个,“这 句话在再说什么?”(What does S1 mean? 标识为M1)其实,有
  13. 15 些时候,这并不是一个简单任务。需要两样东西支撑:1)语法知识;2)概念体系。但是,很多人竟然以为只需要单词就够了。 然而,读进来第二句话(S2)的时候,任务就多了一个:不仅要搞清楚M2,还要搞清楚M1和M2之间的关系(标识为R1&2)——这是有很多人从来不做的事情。 M1和M2之间的关系,大抵上分为两种: 1)M1被M2支持(当然,也可能反过来,M1支持M2)。这时,M2往往可能从三个角度之一(或者三个角度组合使用)去解释M1——What?(举例、阐述)Why?(因果、比较、分类、目的)How?(方式、手段、步骤) 2)M1与M2共同支持另外一个句子。这时,M1与M2之间可能的关系分别是:并列、递进、转折。 如果,M1、M2、R1~2都已知,那么即意味着真正的“阅读理解”就已经全部完成。 然而,在考试中,考生往往遇到的情况是: ⑴. M1未知、M2已知、R1~2已知; ⑵. M1已知、M2未知、R1~2已知; ⑶. M1已知、M2已知、R1~2未知; 这其实与简单数学没什么两样(就好像“x+y=z”)——即,一个方程式里面有三个变量,其中两个已知,现在需要推导出第三个变量的值。如果三个变量都是已知的,那也不算是什么考试了。 要知道,设计严谨科学的阅读理解考试中,是不会出现一个方程式里有三个变量,而其中却竟然有两个未知的情况的——那不叫考试,那叫“刁难”。这也是我为什么总是劝诫考生,轻易不要相信什么“模拟题”——反正,我研读过的所有非ETS官方的题目,大抵上都不严谨、不科学,不管作者和出版机构是多么地权威 ——不信,谁都可以用刚刚说的简单道理去自己作个判断。 同样的道理,段落与段落之间的关系也是如此。不仅要能够概括出第一段的大意(标记为MP1),然后还要再概括出第二段的大意(标记为MP2),最后还要弄清楚二段之间的关系(标记为RP1~2),后
  14. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破16 又是解方程式了…… 道理都清楚之后,就是平时练习的步骤了: 1) 搞清楚每一句话的确切含义。运用一切可以运用的手段—— 查词典,查语法书,甚至去查Google。“自己动手”比“花钱让别 人替自己干活”(比如,报班上课听讲)在这方面不知道要有效多少 倍。 2) 理解每句话之间、每个段落之间的关系。之后还有另外一个 任务——概括。 3) 整理词汇。要知道,读完一篇文章之后,自己动手整理词 汇,远比背单词书效率高出许多——可惜,大多数人并不相信。 4) 反复阅读若干遍。读着读着就可能发现很多第一次读并没有 注意到的东西。 5) 复述文章。能够书面或者口头复述刚刚读过的文章,实际上 需要很多综合能力:记忆力、逻辑能力、转述能力、重新组织能力、 再理解能力等等。 6) 养成相隔若干天后复习的习惯。 其实,如此处理50篇左右的文章,就基本上所向披靡了。对于那 些准备留学考试的学生来说,随便找来几套真题如法炮制就会有很大 的提高。 5. 关于本书的配套录音 本书中总计有192段文字,每段文字都配有mp3录音文件。不妨 在一段时间里(比如一个月)把这些录音作为mp3播放设备中的唯一 内容,随时听,只要有可能就不要间断。 背单词的一个重要技巧就在于“尽量动用一切感官”——用眼 睛看,用手写,用嘴说,用耳朵听 …… 只有这样,大脑才可以真正活 跃起来,精力才可能真正集中,效率才会真正提高。很多人背单词 之所以没效率就是因为他们永远“默默地背”;只用眼睛看,从来不 写,然后就在考场把“principal”看成了“principle” ;从来不听也不 说,然后就在考场上听到[ˈtʃeləu],全然没想到那是“cello” ,想表达 “specific”;却读成了[ˈspesifik] …… 最终吃了亏却也不知道究竟是怎 么回事。
  15. 17 事实上,背句子很可能比背单词更为简单,尽管看起来好像要背得更多。因为在句子之中,词汇与词汇之间是有关联的,这种关联的存在会使大脑不由自主地以“有序”的方式存储这些词汇。本书的重大优势就在于所有的词汇都存在于文本之中,而非孤立存在。对大多数读者来说,大段背诵英文不仅是苦差事,并且也必然“感觉毫无必要”。不过,我们可以“退而求其次”——无需背诵,但必须“熟读”。最初的“快速通读”结束之后,就可以开始“反复跟读文本”,一来可以把生词以“有机、有序的方式”安全地存储在记忆之中,另一方面也可以顺带锻炼了自己的听力,打磨了自己的发音,可谓一举多得!
  16. UNIT001—UNIT192 新 托 福 i B T 词 汇 分 类 突 破 18
  17. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT001 Basic building materials include: timber, mud, stone,marble, brick, tile, steel, and cement concrete. Masonry wallsare built with stones or bricks, cohered through the use ofmortar, first composed of lime and sand. The profusion ofaluminum and its anodized coatings provided cladding materialthat is lightweight and virtually maintenance free. Glass wasknown in prehistory and is celebrated for its contributions toGothic architecture. 注释timber [ˈtimbə] n.木材marble [ˈmɑ:bl] n.大理石tile [tail] n.饰面砖 ,瓷砖cement concrete [siˈment-kɔnkriːt] n.水泥混凝土masonry wall [ˈmeisənri-wɔːl] n.砖墙 ,砖瓦墙cohere [kəuˈhiə] v.粘合mortar [ˈmɔ:tə] n.砂浆, 灰浆lime [laim] n.石灰profusion [prəˈfju:ʒən] n.大量(ɑ profusion of: 大量的)aluminum [əˈlu:mənəm] n.铝anodized coating [ˈænəudaizd-kəutiŋ]n.电镀层 ,电镀膜 [ɑnodize v.阳极氧化: 用电解方式给(金属面) 镀上一层保护性或装饰性的氧化物]cladding [ˈklædiŋ] n.覆层(在高温高压下结合到另一金属上的金属外层)celebrated [ˈselibreitid] adj.著名的Gothic [ˈɡɔθik] adj.哥特式的architecture [ˈɑ:kitektʃə] n.建筑 建筑学 , 19
  18. UNIT002 Two basic approaches to spanning over masonry wallsare post-and-lintel construction and arch, vault, and domeconstruction. 注释span [spæn] v.(桥、拱等)横跨post-and-lintel [pəust-ænd-lintl] n.连梁柱arch [ɑ:tʃ] n.拱(连柱的)vault [vɔ:lt] n.拱(不连柱的)dome [dəum] n.穹隆(结构) :类似于穹隆(弓形、有拱的)或圆屋顶的结构 20
  19. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT003 The Chicago architect Louis Sullivans career converges with the so-called Chicago School of Architects, whose challenge was to invent the skyscraper or high-rise building, facilitated by the introduction of the electric elevator and the abundance of steel. The buildings skeleton could be erected quickly and the remaining components hung on it to complete it, an immense advantage for high-rise buildings on busy city streets. 注释architect [ˈɑ:kitekt] n.建筑师converge [kənˈvə:dʒ] v.聚合于 ,集中于一点school [sku:l] n.学派skyscraper [ˈskaiˌskreipə] n.摩天大楼facilitate [fəˈsiliteit] v.提供便利electric elevator [iˈlektrik - ˈeliveitə] n.电梯abundance [əˈbʌndəns] n.丰富skeleton [ˈskelitn] n.框架结构整体框架erect [iˈrekt] v.竖立 ,建立component [kəmˈpəunənt] n.零件 ,构件immense [iˈmens] adj.极大的 21
  20. UNIT004 Interior design of apartments and houses, that is, dwellings,usually involves both practical and aesthetic decisions. Choiceshave to be made for almost every element, ceilings and lamps,curtains and blinds, corridor and doorway, niches and ledges,grate and ventilations, terraces and staircases, even sewers ordrainers. Sometimes such designs are extended to the facadeof the building, and even to a fountain, or a gardening yard. 注释interior design [inˈtiəriə-dizain] n.室内设计 niche [nitʃ] n.壁橱dwelling [ˈdwelɪŋ] n.住处 ,居住空间 ledge [ledʒ] n.壁架involve [inˈvɔlv] v.包括 grate [ɡreit] n.壁炉aesthetic [i:sˈθetik] adj.美学的 ventilation [ˌventiˈleiʃən] n.通风设备ceiling [ˈsi:liŋ] n.天花板 terrace [ˈterəs] n.阳台lamp [læmp] n.灯 staircase [ˈstɛəkeis] n.楼梯curtain [ˈkə:tn] n.窗帘 sewer [sjuə] n.排水沟blind [blɑind] n.窗帘(尤指固定在卷轴上能够拉 drainer [ˈdreinə] n.下水道装置,滤水器 下来的布质窗帘) facade [fəˈsɑ:d] n.(建筑物的)外立面,尤指正面corridor [ˈkɔridɔ:] n.走廊 fountain [ˈfauntin] n.喷泉doorway [ˈdɔ:wei] n.门口 yard [jɑ:d] n.庭院 22
  21. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT005 The lease is a contract of rent under which one party, called landlord or lessor, grants possession and use of the property for a limited term to the other party, who is called tenant or lessee. 注释lease [li:s] n.租约rent [rent] n.租金landlord [ˈlændlɔ:d] n.房东lessor [leˈsɔ:] n.出租人grant [ɡrɑ:nt] v.授与(权利) ;让与(财产)possession [pəˈzeʃən] n.占有,拥有property [ˈprɔpəti] n.财产,所有物tenant [ˈtenənt] n.房客lessee [leˈsi:] n.承租人 23
  22. UNIT006 A big city, or metropolis, is often accompanied by suburbs.Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas andurban sprawl, creating large amounts of business commuters.Once a city sprawls far enough to reach another city, this regioncan be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. 注释metropolis [miˈtrɔpəlis] n.大城市suburb [ˈsʌbə:b] n.城郊be associated with [bi-əsəuʃieitid-wið] v.与……相关metropolitan [ˌmetrəˈpɔlitən] adj.大城市的urban [ˈə:bən] adj.城市的sprawl [sprɔ:l] n.(城市的)无计划扩展commuter [kəˈmju:tə] n.通勤者(定期从一地到另一地旅行的人,如从郊区到城市并回来)deem [di:m] v.视为conurbation [ˌkɔnəˈbeiʃən] n.(连带卫星城镇和市郊的)大都市megalopolis [ˌmeɡəˈlɔpəlis] n.特大城市 24
  23. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT007 Sanitation is the hygienic means of preventing human contact from the hazards of wastes, either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease, which include human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), etc. Hygienic means of prevention can be practiced by using simple technologies (e. g. latrines, septic tanks), or by personal hygiene practices. 注释sanitation [ˌsæniˈteiʃən] n.公共卫生hygienic [haiˈdʒi:nik] adj.卫生学的(hygiene [ˈhaidʒi:n] 卫生学)microbiological [ˈ[maikrəuˌbaiəlɔdʒikəl] adj.微生物学的agent [ˈeidʒənt] n.媒介feces [ˈfi:si:z] n.粪便domestic [dəˈmestik] adj.家庭的sewage [ˈsjuidʒ] n.污水sullage [ˈsʌlidʒ] n.(房屋、街道等排出的)污物greywater [greiwɔ:tə] n.生活污水latrine [ləˈtri:n] n.公共厕所septic tank [ˈseptik-tæŋk] n.化粪池personal hygiene practice [ˈpə:sənəl-ˈhaidʒi:n-ˈpræktis] v.个人卫生习惯 25
  24. UNIT008 A public utility (usually just utility) is a company thatmaintains and provides the infrastructure for a public service.Although utilities can be privately owned or publicly owned, theyoften involve natural monopolies. 注释 public utility [ˈpʌblik-juˈtiliti] n.公用事业 infrastructure [ˈinfrəˌstrʌktʃə] n.基础设施 privately owned [ˈpraivitli-əund] adj.私有的 publicly owned [ˈpʌblikli:-əund] adj.公有的 monopoly [məˈnɔpəli] n.垄断 26
  25. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT009 The field of transport has several aspects: infrastructure,vehicles, and operations. Infrastructure includes the transportnetworks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals,pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as the nodes or terminals(such as airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports).Vehicles travelling on the networks include automobiles,bicycles, buses, trains and aircraft. The operations deal withthe way the vehicles are operated on the network, and theprocedures set for this purpose including the legal environment(laws, codes, regulations, etc.). Policies, such as how to financethe system (for example, the use of tolls or gasoline taxes) maybe considered part of the operations. 注释vehicle [ˈvi:ikl] n.交通工具operation [ˌɔpəˈreiʃən] n.运营canal [kəˈnæl] n.运河pipeline [ˈpaiplain] n.管道 ,输送管道node [nəud] n.中转站terminal [ˈtə:minəl] n.终点站seaport [ˈsi:pɔ:t] n.港口law [lɔ:] n.法律code [kəud] n.法规regulation [ˌreɡjuˈleiʃən] n.规章制度toll [təul] n.通行费gasoline [ˈɡæsəli:n] n.汽油 27
  26. UNIT010 Rail transport is the conveyance of passengers and goodsby means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run alongrailways or railroads. Typical railway tracks consist of twoparallel rails, normally made of steel, secured to crossbeams,termed ties. The ties maintain a constant distance between thetwo rails, a measurement known as the "gauge" of the track.To maintain the alignment of the track, it is either laid on a bedof ballast or else secured to a solid concrete foundation. Railtransport is an energy-efficient and capital-intensive componentof logistics, in contrast, a traditional wagon can carry no morethan several tons of freight. 注释rail transport [reil-trænsˈpɔ:t] n.铁路运输 ballast [ˈbæləst] n.道碴conveyance [kənˈveiəns] n.运送 concrete [ˈkɔnkri:t] n.混凝土by means of [bai-miːnz-əv] prep.通过……方式 energy-efficient [enədʒi-iˈfiʃənt] adj.能源节约的consist of [kənˈsist-əv] v.由……组成 capital-intensive [ˌkæpitl-inˈtensiv] adj.资本密集型的secure to [siˈkjuə-tu] v.固定在…… logistics [ləˈdʒistiks] n.物流crossbeam [ˈkrɔsbi:m] n.横梁 wagon [ˈwæɡən] n.四轮马车tie [tai] n.枕木 freight [freit] n.货物gauge [ɡeidʒ] n.轨距alignment [əˈlainmənt] n.直线排列 28
  27. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT011 Developments in technology have eroded some ofthe natural monopoly aspects of traditional public utilities.For instance, electricity generation, electricity retailing,telecommunication and postal services have becomecompetitive in some countries, and the trend towardsliberalization, deregulation and privatization of public utilities isgrowing, but the network infrastructure used to distribute mostutility products and services has remained largely monopolistic. 注释erode [iˈrəud] v.侵蚀retailing [ˈri:teiliŋ] n.零售业postal service [ˈpəustəl-ˈsə:vis] n.邮电业competitive [kəmˈpetitiv] adj.竞争的trend [trend] n.趋势liberalization [ˌlibərəlaiˈzeiʃən] n.自由化deregulation [di:ˌreɡjuˈleiʃən] n.缩小国家对经济干预的范围privatization [ˌpraivətəzeiʃən] n.私有化infrastructure [ˈinfrəˌstrʌktʃə] n.基础设施distribute [disˈtribju:t] v.分配monopolistic [məˌnɔpəˈlistik] adj.垄断的 29
  28. UNIT012 An aspiring master would have to pass through the careerchain from apprentice to journeyman before he/she could beelected to become a master craftsman. He/She would thenhave to produce a sum of money and a masterpiece before he/she could actually join the guild. 注释 aspiring [əsˈpaiəriŋ] adj.有志向的 master [ˈmɑ:stə] n.大师 pass through [ˈpæs-ˌθru:] v.经过 apprentice [əˈprentis] n.学徒 journeyman [ˈdʒə:nimən] n.熟练工人 masterpiece [ˈmɑ:stəpi:s] n.杰作 actually [ˈæktʃuəli] adv.实际上 guild [ɡild] n.协会 30
  29. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT013 A craftsperson who perhaps has at first sold craft items only to friends or at local bazaars may find that increased demand leads to a wider clientele and sales by mail order, at crafts fairs, or through a shop. 注释craft [krɑ:ft] n.工艺bazaar [bəˈzɑ:] n.集市clientele [ˌklaiənˈtel] n.顾客fair [fɛə] n.集市 31
  30. UNIT014 There is a fine line of distinction between crafts producedby amateur hobbyists for their personal satisfaction andthose made by gifted artisans with a view toward the use andenjoyment of others. 注释 fine [fain] adj.(区别)微小的 ;细微的 distinction [disˈtiŋkʃən] n.区别 amateur hobbyist [ˈæmətə-ˈhɔbiist] n.业余爱好者 artisan [ˌɑ:tiˈzæn] n.工匠 32
  31. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT015 Fabric weaving involves interlacing warp and weft. Theyarn threads of warp are arranged parallel to one another andheld in tension on a loom, while the single thread wefts passover or under the warp threads to create a solid or patternedpiece of clothes. To create larger pieces, a treadle loom isusually needed. 注释fabric weaving [ˈfæbrik - wiːviŋ] n.纺织,编织involve [inˈvɔlv] v.包括interlace [ˌintə(:)ˈleis] v.(使) 交织warp [wɔ:p] n.织物上纵的方向的纱或线weft [weft] n.织物上横的方向的纱或线yarn thread [jɑːn-θred] n.纺线丝parallel [ˈpærəlel] adj.平行的tension [ˈtenʃən] n.绷紧状态loom [lu:m] n.织布机solid [ˈsɔlid] adj.结实的treadle loom [tredl-luːm] n.脚踏织机 33
  32. UNIT016 Basketry is the craft of making baskets and bags, mats,rugs, and other items through weaving, plaiting, and coilingtechniques, using materials such as reed, cane, rush, sisal fiber,ash-wood splints, and ropes twisted from strands of hemp. 注释basketry [ˈbɑ:stkitri] n.编篮工艺 sisal [ˈsisəl] n.波罗麻:一种分布在墨西哥和中美mat [mæt] n.垫子 洲的植物rug [rʌɡ] n.地毯 fiber [ˈfaibə] n.纤维plait [plæt] v.把……打成辫 ash-wood [ˈæʃ-wuːd] adj.梣木的coil [kɔil] v.盘绕 splint [splint] n.薄木条reed [ri:d] n.芦苇 twist [twist] v.捻cane [kein] n.藤条 strand [strænd] n.股rush [rʌʃ] n.灯心草 hemp [hemp] n.大麻纤维 34
  33. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT017 In ornamental knotting, cotton, linen, or jute cord is used to make bags, wall hangings, and containers. 注释ornamental [ˌɔ:nəˈmentl] adj.装饰性的knotting [ˈnɔtiŋ] n.结形花边(流苏)cotton [ˈkɔtən] n.棉布linen [ˈlinin] n.亚麻布jute cord [dʒuːt-kɔːd] n.黄麻绳wall hanging [wɔːl-hæŋiŋ] n.壁毯 35
  34. UNIT018 In quilting, three layers of fabric (a decorative top layer,filler, and a liner) are stitched or tied together. 注释 quilt [kwilt] n.被子 quilting [ˈkwiltiŋ] n.被子面料 layer [ˈleiə] n.层 decorative [ˈdekərətiv] adj.装饰性的 filler [ˈfilə] n.填充物 liner [ˈlainə] n.衬里 stitch [stitʃ] v.缝合 36
  35. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT019 Many useful objects can be fashioned from leather, usingsuch special tools as leather shears, punches for carving thickleather, thonging chisels, and lacing needles. 注释fashion [ˈfæʃən] v.制造leather [ˈleðə] n.皮革shears [ʃiəz] n.剪刀punch [pʌntʃ] n.打孔器carve [kɑ:v] v.切割thong [θɔŋ] v.给……装上皮带chisel [ˈtʃizl] n.凿子lace [leis] v.穿线needle [ˈni:dl] n.针 37
  36. UNIT020 Ceramic objects can be molded completely by hand orthrown on a potters wheel. When the clay hardens, it is fired ina high-temperature oven, or kiln, to strengthen it. To make theobject waterproof, glazes may then be applied and the piecefired again. 注释 ceramic [siˈræmik] adj.陶器的 mold [məuld] v.塑造 throw [θrəu] n.(在陶钧上)制(陶)坯 potters wheel [pɔtəz-wiːl] n.陶轮 clay [klei] n.黏土 oven [ˈʌvən] n.烤炉 kiln [kiln] n.窑 waterproof [ˈwɔ:təpru:f] adj.防水的 glaze [ɡleiz] n.釉料 38
  37. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT021 Such basic woodworking techniques as sawing, joining, and finishing can be employed to make a wide variety of useful and ornamental objects, from jewelry boxes to picture frames. 注释woodworking [ˈwudˌwə:kiŋ] n.木工艺 ,木工行业;adj.木工的sawing [ˈsɔ:iŋ] n.锯joining [dʒɔiniŋ] n.拼接finishing [ˈfiniʃiŋ] n.抛光ornamental [ˌɔ:nəˈmentl] adj.装饰性的picture frame [piktʃə-freim] n.相框 39
  38. UNIT022 Carpenter tools include saws, planes, flat-edged chisels,semicircular gouge, boring tools such as brace, drills, andmeasuring tools such as steel rules, C-clamp, squares andtrisquare, etc. 注释 carpenter [ˈkɑ:pintə] n.木匠 saw [sɔ:] n.锯 plane [plein] n.刨子 chisel [ˈtʃizl] n.凿子 gouge [ɡaudʒ] n.半圆凿 boring [ˈbɔ:riŋ] n.钻(孔) brace [breis] n.手摇曲柄钻 drill [dril] n.钻孔机 C-clamp [siː-klæmp] n.C型夹 square [skwɛə] n.直角尺 trisquare [ˈtraiˌskwɛə] n.曲尺 40
  39. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT023 The tenon, a rectangular or square projection from the end of one member, fits snugly into the mortise cut in the second member, thus joining the two perpendicularly. 注释tenon [ˈtenən] n.(木工的)榫projection [prəˈdʒekʃən] n.凸出物snugly [ˈsnʌɡli] adv.紧紧地mortise [ˈmɔ:tis] n.榫眼perpendicularly [ˌpəːpəndikjuləli] adv.垂直地 41
  40. UNIT024 Finishes serve to protect and preserve the wood and tobring out the beauty of the grain. Pieces are finished with rasps,files, and sandpaper. Common finishes include waxes, oils,bleaches, fillers, stains, shellac, varnish, lacquer, sealers, andpaints, including enamels. 注释bring out [briŋ-aut] v.显示出 shellac [ʃəˈlæk] n.虫胶清漆:用于涂饰木料grain [ɡrein] n.纹理图案 varnish [ˈvɑ:niʃ] n.清漆:用于把表面涂成坚硬的、finish [finiʃ] n.抛光、打磨 有光泽的透明的膜rasp [rɑ:sp] n.粗锉 :一种有锋利、突出、尖锐凸 lacquer [ˈlækə] n.天然漆 :一种用作表面涂层的光 起的钝锉 滑的树脂般的物质file [fail] n.锉刀 sealer [ˈsi:lə] n.封底漆sandpaper [ˈsændˌpeipə] n. 砂纸; v.用砂纸磨光 paint [peint] n.油漆wax [wæks] n.石蜡 enamel [iˈnæməl] n.瓷漆 :一种烧制在金属、玻bleach [bli:tʃ] n.漂白剂 璃或瓷器上不透明的、保护性filler [ˈfilə] n.填充料 或装饰性的覆盖层stain [stein] n.着色剂 42
  41. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT025 Paints are formed by mixing a pigment and a binder, a fluidvehicle, such as linseed oil, that solidifies when exposed to air.A varnish is a transparent solution that solidifies into a protectivecoating. Opaque and colored varnishes are called lacquers. 注释pigment [ˈpiɡmənt] n.色素binder [ˈbaində] n.粘合剂vehicle [ˈvi:ikl] n.调漆料linseed oil [linsiːd-ɔil] n.亚麻油solidify [səˈlidifai] v.(使)凝固expose [iksˈpəuz] v.暴露transparent [trænsˈpɛərənt] adj.透明的solution [səˈlu:ʃən] n.溶液coating [ˈkəutiŋ] n.涂层opaque [əuˈpeik] adj.不透明的 43
  42. UNIT026 Cookery involves a diverse array of cuisines. Food maybe immersed in liquids such as water, stock, or wine (boiling,poaching, stewing); immersed in fat or oil (frying); exposed tovapor (steaming and, to some extent, braising); exposed to dryheat (roasting, baking, broiling); and subjected to contact withhot fats (sautéing). 注释cookery [ˈkukəri] n.烹饪 steam [sti:m] v.蒸diverse [daiˈvəs] adj.不同的 braise [breiz] v.炖 :先用油炒 ,然后在有盖容器cuisine [kwiˈzi:n] n.烹饪法 中炖immerse [iˈmə:s] v.浸没 dry heat [drai-hiːt] n.干热stock [stɔk] n.原汤 roast [rəust] v.烘烤wine [wain] n.葡萄酒 bake [beik] v.烘焙boil [bɔil] v.煮 broil [brɔil] v.(用火)烤poach [pəutʃ] v.水煮 subject to [sʌbdʒikt-tuː] v.使遭受stew [stju:] v.炖:用小火烧或慢慢地煮沸来烹饪 contact [ˈkɔntækt] n.关联fat [fæt] n.油脂 sauté [sɔːtei] v.炒fry [frai] v.油炸vapor [ˈveipə] n.蒸气 44
  43. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT027 Essential modern kitchen equipment includes thefollowing: a stove, or range; sink; work surface; various knives,pots and pans; such utensils as spatulas, whisks, specializedspoons, and rolling pins; a more highly specialized array of gearfor producing pastries and other baked goods; and more recentsophisticated equipment such as blenders, food processors,and microwave ovens. 注释kitchen [ˈkitʃin] n.厨房 spatula [ˈspætjulə] n.(调拌用的)刮铲stove [stəuv] n.炉子 whisk [hwisk] n.搅拌器range [reindʒ] n.火炉 spoon [spu:n] n.匙sink [siŋk] n.水槽 rolling pin [rəuliŋ-pin] n.擀面杖work surface [wəːk-səːfəs] n.工作台 gear [ɡiə] n.设备knife [naif] n.刀 pastry [ˈpeistri] n.糕点pot [pɔt] n.锅 sophisticated [səˈfistikeitid] adj.复杂精巧的pan [pæn] n.平底锅 blender [ˈblendə] n.搅拌机utensil [ju:ˈtensl] n.器具 microwave oven [maikrəuweiv-ʌvən] n.微波炉 45
  44. UNIT028 In ancient times, mosaics were a form of floor decorationmade of small pebbles and later of cut or shaped pieces ofmarble, hard stone, glass, terra-cotta, mother-of-pearl, andenamels. The shaped pieces, in the form of small cubes, arecalled tesserae. The tessera are embedded in plaster, cement,or putty to hold them in place. 注释mosaic [mɔˈzeiik] n.镶嵌工艺 tesserae [ˈtesərə:] n.镶嵌物pebble [ˈpebl] n.鹅卵石 (plural: tesserae [ˈtesəri:] )marble [ˈmɑ:bl] n.大理石 embed [imˈbed] v.镶嵌terra-cotta [ˈterə-ˈkɔtə] n.赤陶 plaster [ˈplɑ:stə] n.石膏mother-of-pearl [ˌmʌðər-əvˈ-pɜ:l] n.珍珠母 cement [siˈment] n.水泥cube [kjuːb] n.立方体 putty [ˈpʌti] n.(嵌装玻璃等用的)油灰 in place [in-pleis] adv.在适当的位置 46
  45. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT029 Molten glass was tinted in a wide range of colors withmetal oxides and then poured on a flat surface such as a marbleslab to form a disk of colored glass. This was scored with asharp tool and broken into strips and cubes. 注释molten [ˈməultən] adj.熔化的 ;熔融的tint [tint] n.带白的颜色 ,淡色 ;v.染色 ;着色于……a wide range of [ə-ˈwaid-reindʒ-əv] adj.广泛的metal oxide [metl-ɔksaid] n.金属氧化物pour on [ˈpɔːr-ɔn] v.把……倒在……上flat [flæt] adj.扁平的marble slab [mɑːbl-slæb] n.大理石板score [skɔ:] v.打记号于strip [strip] n.条 47
  46. UNIT030 Portraits can be executed in any medium, includingsculpted stone and wood, oil, painted ivory, pastel, encausticon wood panel, tempera on parchment, carved cameo, andhammered or poured metal. 注释 portrait [ˈpɔ:trit] n.肖像 sculpt [skʌlpt] v.雕刻 ivory [ˈaivəri] n.象牙 pastel [pæsˈtel] n.彩色蜡笔画 encaustic [inˈkɔ:stik] n.蜡画 tempera [ˈtempərə] n.蛋彩画 parchment [ˈpɑ:tʃmənt] n.羊皮纸 cameo [ˈkæmiəu] n.浮雕 hammer [ˈhæmə] v.锤打 pour [pɔ:] v.浇注 48
  47. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT031 Sculpture (from Latin, "to carve"), three-dimensional art concerned with the organization of masses and volumes. The two principal types have traditionally been freestanding sculpture in the round and relief sculpture. 注释sculpture [ˈskʌlptʃə] n.雕刻mass [mæs] n.质量volume [ˈvɔlju:m] n.体积principal [ˈprinsəpəl] adj.主要的freestanding [ˈfri:ˌstændiŋ] adj.(雕刻、建筑物等)独立的,自力撑持的in the round [in-ðə-raund] adj.雕刻成立体(的) ,栩栩如生的,表现无余的relief [riˈli:f] n.浮雕 49
  48. UNIT032 Casting is accomplished in two stages: an impression ornegative mold is formed from the original — a clay model, forinstance — and a positive cast or reproduction is made of theoriginal work from the negative impression. 注释 casting [ˈkɑ:stiŋ] n.铸造 impression [imˈpreʃən] n.印痕 negative mold [negətiv-məuld] n.凹模 clay [klei] n.黏土, 泥土 positive cast [ˈpɔzitiv-kɑːst] n.正像 reproduction [ˌri:prəˈdʌkʃən] n.复制品 50
  49. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT033 Pitch depends upon the rate of vibration, or frequency,of sound waves that produce a particular tone. Most Westernmusic is based on 12 equivalent intervals per octave; however,a great deal of Western folk music conforms to pentatonic scale,the best-known form of which contains no half steps. 注释pitch [pitʃ] n.音高 folk [fəuk] adj.民间的vibration [vaiˈbreiʃən] n.振动 conform [kənˈfɔ:m] v.(to, with)遵照 ,依照frequency [ˈfri:kwənsi] n.频率 pentatonic [ˌpentəˈtɔnik] adj.五声音阶的tone [təun] n.音调 scale [skeil] n.音阶equivalent interval [iˈkwivələnt - ˈintəvəl] step [step] n.音级 n.等间隔的音程octave [ˈɔktiv] n.八度音程(音阶) 51
  50. UNIT034 Rhythm is the way music uses time, which includescharacteristics such as duration of tones and silences, andpatterns of duration. 注释 rhythm [ˈriðəm] n.节奏 characteristic [ˌkæriktəˈristik] n.特性 duration [djuəˈreiʃən] n.持续时间 52
  51. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT035 The most important and style-defining patterns are formedby pitches that overlap with one another in time, producing achord, or harmony. Two or more tones heard simultaneouslymay belong to separate melodies that fit well together, butwhich occupy different octave registers, have distinct rhythmicpatterns, or otherwise have different shapes or contours. 注释style-defining [stail - difainiŋ] adj. 定义完整的,仔细定义过的overlap [ˌəuvəˈlæp] v.与……重叠chord [kɔ:d] n.和弦harmony [ˈhɑ:məni] n.和声simultaneously [siməlˈteiniəsli] adv.同时地melody [ˈmelədi] n.曲调occupy [ˈɔkjupai] v.占用 ,填满register [ˈredʒistə] n.音域distinct [disˈtiŋkt] adj.截然不同的rhythmic patterns [riðmik - pætənz] n. 有节奏的模式contour [ˈkɔnˌtuə] n.(音调或声调的)升降曲线 ;变化方式 53
  52. UNIT036 Score, musical notation for a multipart composition, inwhich the music to be performed by each voice or instrument,is written with clefs on a separate staff, all the staves beingaligned one above another. 注释 score [skɔ:] n.乐谱 notation [nəuˈteiʃən] n.谱号 (musical notation: 音乐记谱) composition [ˌkɔmpəˈziʃən] n.乐曲 perform [pəˈfɔ:m] v.演奏 instrument [ˈinstrumənt] n.乐器 clef [klef] n.谱号 staff [stɑ:f] n.五线谱 (plural: staves [stɑ:vz] ) align [əˈlain] v.排列 54
  53. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT037 Orchestra, in the narrowest sense, the characteristicensemble of Western musical instruments, has as its corea group of bowed-string instruments of the violin family,augmented by woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments. 注释orchestra [ˈɔ:kistrə] n.管弦乐ensemble [ɔŋsɔŋblə] n.合奏musical instrument [mjuːzikəl-instrumənt] n.乐器core [kɔ:] n.中心bowed-string [baud-striŋ] adj.演奏弦乐的violin [ˌvaiəˈlin] n.小提琴augment [ɔ:ɡˈment] v.增补 ,扩充woodwind [wudwind] n.木管乐器brass [brɑ:s] n.铜管乐器percussion [pə:ˈkʌʃən] n.打击乐器 55
  54. UNIT038 Percussion instruments are referred to as membranophonesif they produce sound through the vibrations of a stretched skinor other membrane. They are called idiophones if they producesound through their natural resonance when struck, rubbed,plucked, or shaken. Drums are membranophones; hollowedlogs, bells, gongs, xylophones, and pianos are examples ofidiophones. 注释membranophone [membreinəfəun] n.膜鸣乐器 pluck [plʌk] v.拨(弦)stretched [stretʃ] adj.有弹性的 shake [ʃeik] v.摇晃membrane [ˈmembrein] n.(动物或植物体内的)薄 drum [drʌm] n.鼓 膜, 隔膜 hollowed log [hɔləud-lɔg] n.中空的原木idiophone [idiəufəun] n.体鸣乐器 bell [bel] n.铃、钟、或钟琴resonance [ˈrezənəns] n.共振 gong [ɡɔŋ] n.锣strike [straik] v.敲击 xylophone [ˈzailəfəun] n.木琴rub [rʌb] v.摩擦 piano [piˈænəu] n.钢琴 56
  55. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT039 Wind instruments, or aerophones, produce sound byvibration, which may be produced by performers lips (brass), acolumn of air split across a sharp edge (flutes, pipes, whistles),or by one or two reeds, as with instruments such as the clarinet,saxophone, oboe and bassoon. 注释wind instrument [wind-instrumənt] n.管乐器 whistle [ˈhwisl] n.口哨aerophone [eərəˌfəun] n.管乐器 reed [ri:d] n.簧片column [ˈkɔləm] n.柱(a colum of air 气柱) clarinet [ˌklæriˈnet] n.单簧管 黑管 ,split [split] v.劈开,切开v saxophone [ˈsæksəfəun] n.萨克斯管edge [edʒ] n.边缘 oboe [ˈəubəu,ˈəubi] n.双簧管flute [flu:t] n.竖笛,横笛 brass [bræs] n.铜管(乐器)pipe [paip] n.风笛 bassoon [bəsuːn] n.低音管 ,巴松 57
  56. UNIT040 The string, or chordophone, family has several branches.In one branch, which includes the zither and dulcimer, stringsare stretched across a flat body. In a second branch, eachinstrument has a neck, for example the lute, guitar, or violin. Athird branch includes plucked instruments with multiple strings,such as the lyre or the harp, where each string produces onlyone pitch. 注释 string [striŋ] n.琴弦 弦乐器 , chordophone [kɔːdəufəun] n.弦乐器 zither [ziðə] n.齐特琴(与中国的“筝”相似) dulcimer [dʌlsimə] n.洋琴 neck [nek] n.琴颈 lute [lu:t] n.鲁特琴 guitar [ɡiˈtɑ:] n.吉他 violin [ˌvaiəˈlin] n.小提琴 lyre [laiə] n.里拉 ,七弦竖琴(古希腊的一种弦乐器) harp [hɑ:p] n.竖琴 58
  57. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT041 The modern pianoforte has six major parts: (1) The frameis usually made of iron. At the rear end is attached the stringplate, into which the strings are fastened. In the front is thewrest plank, into which the tuning pins are set. Around these iswound the other end of the strings, and by turning these pins,the tension of the strings is regulated. (2) The soundboard,a thin piece of fine-grained spruce placed under the strings,reinforces the tone by means of sympathetic vibration. (3) Thestrings, made of steel wire, increase in length and thicknessfrom the treble to the bass. The higher pitches are each giventwo or three strings tuned alike. The lower ones are singlestrings made heavier by being overspun — that is, woundaround with a coil of thin copper wire. (4) The action is the entiremechanism required for propelling the hammers (wrapped withfelt) against the strings. The most visible part of the action is thekeyboard, a row of keys manipulated by the fingers. The keyscorresponding to the natural tones are made of ivory or plastic;those corresponding to the chromatically altered tones, of ebonyor plastic. (5) The pedals are levers pressed down by the feet.The damper, or loud pedal, raises all the dampers so that allthe strings struck continue to vibrate even after the keys arereleased. The use of these pedals can produce subtle changesin tone quality. (6) According to the shape of the case, pianosare classified as grand, square, and upright. Grand pianos arebuilt in various sizes, from the full concert grand, 2.69m long, tothe parlor or baby grand, less than 1.8m long. 注释pianoforte [piˌænəuˈfɔ:ti] n.钢琴(piano的旧称)frame [freim] n.骨架rear [riə] adj.后面的attach [əˈtætʃ] v.附加fasten [ˈfɑ:sən] v.使固定 ;加固plank [plæŋk] n.支架 [wrest plank: 校准弦音的扭钥架]tuning pin [tuːniŋ - pin] n.调音弦轴wind [wind] v. 绕 缠 ,tension [ˈtenʃən] n.压力 张力 ,regulate [ˈreɡjuleit] v.调节 校准 ,fine-grained [ˈfain - ˈɡreind] adj.纹理细腻、平整的spruce [spru:s] n.云杉质木材reinforce [ˌri:inˈfɔ:s] v.加强 59
  58. UNIT041sympathetic vibration [simpəθetik-vaibreiʃən] ivory [ˈaivəri] n.象牙 n.共振 plastic [ˈplɑ:stik] n.塑料treble [ˈtrebl] n.高音部分 chromatic [krəuˈmætik] adj. 半音(阶)的 含半音的 ,bass [beis] n.低音部分 chromatically [krəuˈmætikli] adv.半音地pitch [pitʃ] n.音高 ebony [ˈebəni] n.乌木overspin wire [əuvəspin-waiə] n.缠弦 pedal [ˈpedl] n.踏板coil [kɔil] n.(一)卷 lever [ˈli:və] n.控制杆action [ˈækʃən] n. 机械装置 damper [ˈdæmpə] n.制音器mechanism [ˈmekənizəm] n.机械装置 release [riˈli:s] v.释放propel [prəˈpel] v.推动 sustaining [səsˈteiniŋ] adj.支持的hammer [ˈhæmə] n.音锤 subtle [ˈsʌtl] adj.微小的felt [felt] n.毛毡 grand [ɡrænd] adj.大的manipulate [məˈnipjuleit] v.(熟练地)操作、使 square [skwɛə] adj.正方形的 用(机器等) upright [ˈʌprait] adj.立式的corresponding to [ˌkɔrəspɔndiŋ-tuː] various [ˈvɛəriəs] adj.许多的 ,多样的 adj.与……相应的 parlor [ˈpɑ:lə] adj.客厅的 60
  59. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT042 The main parts of the violin are the front, also calledthe belly, top, or soundboard, usually made of well-seasonedspruce; the back, usually made of well-seasoned maple; andthe ribs, neck, fingerboard, pegbox, scroll, bridge, tailpiece,and f-holes, or soundholes. The front, back, and ribs are joinedtogether to form a hollow sound box. The sound box containsthe sound post, a thin, dowel-like stick of wood wedged insideunderneath the right side of the bridge and connecting thefront and back of the violin; and the bass-bar, a long strip ofwood glued to the inside of the front under the left side of thebridge. The sound post and bass-bar are important for thetransmission of sound, and they also give additional supportto the construction. The strings are fastened to the tailpiece,rest on the bridge, and are suspended over the fingerboard,and run to the pegbox, where they are attached to tuning pegsthat can be turned to change the pitch of the string. The stringsare set in vibration and produce sound when the player drawsthe bow across them at a right angle near the bridge. Amongthe prized characteristics of the violin are its singing tone andits potential to play rapid, brilliant figurations as well as lyricalmelodies. Violinists can also create special effects by means ofthe following techniques: pizzicato, plucking, tremolo, etc. 注释violin [ˌvaiəˈlin] n.小提琴belly [ˈbeli] n.(弦乐器的)面板well-seasoned [wel-siːznd] adj.完全风干的spruce [spru:s] n.云杉maple [ˈmeipl] n.枫木rib [rib] n.琴骨pegbox [pegbɔks] n.(弦乐器的)弦轴箱scroll [skrəul] n.涡卷形头:提琴类乐器上的弯曲状饰头tailpiece [ˈteilpi:s] n.系弦钮hollow [ˈhɔləu] adj.中空的sound [saund] n.声音post [pəust] n.杆dowel [ˈdauəl] n.暗榫wedge [wedʒ] v.楔入underneath [ˌʌndəˈni:θ] prep.在……的下面bass bar [beis-bɑ:] n.低音梁strip [strip] n.条glue [ɡlu:] v.粘合transmission [trænzˈmiʃən] n.传播 61
  60. UNIT042suspend [səˈspend] v.悬挂 figuration [ˌfiɡjuˈreiʃən] n.用装饰音装饰tuning peg [ˈtju:niŋ - peɡ] n.调音弦轴 lyrical [ˈlirikəl] adj.抒情的pitch [pitʃ] n.音质 melody [ˈmelədi] n.曲调vibration [vaiˈbreiʃən] n.振动 pizzicato [ˌpitsikɑːtəu] n.拨奏乐曲draw [drɔ:] v.拉 pluck [plʌk] v.拨bow [bəu] n.琴弓 tremolo [ˈtremələu] n.颤音prize [praiz] v.珍视 62
  61. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT043 Photography is based on principles of light, optics, andchemistry. For the purpose of producing a photograph, thesesilver salts are distributed in gelatin to make a mixture called anemulsion, which is applied to film or another supporting materialin a thin layer. When the emulsion is exposed to light, the silverhalide crystals undergo chemical changes and, after furtherprocessing, an image becomes visible. The stronger the lightthat strikes the crystals, the denser or more opaque that part ofthe film becomes. Most types of film produce a negative image,from which a positive final copy can be printed on sensitizedpaper. The dense (or dark) areas of the negative translateinto light areas on the final photograph. Almost all modernphotography relies on this negative-to-positive process. 注释photography [fəˈtɔɡrəfi] n.摄影 crystal [ˈkristəl] n. 晶体principle [ˈprinsəpl] n.原则 undergo [ˌʌndəˈɡəu] v. 经历(变迁等) ;遭受optics [ˈɔptiks] n.光学 (苦难等)silver salt [ˈsilvə-sɔːlt] n.银盐 processing [prəuˈsesiŋ] n.处理distribute [disˈtribju:t] v. 分布 ,散布(over) image [ˈimidʒ] n. 影像gelatin [ˈdʒelətin,ˈdʒeləˈti:n] n.凝胶 strike [straik] v. 照在……上emulsion [iˈmʌlʃən] n. 感光乳剂 opaque [əuˈpeik] adj. 不反射光线的apply [əˈplai] v. 涂 搽 撒 , , negative image [ˈneɡətiv-imidʒ]film [film] n. 胶片 n. 底片(负像)layer [ˈleiə] n. 垫片 ,层 sensitized paper [ˈsensitaizd-peipə] n. 感光纸expose [iksˈpəuz] v. 曝光,暴露 translate into [trænsˈleit-intu] v. 转化为halide [ˈhælaid] adj.卤化物(的) rely on [riˈlai-ɔn] v. 依赖,依靠 63
  62. UNIT044 In most cases, the camera and its lens determine theappearance of the photographic image. Cameras work onthe basic principle of the camera obscura. In both the cameraobscura and the modern camera, light passes through a lensfitted into an otherwise lightproof box. Light passing throughthe lens casts an image of the cameras subject — the object,person, or scene in front of the camera — onto the inside of thebox, which in a modern camera contains film. The camera andlens control how much light strikes the film, in what is called anexposure. 注释 camera [ˈkæmərə] n.照相机 lens [lenz] n.镜头 camera obscura [ˈkæmərə-ɔbˈskjuərə] n.暗箱 otherwise [ˈʌðəwaiz] adj.别样的 ,另外一种的 lightproof [ˈlaitpru:f] adj.不透光 cast [kɑ:st] v.投射 subject [ˈsʌbdʒikt] n.对象 scene [si:n] n.景色 exposure [iksˈpəuʒə] n.曝光 64
  63. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT045 Anthropologists and theater historians trace the originsof theater to myth and ritual found in dances and mimedperformances by masked dancers during fertility rites and otherceremonies that marked important passages in life. Imitation,costumes, masks, makeup, gesture, dance, music, andpantomime were some of the theatrical elements found in earlyrituals. 注释anthropologist [ˌænθrəˈpɔlədʒist] n.人类学家 ceremony [ˈseriməni] n.仪式theater [ˈθiətə] n.戏剧 passage [ˈpæsidʒ] n.转变trace [treis] v.追踪,探索 imitation [ˌimiˈteiʃən] n.道具myth [miθ] n.神话 costume [ˈkɔstju:m] n.装束ritual [ˈritʃuəl] n.(宗教)仪式 makeup [ˈmeikʌp] n.化妆品mimed performance [maimd-pəfɔːməns] gesture [ˈdʒestʃə] n.造型 n.笑剧、闹剧表演 pantomime [ˈpæntəmaim] n.哑剧表演fertility rite [fəːtiliti-rait] n.丰收仪式 65
  64. UNIT046 In addition to the actor and the audience in a space,other elements of theater include a written or improvised text,costumes, scenery, lights, sound, and properties (props). Mosttheatrical performances require the collaborative efforts of manycreative people, including dramaturge, craftspeople, designer,composer, or choreographer and managers working toward acommon goal: the production. The performance is very oftena play — a tragedy, comedy, or musical — but it need notbe. Theater performances include vaudeville, puppet shows,mime, and other forms of entertainment. Theatrical texts, oftenreferred to as drama, usually provide the vital framework ofa performance. In Aristotles famous definition, drama is animitation of an action that is whole, complete, and of a certainmagnitude or scope. 注释audience [ˈɔ:djəns] n.观众 tragedy [ˈtrædʒidi] n.悲剧improvised text [ˈimprəvaizd-tekst] n.同步字幕 comedy [ˈkɔmidi] n.喜剧scenery [ˈsi:nəri] n.舞台布景 vaudeville [ˈvɔ:dəvil] n.歌舞杂耍property [ˈprɔpəti] n.道具 puppet show [ˈpʌpit-ʃəu] n.木偶剧props [prɔps] n.小道具 mime [maim] n.笑剧collaborative [kəˈlæbəreitiv] adj.协作的 theatrical text [θiˈætrikəl-tekst] n.戏剧文本dramaturge [ˈdræməˌtə:dʒ] n.剧作家 drama [ˈdrɑ:mə] n.戏剧craftspeople [krɑːftspiːpl] n.道具师 framework [ˈfreimwə:k] n.结构composer [kəmˈpəuzə] n.作曲家 magnitude [ˈmæɡnitju:d] n.量值choreographer [ˌkɔriˈɔɡrəfə] n.舞蹈指导 scope [skəup] n.范围production [prəˈdʌkʃən] n.作品 ,成品 ,电影制片 66
  65. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT047 Theater can serve many ends. It can be designed toentertain, instruct, motivate, persuade, and even shock. Butwhatever the intentions of the director, performers, and crew,the result depends on the interaction with an audience. Theaudience affects the performance by providing the performerswith immediate feedback, such as laughter, tears, applause,or silence. Each night there is continuous interaction betweenthe auditorium and the stage. Ultimately, audiences make theiropinions known through their attendance or nonattendance.They support what appeals to them and generally fail to supportwhat they find distasteful, offensive, or incomprehensible. 注释serve [sə:v] v.满足 ,服务 affect [əˈfekt] v.影响end [end] n.目的 immediate [iˈmi:diət] adj.立即的entertain [ˌentəˈtein] v.娱乐 feedback [ˈfi:dbæk] n.反馈instruct [inˈstrʌkt] v.教导 applause [əˈplɔ:z] n.喝彩motivate [ˈməutiveit] v.激发 auditorium [ˌɔ:diˈtɔ:riəm] n.观众席persuade [pəˈsweid] v.说服 attendance [əˈtendəns] n.出席shock [ʃɔk] v.震撼 appeal [əˈpi:l] v.对……有吸引力intention [inˈtenʃən] n.意图 ,目的 distasteful [disˈteistful] adj.(令人)不愉快的director [diˈrektə] n.导演 offensive [əˈfensiv] adj.冒犯的performer [pəˈfɔ:mə] n.表演者 incomprehensible [inˌkɔmpriˈhensəbl]adj.不能理解的crew [kru:] n.全体人员interaction [ˌintərˈækʃən] n.相互作用 67
  66. UNIT048 Directors assume responsibility for the overall interpretationof a script, and they have the authority to approve, control,and coordinate all the elements of a production. Throughoutthe ages, performers have been jugglers, mimes, minstrels,puppeteers, acrobats, clowns, singers, dancers, and amateurand professional actors/actresses. The first performers weremost likely singers and dancers, as the first performances hadno spoken dialogue. 注释 assume [əˈsju:m] v. 承担 interpretation [inˌtə:priˈteiʃən] n. 演绎 script [skript] n.剧本 coordinate [kəuˈɔ:dineit] v. 调整 juggler [ˈdʒʌɡlə] n. 玩杂耍的人 mime [maim] n. 滑稽演员 ,哑剧演员 ,丑角 minstrel [ˈminstrəl] n. 诗歌演唱者 puppeteer [pʌpiˈtiə] n. 演木偶戏的人 acrobat [ˈækrəbæt] n.杂技演员 clown [klaun] n. 小丑 amateur [ˈæmətə] n. 业余艺术家 dialogue [ˈdaiəlɔɡ] n. 对白 68
  67. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT049 In commercial and nonprofit theaters, the producer is the person who puts together the financing, management staff, and the artistic team to produce the show. Usually, the producer works in tandem with a general manager and others to accomplish the daily running of the production, from rehearsals to closing. In this role, he or she selects a season of several plays, hires the artistic teams and technical staff, works with a casting director to audition and cast actors in various parts, controls the theaters funding, and acts as the final authority in all artistic and administrative operations. 注释commercial [kəˈmə:ʃəl] adj.商业的nonprofit [ˌnɔnˈprɔfit] adj. 非赢利的producer [prəˈdju:sə] n. 制片人put together [put-təgeðə] v. 组合staff [stɑ:f] n.全体职员in tandem with [in-tændəm-wið] adv. 同……合作accomplish [əˈkɔmpliʃ] v. 完成rehearsal [riˈhə:səl] n. 彩排season [ˈsi:zən] n. 适合某种活动的季节,期间casting director [ˈkɑ:stiŋ-direktə] n.负责挑选演员的人,星探audition [ɔ:ˈdiʃən] v. 在试演中评估某一人物cast [kɑ:st] v. 指定角色administrative [ədˈministreitiv] adj. 管理的 69
  68. UNIT050 All living things are composed of cells. Some microscopicorganisms, such as bacteria and protozoa, are unicellular,meaning they consist of a single cell. Plants, animals, and fungiare multicellular; that is, they are composed of a great manycells working in concert. 注释 cell [sel] n. 细胞 microscopic [ˌmaikrəsˈkɔpik] adj. 极微小的 organism [ˈɔ:ɡənizəm] n. 有机生物 protozoan [ˌprəutəuˈzəuən] n. 原生动物 (plural: protozoa [prəutəuˈzəuə]) unicellular [ˈju:niˈseljulə] adj.单细胞的 fungi [ˈfʌndʒai,ˈfʌŋɡai] n.真菌类 multicellular [ˌmʌltiˈseljulə] adj.多细胞的 in concert [in-kɔnsət] adv. 同时 70
  69. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT051 The components of cells are molecules, nonlivingstructures formed by the union of atoms. Small moleculesserve as building blocks for larger molecules. Proteins, nucleicacids, carbohydrates, and lipids, which include fats and oils, arethe four major molecules that underlie cell structure and alsoparticipate in cell functions. 注释molecule [ˈmɔlikju:l] n.分子union [ˈju:njən] n.结合atom [ˈætəm] n.原子building block [bildiŋ-ˈblɔk] n.结构单元protein [ˈprəuti:n] n.蛋白质nucleic acid [nju:ˈkli:ik-ˈæsid] n.核酸carbohydrate [ˌkɑ:bəuˈhaidreit] n.碳水化合物lipid [ˈlipid,ˈlaipid] n.脂质underlie [ˌʌndəˈlai] v.成为……的基础participate [pɑ:ˈtisipeit] v.参与 71
  70. UNIT052 The eukaryotic cell cytoplasm is similar to that of theprokaryote cell except for one major difference: eukaryotic cellshouse a nucleus and numerous other membrane-enclosedorganelles. Like separate rooms of a house, these organellesenable specialized functions to be carried out efficiently. Thebuilding of proteins and lipids, for example, takes place inseparate organelles where specialized enzymes geared foreach job are located. 注释 eukaryotic cell [juˈkæriəutik - sel] n.真核细胞 cytoplasm [ˈsaitəplæzəm] n.细胞质 prokaryote cell [prəukæriəut - sel] n.原核生物细胞 house [haus] v.包含 nucleus [ˈnju:kliəs] n.细胞核 membrane [ˈmembrein] n.膜 organelle [ɔ:ɡəˈnel] n.细胞器 enzyme [ˈenzaim] n.酶 gear [ɡiə] v.使适合于 72
  71. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT053 The nucleus is the largest organelle in an animal cell. Itcontains numerous strands of DNA, the length of each strandbeing many times the diameter of the cell. Unlike the circularprokaryotic DNA, long sections of eukaryotic DNA pack into thenucleus by wrapping around proteins. As a cell begins to divide,each DNA strand folds over onto itself several times, forming arod-shaped chromosome. 注释strand [strænd] n.串 ,(绳子的)股diameter [daiˈæmitə] n.直径pack into [ˈpæk-intu] v.将……装(塞,挤)入wrap [ræp] v.缠绕chromosome [ˈkrəuməsəum] n.染色体 73
  72. UNIT054 Plant cells have all the components of animal cells andseveral other added features, including chloroplasts, a centralvacuole, and a cell wall. Chloroplasts convert light energy —typically from the Sun — into the sugar glucose, a form ofchemical energy, in a process known as photosynthesis.Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, possess a circular chromosomeand prokaryote like ribosomes, which manufacture the proteinsthat the chloroplasts typically need. The vacuole, a membranousbag, crowds the cytoplasm and organelles to the edges of thecell. The central vacuole stores water, salts, sugars, proteins,and other nutrients. In addition, it stores the blue, red, andpurple pigments that give certain flowers their colors. 注释 component [kəmˈpəunənt] n.组成部分 chloroplast [ˈklɔ:rəuplæst] n.叶绿体 vacuole [ˈvækjuəul] n.液泡 cell wall [sel-wɔːl] n.细胞壁 glucose [ˈɡlu:kəus] n.葡萄糖 photosynthesis [ˌfəutəuˈsinθəsis] n.光合作用 mitochondria [ˌmaitəˈkɔndriə] n.线粒体 ribosome [ˈraibəsəum] n.核糖体 crowd ... to ... [kraud-tu:] v.把……挤进……;把……塞进…… pigment [ˈpiɡmənt] n.色素 74
  73. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT055 Forests may be divided into the following eight generaltypes on the basis of leaf characteristics and climate.(1) Deciduous forests of the temperate regions are the typicalformation of the eastern United States. (2) Deciduous monsoonforests are characteristic of Bengal and Myanmar (formerlyknown as Burma) and common throughout Southeast Asiaand India. (3) Tropical savanna forests are found in regionssuch as the campos of Brazil, where forest and grasslandmeet. (4) Northern coniferous forests form a worldwide belt insubarctic and alpine regions of the northern hemisphere. (5)Tropical rain forests are characteristic of central Africa and theAmazon watershed. (6) Temperate evergreen forests are foundin the subtropical regions of North America and the Caribbeanislands that have a warm maritime climate. (7) Temperaterain forests, with broad-leaved evergreen trees, are commonon Mediterranean coasts. (8) Tropical scrub forests occur inregions of slight rainfall, bordering wetter forests. 注释forest [ˈfɔrist] n.森林 alpine region [ˈælpain-ˈri:dʒən] n.高山区deciduous forest [diˈsidʒuəs-ˈfɔrist] n.落叶林 hemisphere [ˈhemiˌsfiə] n.半球Deciduous monsoon forest [diˈsidʒuəs-mɔnˈsu:n-ˈfɔrist] tropical rain forest [ˈtrɔpikl-rein-ˈfɔrist] n.热带雨林 n.落叶季雨林 watershed [ˈwɔ:təʃed] n.流域Bengal [beŋˈɡɔ:l] n.孟加拉 Temperate evergreen forest [ˈtempərit-ˈevəɡri:n-ˈfɔrist]Myanmar [ˈmjænmɑ:] n.缅甸 n.温带绿叶林Tropical savanna forest [ˈtrɔpikl-səˈvænə-ˈfɔrist] subtropical [ˈsʌbˈtrɔpikəl] adj.亚热带的 n.热带稀树草原 maritime [ˈmæritaim] adj.海洋性的campo [ˈkæmpəu] n.南美草原 Temperate rain forest [ˈtempərit-rein-ˈfɔrist]grassland [ˈɡrɑ:slænd] n.草原 n.温带雨林Northern coniferous forest [ˈnɔːð(ə)n-kəuˈnifərəs-ˈfɔrist] coast [kəust] n.海岸 n.北方针叶树林 Tropical scrub forest [ˈtrɔpikl-skrʌb-ˈfɔrist]worldwide belt [ˈwə:ldwaid-belt] n.世界范围分布 n.热带灌丛林subarctic [ˈsʌbˈɑ:ktik] adj.亚寒带 75
  74. UNIT056 Three major forest areas exist in the United States. Thewestern forests of the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific coastare coniferous and contain Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, westernwhite pine, Engelmann spruce, and white fir. More than halfof the softwood lumber yield of the United States comes fromthe productive Douglas fir forests of the Pacific Northwest. TheSouth Atlantic and Gulf states account for most of the remainingsoftwood lumber, chiefly from longleaf, shortleaf, loblolly, andslash pines. Hardwoods, yielding about one-fourth of the totalproduction, are found in the eastern half of the United States,with particularly dense stands in the area surrounding theMississippi and Ohio river valleys. Among the many hardwoodspecies are oaks, black walnut, yellow poplar, and sugar maple. 注释fir [fə:] n.枞树 ,冷杉 hardwood [ˈhɑ:dwud] n.阔叶树pine [pain] n.松树 stand [stænd] n.高大树丛spruce [spru:s] n.云杉 oak [əuk] n.橡树softwood [ˈsɔftwud] n.针叶树 black walnut [blæk-ˈwɔ:lnət] n.黑胡桃lumber [ˈlʌmbə] n.木材 yellow poplar [ˈjeləu-ˈpɔplə]yield [ji:ld] n.产量 n.北美鹅掌揪(poplɑr 相当于中国 ,account for [əkaunt-fɔː] v.占据 人说的“杨树”)loblolly pine [lɔblɔli-pain] n.火炬松 sugar maple [ˈʃuɡə-ˈmeipl] n.糖枫slash pine [slæʃ-pain] n.沼泽松 76
  75. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT057 To be classified as a rain forest, a forest must have a closed canopy, in which the treetops, or crowns, touch each other, creating a shaded forest interior. In addition, temperature and rainfall must be high and relatively even throughout the year. Forests that meet these criteria are found flanking the equator in South and Central America, Asia, Africa, and Australia. 注释rain forest [rein - fɔrəst] n.雨林canopy [ˈkænəpi] n.天篷 :树林中最上面一层crown [kraun] n.树冠touch [tʌtʃ] v.接触criteria [kraiˈtiəriə] n.标准flank [flæŋk] v.位于……的两侧equator [iˈkweitə] n.赤道 77
  76. UNIT058 Flower is the reproductive organ of most seed-bearing plants. Flowers carry out the multiple roles of sexualreproduction, seed development, and fruit production. Manyplants — produce highly visible flowers that have a distinctivesize, color, or fragrance. Almost everyone is familiar withbeautiful flowers such as the blossoms of roses, orchids, andtulips. But many plants — including oaks, beeches, maples,and grasses — have small, green or gray flowers that typicallygo unnoticed. Whether eye-catching or inconspicuous, allflowers produce the male or female sex cells required forsexual reproduction. Botanists call them the cones, bearingplants gymnosperms, which means naked seeds. they referto flowering plants as angiosperms, which means enclosedseeds. Flowers typically are composed of four parts, arranged inconcentric rings attached to the tip of the stem. From innermostto outermost, these whorls are the pistil, stamens, petals, andsepals. 注释reproductive organ [ˈri:prəˈdʌktiv-ˈɔ:ɡən] gymnosperm [ˈdʒimnəuˌspə:m] n.裸子植物 n.生殖器官 refer to [rifəː-tuː] v.指的是……fragrance [ˈfreiɡrəns] n.香气 angiosperm [ˈændʒiəspə:m] n.被子植物blossom [ˈblɔsəm] n.花簇 be composed of [biː-kəmpəuzd-əv]orchid [ˈɔ:kid] n.兰花 n.由…组成tulip [ˈtju:lip] n.郁金香 concentric [kɔnˈsentrik] adj.同一中心的beech [bi:tʃ] n.山毛榉 stem [stem] n.茎eye-catching [ˈaiˌ-kætʃiŋ] adj.引人注目的 pistil [ˈpistil] n.雌蕊inconspicuous [ˌinkənˈspikjuəs] adj.不显眼的 stamen [ˈsteimen] n.雄蕊botanist [ˈbɔtənist] n.植物学家 petal [ˈpetl] n.花瓣cone [kəun] n.球果 sepal [ˈsepəl] n.萼片 78
  77. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT059 Bacteria lack a true nucleus, a feature that distinguishesthem from plant and animal cells. In plants and animalsthe saclike nucleus carries genetic material in the form ofdeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Bacteria also have DNA butit floats within the cell, usually in a loop or coil. A tough butresilient protective shell surrounds the bacterial cell. 注释bacteria [bækˈtiəriə] (pl. ) n.细菌 (single: bacterium [bækˈtiəriəm])lack [læk] v.缺乏feature [ˈfi:tʃə] n.特征distinguish [disˈtiŋɡwiʃ] v.区别saclike [sæklaik] adj.囊状的genetic material [dʒinetik-mətiəriəl] n.遗传物质deoxyribonucleic acid [di:ˈɔksi:ˌraibəuˈnju:kli:ik-æsid] n.脱氧核糖核酸float [fləut] v.漂浮loop [lu:p] n.环coil [kɔil] n.(一)卷resilient [riˈziliənt] adj.有弹性的shell [ʃel] n.外壳 79
  78. UNIT060 Virus, infectious agent found in virtually all life forms,including humans, animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria, consistof genetic material — either deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) orribonucleic acid (RNA) — surrounded by a protective coating ofprotein, called a capsid, with or without an outer lipid envelope. 注释virus [ˈvaiərəs] n.病毒infectious agent [inˈfekʃəs-ˈeidʒənt] n.传染因子virtually [ˈvə:tʃuəli] adv.实际上fungi [ˈfʌndʒai] n.真菌类(singulɑr: fungus [ˈfʌŋgəs])consist of [kənsist-əv] v.由……组成ribonucleic acid [ˌraibənju:ˈkli:ik-ˈæsid] n.核糖核酸(略作RNA)coating [ˈkəutiŋ] n.外壳capsid [ˈkæpsid] n.衣壳(包裹着一个病毒粒子的蛋白质外壳)lipid [ˈlipid] n.脂质envelope [ˈenvələup] n.包裹性的结构或包皮,例如膜,或者病毒的包膜 80
  79. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT061 The most important classes of biomolecules are nucleicacids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Nucleic acids are responsible for storing and transferringgenetic information. They are enormous molecules made up oflong strands of subunits, called bases which are arranged in aprecise sequence. These are "read" by other components of thecell and used as a guide in making proteins. Proteins are large molecules built up of small subunitscalled amino acids. The proteins of greatest interest tobiochemists are the enzymes, which serve as catalysts ofchemical reactions. Carbohydrates are the basic fuel molecules of the cell.They contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in approximatelyequal amounts. Green plants and some bacteria use a processknown as photosynthesis to make simple carbohydrates (sugars)from carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight. Animals, however,obtain their carbohydrates from foods. Once a cell possessescarbohydrates, it may break them down to yield chemical energyor use them as raw material to produce other biomolecules. Lipids are fatty substances that play a variety of roles inthe cell. Some are held in storage for use as high-energy fuel;others serve as essential components of the cell membrane. 注释class [klɑ:s] n.类biomolecule [ˌbaiəuˈmɔlikju:l] n.生物分子nucleic acid [nju:ˈkli:ik-ˈæsid] n.核酸protein [ˈprəuti:n] n.蛋白质carbohydrate [ˌkɑ:bəuˈhaidreit] n.碳水化合物lipid [ˈlipid,ˈlaipid] n.脂质,油脂be responsible for [biː-riˈspɔnsəbl-fɔː] n.为……负责enormous [iˈnɔ:məs] adj.巨大的, 庞大的strand [strænd] n.线、束、串subunit [sʌbˈju:nit] n.子[分,亚]组base [beis] n.碱基:嘌呤(腺嘌呤和鸟嘌呤)或嘧啶(胸嘧啶、胸腺嘧啶和尿嘧啶)的一种precise [priˈsais] adj.精确的sequence [ˈsi:kwəns] n.顺序,序列amino acid [ˈæminəu-æsid] n.氨基酸biochemist [ˈbaiəuˈkemist] n.生物化学家enzyme [ˈenzaim] n.酶catalyst [ˈkætəlist] n.催化剂chemical reaction [ˈkemikəl-riˈækʃən] n.化学反应fuel [fjuəl] n.燃料, 能量 81
  80. UNIT061carbon [ˈkɑ:bən] n.碳hydrogen [ˈhaidrədʒən] n.氢oxygen [ˈɔksidʒən] n.氧approximately [əˈprɔksimitli] adv.大约carbon dioxide [ˈkɑ:bən-daiˈɔksaid] n.二氧化碳obtain [əbˈtein] v.获取cell membrane [sel-memˌbrein] n.细胞膜yield [ji:ld] v.产出 ,生出fatty [ˈfæti] adj.含脂肪的,脂肪状的a variety of [ə-vəˈraiəti-əv] adj.多种多样的break down [breik-daun] v.分解 82
  81. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT062 The availability of new and more effective drugs —substances that affect the function of living cells used inmedicine to diagnose, cure, prevent the occurrence of diseasesand disorders, and prolong the life of patients with incurableconditions, such as antibiotics, which fight bacterial infections,and vaccines which prevent diseases caused by bacteria andviruses, helped increase the average Americans life span fromabout 60 years in 1900 to about 78 years in 2005. During the20th century, drugs enabled the eradication of smallpox, once awidespread and often fatal disease. By the early 21st century,vaccines had led to the near eradication of poliomyelitis, oncefeared as a cause of paralysis. 注释drug [drʌɡ] n.药物 vaccine [ˈvæksi:n] n.疫苗affect [əˈfekt] v.影响 life span [laif-spæn] n.寿命medicine [ˈmedisin] n.医学 ,药 eradication [iˌrædiˈkeiʃən] n.根除diagnose [ˈdaiəɡnəuz] v.诊断 smallpox [ˈsmɔ:lˌpɔks] n.天花cure [kjuə] v.治疗 widespread [ˈwaidspred] adj.普遍的disorder [disˈɔ:də] n.失调 紊乱, fatal [ˈfeitəl] adj.致命的prolong [prəˈlɔŋ] v.延长 poliomyelitis [ˌpəuliəumaiəˈlaitis] n.小儿麻痹症,condition [kənˈdiʃən] n.病痛 急性骨髓灰白质炎antibiotics [ˌæntibaiˈɔtiks] n.抗生素,抗生学 paralysis [pəˈrælisis] n.麻痹, 瘫痪infection [inˈfekʃən] n.传染 ,感染 83
  82. UNIT063 For sheer variety and abundance, insects rank among themost successful animals on Earth. Dragonflies, unlike butterflies,do not create a chrysalis or undergo complete metamorphosis.Instead, they undergo a series of small transformations untilthey finally develop into the imago — the adult, winged form. 注释 sheer [ʃiə] adj.绝对的 abundance [əˈbʌndəns] n.丰富 butterfly [ˈbʌtəflai] n.蝴蝶 dragonfly [ˈdræɡənflai] n.蜻蜓 chrysalis [ˈkrisəlis] n.蛹 metamorphosis [ˌmetəˈmɔ:fəsis] n.变态 ,蜕变 transformation [ˌtrænsfəˈmeiʃən] n.转变 imago [iˈmeiɡəu] n.成虫 84
  83. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT064 The praying mantis is a carnivore that feeds on smallerinsects, such as flies, crickets, and grasshoppers. Its namereflects the prayer-like posture it assumes, while waiting for itsvictims to venture within the reach of its long, barbed forelegs. 注释praying mantis [ˈpreiiŋ-ˈmæntis] n.螳螂 posture [ˈpɔstʃə] n.姿势carnivore [ˈkɑ:nivɔ:] n.食肉动物 assume [əˈsju:m] v.采用fly [flai] n.苍蝇 victim [ˈviktim] n.牺牲品cricket [ˈkrikit] n.蟋蟀 venture [ˈventʃə] v.冒险grasshopper [ˈɡrɑ:sˌhɔpə] n.蝗虫 barbed foreleg [bɑːbd-fɔːleg] n.有倒钩的前肢 85
  84. UNIT065 Insects are often regarded as pests because some bite,sting, spread diseases, or compete with humans for cropplants. Nevertheless, without insects to pollinate flowers, thehuman race would soon run out of food because many of thecrop plants that we rely on would not be able to reproduce. Inaddition, insects are of aesthetic importance — some insects,such as dragonflies, beetles, and butterflies, are widely thoughtto be among the most beautiful of all animals. 注释pest [pest] n.害虫bite [bait] v.咬sting [stiŋ] v.螫spread [spred] v.扩散,传播disease [diˈzi:z] n.疾病pollinate [ˈpɔlineit] v.授粉,传粉rely on [rilai-ɔn] v.依赖reproduce [ˌri:prəˈdju:s] v.繁殖aesthetic [i:sˈθetik] adj.美学的beetle [ˈbi:tl] n.甲虫 86
  85. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT066 Insects are invertebrates, animals without backbones.They belong to a category of invertebrates called arthropods,which all have jointed legs, segmented bodies, and a hard outercovering called an exoskeleton. Two other well-known groupsof arthropods are crustaceans, which include crayfish andcrabs, and arachnids, which include spiders, ticks, mites, andscorpions. Many types of arthropods are commonly called bugs,but not every "bug" is an insect. Spiders, for example, are notinsects, because they have eight legs and only two main bodysegments. 注释invertebrate [inˈvə:tibrət] n.无脊椎动物 crab [kræb] n.蟹arthropod [ˈɑ:θrəpɔd] n.节肢动物 arachnid [əˈræknid] n.蜘蛛纲动物jointed [ˈdʒɔintid] adj.有关节的 spider [ˈspaidə] n.蜘蛛segmented [seɡˈmentid] adj.分段的 tick [tik] n.(寄生于体大动物的吸血小虫)壁虱exoskeleton [ˌeksəuˈskelitən] n.外骨骼 mite [mait] n.螨类crustacean [krʌˈsteiʃən] n.甲壳纲动物 scorpion [ˈskɔ:piən] n.蝎子crayfish [ˈkreifiʃ] n.龙虾 bug [bʌɡ] n.虫子 87
  86. UNIT067 Caterpillar, larval stage of butterflies and moths, membersof the order Lepidoptera, is corresponding in this special orderto the grub, maggot, or larva phase in the life history of otherinsects. The caterpillar develops like any other larva from thesegmented egg and differentiating embryo, and undergoesseveral moltings or ecdyses. It later falls into a quiescent pupastage, and the pupa is usually sheathed in a silken cocoon. 注释caterpillar [ˈkætəpilə] n.毛虫 embryo [ˈembriəu] n.胚胎moth [mɔθ] n.蛾 molting [ˈməultiŋ] n.蜕皮larval [ˈlɑ:vəl] adj.幼虫状态的 ecdysis [ˈekdisis]n.蜕皮Lepidoptera [ˌlepəˈdɔptərə] n.鳞翅目 (plural: ecdyses[ˈekdisi:z] )grub [ɡrʌb] n.幼虫 quiescent [kwiˈesənt] adj.休眠的maggot [ˈmæɡət] n.蛆 pupa [ˈpju:pə] n.蛹 (plural: pupae [ˈpju:pi:] )larva phase [lɑːvə-feiz] n.幼虫阶段 sheath [ʃi:θ] v.包裹segmented [seɡˈmentid] adj.分段的 silken [ˈsilkən] adj.柔软光滑的differentiating [ˌdifəˈrenʃieitiŋ] adj.分化 cocoon [kəˈku:n] n.茧 88
  87. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT068 Bees are dependent on pollen as a protein source and on flower nectar or oils as an energy source. Adult females collect pollen primarily to feed their larvae. The pollen they inevitably lose in going from flower to flower is important to the plant because some of it lands on the pistils of other flowers of the same species, achieving cross-pollination. Bees are, in fact, the most important pollinating insects, and their interdependence with plants makes them an excellent example of the type of symbiosis known as mutualism, an association between unlike organisms that is beneficial to both parties. 注释pollen [ˈpɔlin] n.花粉nectar [ˈnektə] n.花蜜larva [ˈlɑ:və] n.(昆虫的)幼虫(plural: larvae[ˈlɑːviː] )pistil [ˈpistil] n.雌蕊cross-pollination [ˌkrɔ:s-pɔləˈneiʃən, ˌkrɔs-] n.异花传粉interdependence [ˌintədiˈpendəns] n.相互依赖symbiosis [ˌsimbaiˈəusis] n.共生(现象)mutualism [ˈmju:tjuəlizəm,ˈmju:tʃuəlizəm] n.共生beneficial [ˌbeniˈfiʃəl] adj.有益的 89
  88. UNIT069 The primitive bees, like their relatives the wasps, aresolitary. Each female makes her own burrow, in which sheconstructs earthen chambers to contain her young. Some beesare communal. They are like solitary bees except that severalfemales of the same generation use the same nest, eachmaking her own cells for housing her eggs, larvae, and pupae. 注释primitive [ˈprimitiv] adj.自然的 communal [ˈkɔmjunl] adj.群居的wasp [wɔsp] n.黄蜂 nest [nest] n.巢solitary [ˈsɔlitəri] adj.独居的 cell [sel] n.蜂房burrow [ˈbʌrəu] n.洞穴 larva [ˈlɑ:və] n.幼虫earthen [ˈə:θən] adj.土制的 pupa [ˈpju:pə] n.蛹chamber [ˈtʃeimbə] n.房间 90
  89. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT070 The eusocial, or truly social, bees live in large coloniesconsisting of females of two overlapping generations: mothers(queens) and daughters (workers). Males, called drones,play no part in the colonys organization and only mate withthe queens. Larvae are fed progressively — that is, cells areopened as necessary or are left open so that workers can tendthe larvae. Parasitic, or cuckoo, bees are those that do notforage, or make nests themselves, but use the nests and foodof other species of bees to provide for their parasitic young. 注释eusocial [ju:ˈsəuʃəl] adj.完全群居的 tend [tend] v.照顾truly social [truːli-səuʃəl] n.完全社会性的 parasitic [ˌpærəˈsitik] adj.寄生的colony [ˈkɔləni] n.群体 cuckoo [ˈkuku:] n. 杜鹃; adj. 寄生的overlapping [ˈəuvəˈlæpiŋ] n.重叠 cuckoo bee [kukuː-biː] n.寄生蜂drone [drəun] n.雄蜂 forage [ˈfɔridʒ] v.觅食progressively [prəgresivli] adv.逐步地 91
  90. UNIT071 Ant colonies have elaborate social structures in whichthe various activities necessary for the feeding, shelter, andreproduction of the colony are divided among specially adaptedindividuals. Ants belong to an order of insects called theHymenoptera, a group that also includes bees, wasps, andsawflies. Some species of wasps and bees resemble ants inthat they live in colonies and are, therefore, said to be social,but ants are the only hymenopterans in which every speciesis social. Ants are distinguished from other hymenopterans inthat they have bent, or elbowed, antennae and an indentedabdomen that forms a narrow waist. 注释elaborate [iˈlæbəreit] adj.复杂的 distinguish [disˈtiŋɡwiʃ] v. 区别shelter [ˈʃeltə] n.遮蔽处 bent [bent] adj.弯的adapted [əˈdæptid] adj.适合的 elbowed [ˈelbəud] adj. 像肘一样弯曲的Hymenoptera [ˈhaimiˌnɔptərə] n.膜翅目 antenna [ænˈtenə] n. 触须sawfly [ˈsɔ:flai] n.叶蜂 (plural: antennae [ænˈteni:] )resemble [riˈzembl] v. 类似 indented [inˈdentid] adj.锯齿状的in that [in - ðæt] n.因为 abdomen [ˈæbdəmən] n.腹部hymenopteran [ˌhaimiˈnɔptərən] n.膜翅目昆虫 waist [weist] n.昆虫腹部的较窄部位 92
  91. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT072 Members of an ant colony typically fall into categories known as castes, each with a different role. The majority of colony members are female worker ants that are unable to mate. Worker ants do not have wings and perform most of the work of the colony, including searching for food, nursing young, and defending the colony against ants from other colonies. Queens are larger than worker ants and are the only females of the colony capable of mating. Queens are born with wings, which they break off after mating. They mate with winged male ants, later using the sperm from the mating to produce fertilized eggs, which are hatched to produce more worker ants and a new generation of queens. 注释caste [kɑ:st] n.有社会组织的昆虫的阶级mate [meit] v.交配perform [pəˈfɔ:m] v.执行nurse [nə:s] v.护理capable of [ˈkeipəbl-əv] adj.有能力的sperm [spə:m] n.精子fertilized egg [ˈfə:tilaizd-eg] n.受精卵hatch [hætʃ] v.孵化 93
  92. UNIT073 Insects and diseases are a continuing menace to forests.Various insects, such as the gypsy moth, the tussock moth, andthe spruce budworm, devastate extensive areas by defoliation.Other insects serve as carriers for the causative agents ofdiseases that destroy trees. Parasitic tree diseases may becaused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes, or by suchparasitic plants as the mistletoe or dodder. Noninfectiousdiseases of trees include sunscald; drought injury; rootdrowning, or suffocation; nutritional excesses or deficiencies;winter injury; and injury from smoke, gases, and fumes. 注释menace [ˈmenəs] n.威胁 nematode [ˈnemətəud] n.线虫gypsy moth [ˈdʒipsi-mɔθ] n.舞毒蛾 mistletoe [ˈmisltəu] n.槲寄生tussock moth [ˈtʌsək-mɔθ] n.毒蛾 dodder [ˈdɔdə] n.菟丝子spruce budworm [spru:s-ˈbʌdwə:m] n.云杉蚜虫 sunscald [ˈsʌnskɔ:ld] n.日灼病devastate [ˈdevəsteit] v.糟蹋 drought injury [drɑut-ˈindʒəri] n.旱害defoliation [ˌdi:fəuliˈeiʃən] n.落叶 root drowning [ruːt-ˈdrauniŋ] n.根部溺死causative agent [ˈkɔ:zətiv-ˈeidʒənt] n.病原体 suffocation [ˌsʌfəˈkeiʃn] n.窒息bacteria [bækˈtiəriə] n.细菌 nutritional [nju:ˈtriʃənəl] adj.营养的fungi [ˈfʌndʒai] n.真菌 deficiency [diˈfiʃənsi] n.缺乏virus [ˈvaiərəs] n.病毒 fume [fju:m] n.浓烟 94
  93. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT074 Birds are the only animals with feathers, collectively called plumage, although some other animals, such as insects and bats, also have wings. Nearly all birds can fly, and even flightless birds, such as ostriches and penguins, are evolved from flying ancestors. Many characteristics and behaviors of birds are distinct from all other animals, but there are some similarities. Like mammals, birds have four-chambered hearts and are warm-blooded — having a relatively constant body temperature that enables them to live in a wide variety of environments. Like reptiles, birds develop from embryos in eggs outside of the mothers body. 注释plumage [ˈplu:midʒ] n.鸟类的羽毛ostrich [ˈɔstritʃ] n.鸵鸟penguin [ˈpeŋɡwin] n.企鹅ancestor [ˈænsistə] n.祖先distinct [disˈtiŋkt] adj.截然不同的similarity [ˌsimiˈlæriti] n.相似chamber [ˈtʃeimbə] n.腔warm-blooded [wɔ:m-blʌdid] adj.(动物) 恒温的constant [ˈkɔnstənt] adj. 恒久不变的reptile [ˈreptail] n.爬行动物embryo [ˈembriəu] n.胚胎 95
  94. UNIT075 The main component of feathers is keratin, a flexibleprotein that also forms the hair and fingernails of mammals.Feathers provide the strong yet lightweight surface area neededfor powered, aerodynamic flight. They also serve as insulation,trapping pockets of air to help birds conserve their body heat.The varied patterns, colors, textures, and shapes of feathershelp birds to signal their age, sex, social status, and speciesidentity to one another. Some birds have plumage that blendsin with their surroundings to provide camouflage, helping thesebirds escape notice by their predators. Birds use their beaksto preen their feathers, often making use of oil from a gland atthe base of their tails. Preening removes dirt and parasites, andkeeps feathers waterproof and supple. Because feathers arenonliving structures that cannot repair themselves when wornor broken, they must be renewed periodically. Most adult birdsmolt — lose and replace their feathers — at least once a year. 注释keratin [ˈkerətin] n.角质 predator [ˈpredətə] n.捕食者flexible [ˈfleksəbl] adj.柔韧的 beak [bi:k] n.喙mammal [ˈmæməl] n.哺乳动物 preen [pri:n] v.(鸟)用嘴整理(羽毛)aerodynamic [ˌɛərəudaiˈnæmik] adj.空气动力学的 gland [ɡlænd] n.腺insulation [ˌinsjuˈleiʃən] n.绝缘,绝热 tail [teil] n.尾trap [træp] v.捕捉 parasite [ˈpærəsait] n.寄生物conserve [kənˈsə:v] v.保存 waterproof [ˈwɔ:təpru:f] adj.防水的texture [ˈtekstʃə] n.质地 supple [ˈsʌpl] adj.柔软的social status [ˈsəuʃəl-ˈsteitəs] n.社会地位 worn [wɔ:n] adj.用旧了的,磨破了的blend in [blend-in] v.与(环境等)协调 periodically [ˌpiəriˈɔdikəli] adv.周期性地camouflage [ˈkæmaflɑ:ʒ] n.伪装 molt [məult] v.换毛 96
  95. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT076 Bird wings are highly modified forelimbs with a skeletal structure resembling that of arms. The shape of a birds wings influences its style of flight, which may consist of gliding, soaring, or flapping. Flight muscles are located in the chest and are attached to the wings by large tendons. The breastbone, a large bone shaped like the keel of a boat, supports the flight muscles. 注释forelimb [ˈfɔ:lim] n.前肢resemble [riˈzembl] v. 类似glide [ɡlaid] v. 滑行soar [sɔ:] v.振翅飞行flap [flæp] v.拍动chest [tʃest] n.胸部tendon [ˈtendən] n.腱breastbone [ˈbrestbəun] n.胸骨keel [ki:l] n.(船的)龙骨 97
  96. UNIT077 Nearly all birds have tails, the paired flight feathers ofwhich, called rectrices, extend from the margins of a birds tail.Tails may be square, rounded, pointed, or forked, depending onthe lengths of the rectrices and the way they terminate. 注释 tail [teil] n.尾 rectrix [ˈrektriks] n.舵羽(鸟尾上的硬毛) (plural: rectrices [ˈrektrisis] ) square [skwɛə] adj.正方形的 forked [fɔ:kt] adj.叉状的 terminate [ˈtə:mineit] v.结束 98
  97. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT078 Birds have two legs; the lower part of each leg is calledthe tarsus. Most birds have four toes on each foot, and inmany birds, including all songbirds, the first toe, called a hallux,points backwards. Bird toes are adapted in various speciesfor grasping perches, climbing, swimming, capturing prey, andcarrying and manipulating food. 注释tarsus [ˈtɑ:səs] n.跗骨toe [təu] n.脚趾songbird [ˈsɔŋbə:d] n.鸣禽hallux [ˈhæləks] n.(鸟)后趾,(人)大拇趾adapted [əˈdæptid] adj.适合的perch [pə:tʃ] n.栖木:供鸟栖息的枝条manipulate [məˈnipjuleit] v.处理 99
  98. UNIT079 Instead of heavy jaws with teeth, modern birds havetoothless, lightweight jaws, called beaks or bills. The eyes ofbirds are protected by three eyelids: an upper lid resemblingthat of humans, a lower lid that closes when birds sleeps, and athird lid, called a nictitating membrane, that sweeps across theeye sideways, starting from the side near the beak. This lid is athin, translucent fold of skin that moistens and cleans the eyesand protects it from wind and bright light. 注释 jaw [dʒɔ:] n. 颚 beak [bi:k] n.喙 bill [bil] n. 啄 eyelid [ˈailid] n.眼睑 nictitating membrane [ˈniktiˌteitiŋ-ˈmembrein] n.瞬膜:鸟类、爬行动物和一些哺乳动物的内生透明眼 睑,闭上可保护和滋润眼睛 translucent [trænzˈlu:snt] adj.半透明的 moisten [ˈmɔisn] v.使潮湿 100
  99. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT080 For breeding, most birds build nests, which help them to incubate or warm the developing eggs. Nests sometimes offer camouflage from predators and physical protection from the elements. Nests may be elaborate constructions or mere scrapes on the ground. 注释breed [bri:d] v.生育; 繁殖nest [nest] n.巢incubate [ˈinkjəˌbeit] v.孵化camouflage [ˈkæməflɑ:ʒ] n.伪装element [ˈelimənt] n. 环境elaborate [iˈlæbəreit] adj.精心制作的scrape [skreip] n. 浅坑 101
  100. UNIT081 The best-known birds are the birds of prey. Some,including hawks, eagles, and falcons, are active during thedaytime. Others, notably owls, are nocturnal, or active at night.Birds of prey have hooked beaks, strong talons or claws on theirfeet, and keen eyesight and hearing. Scavengers that feed ondead animals are also considered birds of prey. 注释 bird of prey [bəːd-əv-prei] n.食肉鸟,猛禽 hawk [hɔ:k] n.鹰 falcon [ˈfɔ:lkən] n.猎鹰 owl [aul] n.猫头鹰 nocturnal [nɔkˈtə:nl] adj.夜间的 beak [bi:k] n.喙 talon [ˈtælən] n.爪 scavenger [ˈskævindʒə] n.食腐动物 102
  101. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT082 Migrating birds use a variety of cues to find their ways. These include the positions of the Sun during the day and the stars at night; the earths magnetic field; and visual, olfactory, and auditory landmarks. 注释migrate [maiˈɡreit] v.迁徙cue [kju:] n.提示magnetic field [mæɡˈnetik-fiːld] n.磁场olfactory [ɔlˈfæktəri] adj.嗅觉的auditory [ˈɔ:ditəri] adj.听觉的 103
  102. UNIT083 Except in combinations such as waterfowl and wildfowl, inmodern usage, the word fowl usually is restricted to the commondomestic fowl or chicken. In poultry markets, fowl commonlymeans a full-grown female bird. Young birds of both sexes, suchas broilers and fryers, are called chickens. On poultry farms,male chickens are called roosters or cocks; females, especiallythose more than a year old, are called hens; females less thana year old are called pullets; very young chickens of either sexare called chicks; and castrated males are called capons. 注释combination [ˌkɔmbiˈneiʃən] n.组合 fryer [fraiə] n.适于油炸的嫩鸡waterfowl [ˈwɔ:təˌfaul] n.水鸟 rooster [ˈru:stə] n.公鸡wildfowl [ˈwaildˌfaul] n.野禽 pullet [ˈpulit] n.小母鸡fowl [faul] n.家禽 chick [tʃik] n.小鸡domestic [dəˈmestik] adj.驯养的 castrate [kæsˈtreit] v.阉割poultry [ˈpəultri] n.家禽 capon [ˈkeipən] n.阉鸡broiler [ˈbrɔilə] n. 适于烤焙的嫩鸡 104
  103. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT084 All fishes are vertebrates (animals with backbones) with gills for breathing, most of them have fins for swimming, scales for protection, and streamlined bodies generally with pointed snouts and posteriors and broad propulsive tails for moving easily through the water. 注释vertebrate [ˈvə:tibrit] n.脊椎动物backbone [ˈbækbəun] n.脊椎gill [gil] n.腮fin [fin] n.鱼鳍scale [skeil] n.鱼鳞streamlined [ˈstri:mlaind] adj.流线型的snout [snaut] n.口鼻部posterior [pɔˈstiəriə] n.身体后部propulsive [prəˈpʌlsiv] adj.有推进力的 105
  104. UNIT085 The term fishery is also used to describe the species offish being harvested (because most of them are edible), whichinclude familiar finned fish species, like cods and flounders;mollusks, including oysters and squids; and crustaceans,such as shrimps and crabs. Lesser-known fisheries includeechinoderms, like sea urchins; some amphibians, includingfrogs; and cnidarians, such as jellyfish. Even the harvest ofwhales is usually considered a fishery. 注释fishery [ˈfiʃəri] n.食用鱼类,捕鱼业 shrimp [ʃrimp] n.虾harvest [ˈhɑ:vist] v.收获 ,捕获 crab [kræb] n.蟹edible [ˈedibl] adj.可食用的 echinoderm [iˈkainəˌdə:m] n.棘皮类动物cod [kɔd] n. 鳕鱼 sea urchin [siː-ˈə:tʃin] n.海胆flounder [ˈflaundə] n. 比目鱼 amphibian [æmˈfibiən] n.两栖动物mollusk [ˈmɔləsk] n.软体动物 frog [frɔɡ] n.青蛙oyster [ˈɔistə] n.牡蛎 cnidarian [naiˈdeəriən] n.刺胞动物squid [skwid] n.鱿鱼 jellyfish [ˈdʒelifiʃ] n.水母crustacean [krʌˈsteiʃən] n.甲壳纲动物 whale [hweil] n.鲸 106
  105. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT086 Angling refers to fishing for sport, recreation, and relaxation.A fishing rod is a long, straight, flexible pole made of bamboo,fiberglass, or graphite that an angler uses to cast hook with baitor lures into the water. 注释angling [ˈæŋɡliŋ] n.钓鱼,钓鱼术 fiberglass [ˈfaibəɡlɑ:s] n.玻璃纤维fishing [ˈfiʃiŋ] n.钓鱼 graphite [ˈɡræfait] n.石墨recreation [ˌrekriˈeiʃn] n.消遣 angler [ˈæŋɡlə] n.垂钓者fishing rod [ˈfiʃiŋ-rɔd] n.钓竿 cast [kɑ:st] v. 抛straight [streit] adj.直的 hook [huk] n.鱼钩flexible [ˈfleksəbl] adj. 有弹性的 bait [beit] n.饵pole [pəul] n. 杆 lure [luə] n.诱饵bamboo [bæmˈbu:] n.竹子 107
  106. UNIT087 Coral reefs are built up by limestone skeletons of coral,and are found only in tropical saltwater where bright sunlightcan penetrate, because corals cannot exist without thesymbiotic algae that live in coral tissues and require sunlight forphotosynthesis. 注释 coral [ˈkɔrəl] n.珊瑚 ,珊瑚虫 reef [ri:f] n.礁,暗礁 build up [bild-ʌp] v.堆积 limestone [ˈlaimˌstəun] n.石灰岩 skeleton [ˈskelitn] n.骨骼 tropical [ˈtrɔpikəl] adj.热带的 saltwater [ˈsɔ:ltˌwɔ:tə] n.盐水 penetrate [ˈpenitreit] v.穿透 symbiotic [ˌsimbaiˈɔtik] adj.共生的 algae [ˈældʒi:] n.藻类 ,海藻(singular: alga [ˈælɡə]) tissue [ˈtisju:] n.组织 photosynthesis [ˌfəutəuˈsinθəsis] n.光合作用 108
  107. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT088 Squids are carnivorous mollusks belonging to the same class as the cuttlefish and octopus. The body of squids, stiffened by an interior cartilaginous skeleton, is spherical or cigar-shaped, with two lateral fins. Around the mouth are eight sucker-bearing arms and two contractile tentacles with spatulate tips; on the latter are four rows of suction cups encircled by rings of chitinous (horny) hooks. The contractile tentacles, longer than the rest, are used to seize the prey and pass it to the shorter arms, which hold it to be torn by strong jaws shaped like a parrots beak. Squids can swim faster than any other invertebrate by rapidly expelling water from the mantle cavity through the "funnel". Many deep-sea squids are bioluminescent. They shoot out a cloud of dark ink when pursued; one genus secretes luminescent ink. 注释carnivorous [kɑ:ˈnivərəs] adj.(动物)食肉的 chitinous [ˈkaitinəs] adj.壳质的mollusk [ˈmɔləsk] n.软体动物 horny [ˈhɔ:ni] adj. 角状的cuttlefish [ˈkʌtlfiʃ] n.乌贼, 墨鱼 seize [si:z] v.抓住 捉住,octopus [ˈɔktəpəs] n.章鱼 prey [prei] n. 被掠食者 ,战利品stiffen [ˈstifn] v.(使)变硬 torn [tɔ:n] v.(tear的过去分词)撕interior [inˈtiəriə] adj.内部的,内地的 jaw [dʒɔ:] n.颌, 颚cartilaginous [ˌkɑ:tiˈlædʒinəs] adj.软骨的,软骨质的 parrot [ˈpærət] n.鹦鹉spherical [ˈsferikəl] adj.球形的 invertebrate [inˈvə:tibrət] n.无脊椎动物cigar-shaped [siˈɡɑ:-ʃeipt] adj. 雪茄形的 expel [iksˈpel] v. 喷出 发射 ,lateral fin [ˈlætərəl-fin] n.侧鳍 mantle cavity [ˈmæntl-ˈkæviti] n.外套腔sucker-bearing [ˈsʌkə-ˈbɛəriŋ] adj. 长着吸盘的 funnel [ˈfʌnl] n.漏斗contractile [kənˈtræktail] adj.会缩的 bioluminescent [baiəuˌlu:miˈnesnt] adj. 发(冷)光的tentacle [ˈtentəkl] n. 触角 ,触须 pursue [pəˈsju:] v.追捕, 追击spatulate [ˈspætjulit] adj.竹片状的 genus [ˈdʒi:nəs] n. 种 类,row [rəu] n.一排, 一行 secrete [siˈkri:t] v.分泌suction cup [ˈsʌkʃən-kʌp] n.吸盘 109
  108. UNIT089 Amphibians have moist and hairless skin, through whichwater can pass in and out, and were the first animals withbackbones to adapt to life on land. They are the ancestorsof reptiles, which in turn gave rise to mammals and birds. Allamphibians belong to one of three main groups: the caudateor tailed amphibian, which includes the sirens, salamanders,and newts; the anuran, or tailless amphibian, which includesfrogs and toads; and the gymnophiona, which is made up of thewormlike caecilians. 注释amphibian [æmˈfibiən] n.两栖动物 newt [nju:t] n.蝾螈moist [mɔist] adj.潮湿的 Anuran [əˈnjuərən] n.无尾目adapt [əˈdæpt] v. 适应 frog [frɔɡ] n.青蛙ancestor [ˈænsestə] n.祖先 toad [təud] n.蟾蜍reptile [ˈreptail] n.爬行动物 Gymnophiona [dʒimɔpfinə] n. 无足目mammal [ˈmæməl] n.哺乳动物 make up of [meik-ʌp-əv] n.构成 ,组成Caudata [kɑːdeitə] n.有尾目 caecilian [si:ˈsiliən] n.蚓螈(无足目约150种两栖siren [ˈsaiərin] n. 土鳗 动物的统称)salamander [ˈsæləmændə] n.火蜥蜴 110
  109. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT090 Paleontologists recognize several mass extinctions in thepast 500 million years, which occurred in Ordovician, Devonian,Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Triassic, and Cretaceous Period,respectively. The most recent mass extinction was at the endof Cretaceous Period, and resulted in the loss of 76% of allspecies, most notably the dinosaurs. 注释paleontologist [ˌpeiliɔnˈtɔlədʒist] n.古生物学者mass extinction [mæs-iksˈtiŋkʃən] n.大量消亡Ordovician [ˌɔ:dəˈviʃən] n.奥陶纪Devonian [deˈvəuniən] n.泥盆纪Paleozoic [pæliəˈzəuik] n.古生代Mesozoic [ˌmesəuˈzəuik] n.中生代Triassic [traiˈæsik] n.三叠纪Cretaceous [kriteisiəs] n.白垩纪respectively [risˈpektivli] adv.分别地species [ˈspi:si:z] n.物种dinosaur [ˈdainəsɔ:] n.恐龙 111
  110. UNIT091 In mass extinctions, entire groups of species — such asfamilies, orders, and classes — die out, creating opportunitiesfor the survivors to exploit new habitats. In their new niches,the survivors evolve new characteristics and habits and,consequently, develop into entirely new species. 注释 family [ˈfæmili] n.科 order [ˈɔ:də] n.目 class [klɑ:s] n.纲 survivor [səˈvaivə] n.幸存者 exploit [iksˈplɔit] v.开拓 habitat [ˈhæbitæt] n.栖息地 niche [nitʃ] n.合适的环境 evolve [iˈvɔlv] v. 进化 112
  111. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT092 As the sum of all species living in the worlds ecosystems,known as biodiversity, dwindles, so too go many of theresources on which we depend. Humans use at least 40,000different plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and virus species forfood, clothing, shelter, and medicines. In addition, the fresh airwe breathe, the water we drink, cook and wash with, and themany chemical cycles — including the nitrogen cycle and thecarbon cycle, so vital to sustain life — depend on the continuedhealth of ecosystems and the species within them. 注释ecosystem [ˈi:kəuˌsistəm] n.生态系统 bacteria [bækˈtiəriə] n.细菌(singular: bacterium [bækˈtiəri:əm] )biodiversity [ˌbaiəudaiˈvə:səti] n.生物多样性 virus [ˈvaiərəs] n.病毒dwindle [ˈdwindl] v.减少 chemical cycle [ˈkemikəl-saikl] n.化学循环plant [plɑ:nt] n.植物 nitrogen cycle [ˈnaitrədʒən-saikl] n.氮循环animal [ˈæniməl] n.动物 carbon cycle [ˈkɑ:bən-saikl] n.碳循环fungi [ˈfʌndʒai] n.真菌类 vital [ˈvaitəl] adj.极重要的 (singular: fungus [ˈfʌŋɡəs]) sustain [səˈstein] v.维持 113
  112. UNIT093 A central and historically controversial component ofevolutionary theory is that all living organisms, from microscopicbacteria to plants, insects, birds, and mammals, share acommon ancestor. 注释 controversial [ˌkɔntrəˈvə:ʃəl] adj.有争议的 component [kəmˈpəunənt] n.组成部分 evolutionary [ˌi:vəˈlu:ʃənəri] adj.进化的 organism [ˈɔ:ɡənizəm] n.有机物 microscopic [ˌmaikrəsˈkɔpik] adj.极微小的 ancestor [ˈænsistə] n.祖先 114
  113. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT094 Hostility as to evolutionary theory gave way to acclaim asscientists vigorously debated, explored, and built on Darwinstheory of natural selection. As the 20 th century unfolded,scientific advances revealed the detailed mechanisms missingfrom Darwins theory. Study of the complex chemistry of allorganisms unveiled the structure of genes as well as howthey were duplicated, altered, and passed from generation togeneration. New molecular biology techniques compared thegenetic structures of different species, enabling scientists todetermine heretofore undetectable evolutionary relationshipsbetween species. Today, evolution is recognized as thecornerstone of modern biology. Uniting such diverse scientificfields as cell biology, genetics, paleontology, and even geologyand statistics, the study of evolution reveals an exquisitelycomplex interaction of the forces that act upon every life form onEarth. 注释hostility [hɔsˈtiliti] n.反对 heretofore [ˈhiətuˈfɔ:] adv.迄今为止give way to [ɡiv-wei-tu] v.退让 undetectable [ʌndiˈtektəbl] adj.未被发现的acclaim [əˈkleim] n.称赞 cornerstone [ˌkɔ:nəˈstəun] n.基础vigorously [ˈviɡərəsli] adv.竭力地 cell biology [sel-baiˈɔlədʒi] n.细胞生物学unfold [ʌnˈfəuld] v.展开 genetics [dʒiˈnetiks] n.遗传学reveal [riˈvi:l] v.揭示 paleontology [ˌpæliɔnˈtɔlədʒi] n.古生物学unveil [ʌnˈveil] v.揭去 geology [dʒiˈɔlədʒi] n.地质学gene [dʒi:n] n.基因 statistics [stəˈtistiks] n.统计学duplicate [ˈdju:plikit] v.复制 exquisitely [ˈekskwizitli] adv. 非常地alter [ˈɔ:ltə] v.改变genetic structure [dʒiˈnetik-ˈstrʌktʃə] n.遗传结构 115
  114. UNIT095 Fossils are most commonly found in limestone, sandstone,and shale (a kind of sedimentary rock). Remains of organismscan also be found trapped in natural asphalt, amber, and ice.The hard indigestible skeletons and shells of animals and thewoody material of plants are usually preserved best. Fossilsof organisms made of soft tissue that decays readily are rarer.Paleontologists use fossils to learn how life has changed andevolved throughout earths history. 注释fossil [ˈfɔsl] n.化石 indigestible [ˌindiˈdʒestəbl] adj.难消化的limestone [ˈlaimˌstəun] n.石灰岩 skeleton [ˈskelitn] n.骨骼sandstone [ˈsændˌstəun] n.砂岩 shell [ʃel] n.外壳shale [ʃeil] n.页岩 woody material [wudi-məˈtiəriəl] n.木质材料sedimentary rock [sediˈmentəri-rɔk] n.沉积岩 preserve [priˈzə:v] v.保存remains [riˈmeinz] n.遗体 tissue [ˈtisju:] n.组织organism [ˈɔ:ɡənizəm] n.有机物 decay [diˈkei] v. 腐烂trap [træp] v. 困住 paleontologist [ˌpeiliɔnˈtɔlədʒist] n.古生物学者asphalt [ˈæsfælt] n.沥青 evolve [iˈvɔlv] v.进化amber [ˈæmbə] n.琥珀 116
  115. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT096 Basic Human Anatomy: Musculoskeletal System The human skeleton consists of more than 200 bones,bound together by tough and relatively inelastic connectivetissues called ligaments. The different parts of the body varygreatly in their degrees of movement, which are effected bycontractions of the skeletal muscles, to which the bones areattached by tendons. Thus, the arm at the shoulder is freelymovable, whereas the knee joint is definitely limited to a hinge-like action, and the bones composing the skull are immovable. 注释anatomy [əˈnætəmi] n.人体解剖 contraction [kənˈtrækʃən] n.收缩musculoskeletal [ˌmʌskjuləuˈskelitəl] adj.肌(与) muscle [ˈmʌsl] n.肌肉 骨骼的 skeletal muscle [ˈskelitl-mʌsl] n.骨骼肌skeleton [ˈskelitn] n.骨骼 attach [əˈtætʃ] v.贴上; 系; 附上bind [baind] v.绑定 ,缔结 tendon [ˈtendən] n.腱tough [tʌf] adj.坚硬的 shoulder [ˈʃəuldə] n.肩inelastic [iniˈlæstik] adj.无弹性的 knee joint [niː-dʒɔint] n.膝关节tissue [ˈtisju:] n.组织 hinge [hindʒ] n.枢纽 ,门枢 ,节点ligament [ˈliɡəmənt] n.韧带 compose [kəmˈpəuz] v.组成vary [ˈvɛəri] v.不同 ,变化 skull [skʌl] n.颅骨 117
  116. UNIT097 There are two main types of bone. Compact bone, whichmakes up most of the bone of arms and legs, is very dense andhard on the outside. The structural units of compact bone areosteons, elongated cylinders that act as weight-bearing pillars,and able to withstand any mechanical stress placed on thebone. The center of each osteon contains a hollow canal thatacts as a central passageway for blood vessels and nerves. 注释 compact bone [kəmˈpækt-bəun] n.密质骨 make up [ˈmeik-ʌp] v.组成 dense [dens] adj.密集的 osteon [ˈɔstiɔn] n.骨单位(密质骨构造的基本单位) elongated [ˈi:lɔŋˌɡeitid] adj.被拉长的 cylinder [ˈsilində] n.圆柱体 pillar [ˈpilə] n.柱状物 withstand [wiðˈstænd] v.经受, 承受 canal [kəˈnæl] n. 导管 passageway [ˈpæsidʒˌwei] n.出入口 118
  117. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT098 In some bones, internal to the compact bone is spongy bone, also known as cancellous bone, composed of a honeycomb network of bones that act as supporting beams. Spongy bone is designed to bear stress from several directions, such as that exerted on the pelvis in bending or stretching. The spaces between the trabeculae are filled with red bone marrow, containing the blood vessels that nourish spongy bone. Spongy bone is found in bones of the pelvis, ribs, breastbone, vertebrae, skull, and at the ends of the arm and leg bones. 注释spongy bone [ˈspʌndʒi-bəun] n.松质骨cancellous [ˈkænsiləs] adj.网状骨质的cancellous bone [ˈkænsiləs-bəun] n.松质骨honeycomb [ˈhʌnikəum] n.蜂窝beam [bi:m] n.梁pelvis [ˈpelvis] n.骨盆bend [bend] v.(使)弯曲stretch [stretʃ] v.伸展trabecula [trəˈbekjulə] n.小梁marrow [ˈmærəu] n.骨髓breastbone [ˈbrestbəun] n.胸骨vertebra [ˈvə:tibrə] n. 脊椎骨 119
  118. UNIT099 The nervous system has two divisions: the central nervoussystem, including the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheralnervous system, including all neural tissue of motor andsensory systems. Impulses go to the central nervous systemthrough sensory nerves and are carried away from it by motornerves. The motor system is further divided into the somatic (orskeletal) nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.The somatic motor system allows voluntary control over skeletalmuscle with a few exceptions. The autonomic nervous systemis largely involuntary, and controls cardiac and smooth musclesand glands. 注释 nervous system [ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.神经系统 division [diˈviʒən] n.部分 central nervous system [ˈsentrəl-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.中枢神经系统 spinal cord [ˈspainl-kɔːd] n.脊髓 peripheral nervous system [pəˈrifərəl-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.周围神经系统 neural tissue [ˈnjuərəl-ˈtisju:] n.神经组织 motor [ˈməutə] n.运动肌 sensory system [ˈsensəri-sistəm] n.感觉系统 impulse [ˈimpʌls] n. 神经脉冲 somatic nervous system [səˈmætik-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.躯体神经系统 skeletal nervous system [ˈskelitl-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.骨骼神经系统 autonomic nervous system [ˌɔ:təuˈnɔmik-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.自主神经系统 voluntary [ˈvɔləntəri] adj.自主的 cardiac [ˈkɑ:diæk] adj.心脏(病)的 smooth muscle [smu:ð-mʌsl] n.平滑肌 gland [ɡlænd] n.腺 120
  119. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT100 Voluntary movement of head, limbs, and body is caused by nerve impulses arising in the motor area of the cortex of the brain, and carried by cranial nerves or by nerves that emerge from the spinal cord to connect with skeletal muscles. 注释limb [lim] n.肢arise [əˈraiz] v.起, 发生cortex [ˈkɔ:teks] n.大脑皮层cranial nerve [ˈkreinjəl-nəːv] n.颅神经emerge from [iˈmə:dʒ-frɔm] v.自……出现spinal cord [ˈspainl-kɔːd] n.脊髓 121
  120. UNIT101 Movement may occur also in direct response to an outsidestimulus; thus, a tap on the knee causes a jerk, and a lightshone into the eye makes the pupil contract. These involuntaryresponses are called reflexes. 注释 in response to [in-riˈspɔns-tu] prep. 相应,回应 stimulus [ˈstimjuləs] n.刺激 tap [tæp] n.轻打 jerk [dʒə:k] n.抽搐 pupil [ˈpju:pəl] n.瞳孔 contract [kənˈtrækt] v.收缩 reflex [ˈri:ˌfleks] n.反射 122
  121. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT102 Muscular contractions do not always cause actualmovement. A small fraction of the total number of fibers inmost muscles are usually contracting. This serves to maintainthe posture of a limb and enables the limb to resist passiveelongation or stretch. This slight continuous contraction is calledmuscle tone. 注释contraction [kənˈtrækʃən] n.收缩fraction [ˈfrækʃən] n.小部分fiber [ˈfaibə] n.纤维posture [ˈpɔstʃə] n.姿势resist [riˈzist] v.抵抗; 对抗passive elongation [pæsiv-i:lɔŋˈɡeiʃən] n. 被动延伸stretch [stretʃ] n.伸展continuous [kənˈtinjuəs] adj.连续的muscle tone [ˈmʌsl-təun] n. 肌肉弹性 ,肌肉张力 123
  122. UNIT103 In passing through the system, blood pumped by theheart follows a winding course through the right chambers ofthe heart into the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and back intothe left chambers of the heart. From these it is pumped into themain artery, the aorta, which branches into increasingly smallerarteries until it passes through the smallest, known as arterioles.Beyond the arterioles, the blood passes through a vast amountof tiny thin-walled structures called capillaries. Here, theblood gives up its oxygen and its nutrients to the tissues, andabsorbs from them carbon dioxide and other waste products ofmetabolism. The blood completes its circuit by passing throughsmall veins that join to form increasingly larger vessels until itreaches the largest veins, the inferior and superior venae cavae,which return it to the right side of the heart. Blood is propelledmainly by contractions of the heart and arteries; contractions ofskeletal muscle also contribute to circulation. Valves in the heartand in the veins ensure its flow in one direction. 注释circulatory system [sə:kjuˈleitəri - sistəm] tissue [ˈtisju:] n.组织 n.循环系统 absorb [əbˈsɔ:b] v.吸收pump [pʌmp] v.输送 carbon dioxide [kɑːbən-daiˈɔksaid] n.二氧化碳winding [ˈwaindiŋ] adj.弯曲的 metabolism [məˈtæbəlizəm] n.新陈代谢chamber [ˈtʃeimbə] n.心室 circuit [ˈsə:kit] n.一圈pick up [ˈpik-ʌp] v.获得 vein [vein] n.静脉oxygen [ˈɔksidʒən] n.氧气 vessel [ˈvesəl] n.血管artery [ˈɑ:təri] n.动脉 inferior [inˈfiəriə] adj.处于下方的aorta [eiˈɔ:tə] n.主动脉 superior [sjuˈpiəriə] adj.处于上方的arteriole [ɑ:ˈtiriəul] n.小动脉 venae cavae [ˈvi:ni:-kiviː] n.腔静脉vast [vɑ:st] adj. 大量的 (singular: vena [ˈvi:nə] cava [kiːvə])capillary [kəˈpiləri] n.毛细血管 propel [prəˈpel] v.推动give up [ˈgiv-ʌp] v.把……输送到…… circulation [ˌsə:kjuˈleiʃən] n.循环nutrient [ˈnju:triənt] n.营养品 valve [vælv] n.瓣膜 124
  123. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT104 The body defends itself against foreign proteins andinfectious microorganisms by means of a complex dual systemthat depends on recognizing a portion of the surface patternof the invader. The two parts of the system are termed cellularimmunity, in which lymphocytes are the effective agent, andhumoral immunity, based on the action of antibody molecules. 注释immune system [iˈmju:n-ˈsistəm] n.免疫系统 lymphocyte [ˈlimfəusait] n.淋巴细胞defend [diˈfend] v.防卫 agent [ˈeidʒənt] n.作用物foreign [ˈfɔrin] adj.异质的 ,外来的 cellular immunity [ˈseljulə-iˈmju:nəti] n.细胞免疫protein [ˈprəuti:n] n.蛋白质 humoral immunity [ˈhju:mərəl-iˈmju:nəti] n.体液免疫infectious [inˈfekʃəs] adj.有传染性的 antibody molecule [ˈæntiˌbɔdi-ˈmɔlikju:l] n. 抗体分子microorganism [ˌmaikrəuˈɔ:ɡənizəm] n.微生物dual system [ˈdju:əl-ˈsistəm] n.双重系统recognize [ˈrekəɡnaiz] v.认出invader [inˈveidə] n. 侵入物 125
  124. UNIT105 Lymphocytes, which resemble blood plasma incomposition, are manufactured in the bone marrow and multiplyin the thymus and spleen. They circulate in the bloodstream,penetrating the walls of blood capillaries to reach the cellsof tissues. When particular lymphocytes recognize a foreignmolecular pattern (termed an antigen), they release antibodiesin great numbers. Antibodies attach themselves to the antigen,,and in that way mark them for destruction by other substancesin the bodys defense arsenal. These are primarily complement,a complex of enzymes that makes holes in foreign cells andphagocytes, cells that engulf and digest foreign matter. 注释resemble [riˈzembl] v.类似于 antibody [ˈæntiˌbɔdi] n.抗体plasma [ˈplæzmə] n.血浆 attach to [əˈtætʃ-tuː] v.把……放在bone marrow [bəun-ˈmærəu] n.骨髓 arsenal [ˈɑ:sənəl] n.武器库multiply [ˈmʌltiplai] v.增加 complement [ˈkɔmplimənt] n.补体thymus [ˈθaiməs] n.胸腺 enzyme [ˈenzaim] n.酶spleen [spli:n] n.脾 phagocyte [ˈfæɡəusait] n.噬菌细胞circulate [ˈsə:kjuleit] v.循环 engulf [enˈɡʌlf] v.吞没penetrate [ˈpenitreit] v.穿透 digest [daiˈdʒest] v.消化antigen [ˈæntidʒən] n.抗原 126
  125. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT106 In the lungs, oxygen enters tiny capillaries, where itcombines with hemoglobin in the red blood cells, and is carriedto the tissues. Inhaling draws into the lungs air that is higherin oxygen and lower in carbon dioxide; exhaling forces fromthe lungs air that is higher in carbon dioxide and lower inoxygen. Changes in the size and gross capacity of the chestare controlled by the contractions of the diaphragm and of themuscles between the ribs. 注释respiratory system [risˈpaiərətəri-sistəm] n.呼吸系统lung [lʌŋ] n.肺hemoglobin [ˌhi:məuˈɡləubin] n.血色素inhale [inˈheil] v.吸气exhale [eksˈheil] v.呼气gross capacity [ɡrəus-kəˈpæsiti] n.总容量chest [tʃest] n. 胸腔diaphragm [ˈdaiəˌfræm] n.隔膜rib [rib] n.肋骨 127
  126. UNIT107 After food is broken into fragments by chewing andmixed with saliva, digestion begins. The food passes down thegullet into the stomach, where the process is continued by thegastric and intestinal juices. Thereafter, the mixture of food andsecretions, called chime, is pushed down the alimentary canalby peristalsis, rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscle ofthe gastrointestinal system. Absorption of nutrients from chymeoccurs mainly in the small intestine; unabsorbed food andsecretions and waste substances from the liver pass to the largeintestine and are expelled as feces. Water and water-solublesubstances travel via the bloodstream from the intestines tothe kidneys, which absorb all the constituents of the bloodplasma except its proteins. The kidneys return most of the waterand salts to the body, while excreting other salts and wasteproducts, along with excess water, as urine. 128
  127. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT107 注释excretory [ˈekskriˌtɔ:ri] adj.排泄的fragment [ˈfræɡmənt] n.碎片chew [tʃu:] v.咀嚼saliva [səˈlaivə] n.唾液digestion [diˈdʒestʃən] n.消化gullet [ˈɡʌlit] n.食管stomach [ˈstʌmək] n.胃gastric [ˈɡæstrik] adj.胃的intestinal [inˈtestinl] adj.肠的juice [dʒu:s] n.体液secretion [siˈkri:ʃən] n.分泌物chyme [kaim] n.食糜 :部分消化的食物的稠状半流体物,从胃进入十二指肠alimentary canal [ˌæliˈmentəri-kəˈnæl] n.消化道peristalsis [ˌperiˈstælsis] n.蠕动gastrointestinal [ˌɡæstrəuinˈtestənl] adj. 肠胃的absorption [əbˈsɔ:pʃən] n.吸收nutrient [ˈnju:triənt] n. 营养物质small intestine [smɔːl-inˈtestin] n.小肠waste substance [weist-ˈsʌbstəns] n.废物liver [ˈlivə] n.肝脏large intestine [lɑːdʒ-inˈtestin] n.大肠expel [iksˈpel] v. 排出feces [ˈfi:si:z] n. 粪便water-soluble [ˈwɔ:tə-ˌsɔljəbəl] n.可溶于水的via [ˈvaiə] prep. 通过kidney [ˈkidni] n.肾constituent [kənˈstitjuənt] n.成分excrete [eksˈkri:t] v.排泄 ,分泌urine [ˈjuərin] n.尿 129
  128. UNIT108 In addition to the integrative action of the nervous system,the control of various body functions is exerted by the endocrineglands. An important part of this system, the pituitary, lies atthe base of the brain. This master gland secretes a varietyof hormones. The posterior lobe of the pituitary secretesvasopressin, which acts on the kidney to control the volume ofurine. Other glands in the endocrine system are the pancreas,which secrete insulin and the parathyroid, which secretes ahormone that regulates the quantity of calcium and phosphorusin the blood. 注释endocrine [ˈendəukrain] adj.内分泌的 vasopressin [ˌvæsəuˈpresin] n.血管加压素,血exert [iɡˈzə:t] v.行使(职权等),使受(影响等) 压激素gland [ɡlænd] n.腺 pancreas [ˈpæŋkriəs] n.胰, 胰腺pituitary [piˈtju:itəri] n.(脑)垂体 insulin [ˈinsjulin] n.胰岛素secrete [siˈkri:t] v.分泌 parathyroid [ˌpærəˈθairɔid] adj.副甲状腺的hormone [ˈhɔ:məun] n.荷尔蒙 regulate [ˈreɡjuleit] v.控制posterior [pɔˈstiəriə] adj.后面的,尾部的 calcium [ˈkælsiəm] n.钙posterior lobe [pɔˈstiəriə-ləub] n.后叶 phosphorus [ˈfɔsfərəs] n.磷 130
  129. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT109 Reproduction is accomplished by the union of male spermand the female ovum. In coitus, the male organ ejaculates morethan 250 million sperm into the vagina, from which some maketheir way to the uterus. Ovulation, the release of an egg into theuterus, occurs approximately every 28 days; during the sameperiod,the uterus is prepared for the implantation of a fertilizedovum by the action of estrogens. If a male cell fails to unitewith a female cell, other hormones cause the uterine wall toslough off during menstruation. From puberty to menopause,the processes of ovulation, preparation, and menstruation arerepeated monthly except for periods of pregnancy. 注释reproduction [ˌri:prəˈdʌkʃən] n.繁殖, 生殖 egg [eɡ] n.卵accomplish [əˈkɔmpliʃ] v.完成 implantation [ˌimplɑ:nˈteiʃən] n.胚胎植入sperm [spə:m] n.精子 fertilized [ˈfə:tilaizid] adj.已受精的ovum [ˈəuvəm] n.卵子 estrogen [ˈestrədʒən] n.雌激素coitus [ˈkɔuitəs] n.性交 slough off [ˈslau-ɔf] v.脱落ejaculate [iˈdʒækjuleit] v. 射精 menstruation [ˌmenstruˈeiʃən] n.月经期间vagina [vəˈdʒainə] n.阴道 puberty [ˈpju:bəti] n.青春期uterus [ˈju:tərəs] n.子宫 menopause [ˈmenəˌpɔ:z] n.经绝期ovulation [ˌɔvjuˈleiʃən] n.排卵 pregnancy [ˈpreɡnənsi] n.怀孕 131
  130. UNIT110 The inner layer of the skin, called the dermis, containssweat glands, blood vessels, nerve endings, and the bases ofhair and nails. The outer layer, the epidermis, is only a few cellsthick It contains pigments, pores, and ducts, and its surfaceis made of dead cells that it sheds from the body. The sweatglands excrete waste and cool the body through evaporationof fluid droplets; the blood vessels of the dermis supplementtemperature regulation by contracting to preserve body heat andexpanding to dissipate it. Separate kinds of receptors conveypressure, temperature, and pain. Fat cells in the dermis insulatethe body, and oil glands lubricate the epidermis. 注释dermis [ˈdə:mis] n.真皮 evaporation [iˌvæpəˈreiʃən] n.蒸发;蒸腾(作用)nail [neil] n.指甲 droplet [ˈdrɔplit] n.小滴epidermis [ˌepiˈdə:mis] n.表皮 supplement [ˈsʌpliment] v.补充pigment [ˈpiɡmənt] n.色素 dissipate [ˈdisipeit] v.使耗散pore [pɔ:] n.毛孔 receptor [riˈseptə] n.感受器duct [dʌkt] n.管:管状体内通道,尤指运输腺分 convey [kənˈvei] v.转达 泌物的管道 insulate [ˈinsjuleit] v.隔热shed [ʃed] v.脱落,蜕(皮) ,脱(毛) lubricate [ˈlu:brikeit] v.使润滑excrete [eksˈkri:t] v.分泌, 排出 132
  131. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT111 Only vertebrates, or animals with backbones, have ears. Invertebrate animals, such as jellyfish and insects, lack ears, but have other structures or organs that serve similar functions. Human ears are capable of perceiving an extraordinarily wide range of changes in loudness, the tiniest audible sound being about 1 trillion times less intense than a sound loud enough to cause the ear pain. Besides loudness, the human ear can detect a sounds pitch, which is related to a sounds vibration frequency, and of course, the tone. Another sonic phenomenon, known as masking, occurs because lower-pitched sounds tend to deafen the ear to higher-pitched sounds. 注释jellyfish [ˈdʒelifiʃ] n.水母lack [læk] v.缺乏; 缺少perceive [pəˈsi:v] v.察觉extraordinarily [ikˈstrɔ:dənərili] adv.格外地loudness [ˈlaudnis] n.响度audible [ˈɔ:dəbl] adj.听得见的detect [diˈtekt] v. 察觉到pitch [pitʃ] n.音高vibration consequence [vaiˈbreiʃən-ˈkɔnsikwəns] n.振动频率sonic [ˈsɔnik] adj. 声音的masking [ˈmɑ:skiŋ] n.遮蔽deafen [ˈdefn] v.使聋 133
  132. UNIT112 The actual process of seeing is performed by the brainrather than by the eye. The function of eyes is to translatethe electromagnetic vibrations of light into patterns of nerveimpulses that are transmitted to the brain. 注释 process [ˈprəuses] n.过程 perform [pəˈfɔ:m] v.执行 electromagnetic [iˌlektrəumæɡˈnetik] adj.电磁的 vibration [vaiˈbreiʃən] n.振动 pattern [ˈpætən] n.模式 transmit [trænzˈmit] v.传送,传导 134
  133. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT113 The human eyeball, is a spherical structure with apronounced bulge on its forward surface. The outer part of theeye is composed of three layers of tissue. The outside layeris the sclera, a protective coating. At the front of the eyeball,it is continuous with the bulging transparent cornea. Themiddle layer of the coating of the eye is the choroid, which iscontinuous with the ciliary body, and with the iris, which lies atthe front of the eye. The innermost layer is the light-sensitiveretina. 注释eyeball [ˈaibɔ:l] n.眼球 cornea [ˈkɔ:niə] n.角膜spherical [ˈsferikəl] adj.球形的 choroid [ˈkɔ:rɔid] n.脉络膜pronounced [prəˈnaunst] adj.显著的 ciliary body [ˈsiliəri-bɔdi] n.睫状体bulge [bʌldʒ] n. 凸出部分 iris [ˈaiəris] n.虹膜sclera [ˈskliərə] n.巩膜 innermost [ˈinəˌməust] adj.最里面的coating [ˈkəutiŋ] n.覆盖层 retina [ˈretnə] n.视网膜 135
  134. UNIT114 The cornea is a tough five-layered membrane throughwhich light is admitted to the interior of the eye. Behind thecornea is a chamber filled with clear watery fluid, the aqueoushumor, which separates the cornea from the crystalline lens.The lens itself is a flattened sphere constructed of a largenumber of transparent fibers arranged in layers. It is connectedby ligaments to a ringlike muscle. This muscle, by flattening thelens or making it more nearly spherical, changes its focal length. 注释 membrane [ˈmembrein] n.膜 admit [ədˈmit] v.许可进入 chamber [ˈtʃeimbə] n.有机物体内封闭的腔;室 aqueous [ˈeikwiəs] adj.水的 humor [ˈhju:mə] n. 体液 crystalline [ˈkristəlain] adj.水晶的 lens [lenz] n.透镜, 镜头 flatten [ˈflætn] v.使变平 sphere [sfiə] n.球(体) ligament [ˈliɡəmənt] n.系带,韧带 focal [ˈfəukəl] adj.焦点的 136
  135. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT115 Several structures, not parts of the eyeball, contribute to the protection of the eye. The most important of these are the eyelids, two folds of skin and tissue, upper and lower, that can be closed by means of muscles to form a protective covering over the eyeball against excessive light and mechanical injury. The eyelashes, a fringe of short hairs growing on the edge of either eyelid, act as a screen to keep dust particles and insects out of the eyes when the eyelids are partly closed. Inside the eyelids is a thin protective membrane, the conjunctiva, which doubles over to cover the visible sclera. Each eye also has a tear gland, situated at the outside corner of the eye. The salty secretion of these glands lubricates the forward part of the eyeballs when the eyelids are closed, and flushes away any small dust particles or other foreign matter on the surface of the eyes. 注释eyelid [ˈailid] n.眼睑fold [fəuld] n. 层excessive [ikˈsesiv] adj.过度的 ,过分的injury [ˈindʒəri] n.伤害eyelash [ˈailæʃ] n.睫毛fringe [frindʒ] n.(地毯等的 )穗 ,须边 ,流苏conjunctiva [ˌkɔndʒʌŋkˈtaivə] n.(眼球)结膜tear gland [ˈtiə-ˈɡlænd] n. 泪腺lubricate [ˈlu:brikeit] v.加油润滑flush [flʌʃ] v. 冲掉particle [ˈpɑ:tikl] n.微粒 137
  136. UNIT116 The tongue serves as an organ of taste, with taste budsscattered over its surface and concentrated toward the back ofthe tongue. In chewing, the tongue holds the food against theteeth; in swallowing, it moves the food back into the pharynx,and then into the esophagus when the pressure of the tonguecloses the opening of the trachea or windpipe. It also acts,together with the lips, teeth, and hard palate, to form wordsounds. 注释 tongue [tʌŋ] n.舌头 taste bud [ˈteist-ˈbʌd] n.味蕾 scatter over [ˈskætə-əuvə] v.分布在…… chew [tʃu:] v.咀嚼 swallow [ˈswɔləu] v.吞咽 pharynx [ˈfæriŋks] n.咽 esophagus [i(:)ˈsɔfəɡəs] n.食道 trachea [trəˈki:ə] n.气管 windpipe [ˈwindpaip] n.气管 hard palate [hɑːd-ˈpælit] n.硬颚 138
  137. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT117 Understanding atoms is key to understanding the physicalworld. More than 100 different elements exist in nature, eachwith its own unique atomic makeup. The atoms of theseelements react with one another,and combine in different waysto form a virtually unlimited number of chemical compounds.When two or more atoms combine, they form a molecule.Millions of molecules join together to make up the cells inhumans or in any other plants, or animals. 注释atom [ˈætəm] n.原子element [ˈelimənt] n. 元素unique [ju:ˈni:k] adj. 独特的makeup [ˈmeikʌp] n.结构react [riˈækt] v.起反应combine [kəmˈbain] v.结合virtually [ˈvə:tʃuəli] adv.实际上compound [ˈkɔmpaund] n.化合物molecule [ˈmɔlikju:l] n.分子cell [sel] n.细胞make up [ˈmeik-ʌp] v.构成 ,组成 139
  138. UNIT118 Atoms are made of smaller particles. An atom consistsof a cloud of electrons, surrounding a small dense nucleus ofprotons and neutrons. Electrons and protons have a propertycalled electric charge, which affects the way they interactwith each other and with other electrically charged particles.Electrons carry a negative electric charge, while protons havea positive electric charge. The negative charge is the oppositeof the positive charge, and, like the opposite poles of a magnet,these opposite electric charges attract one another. Conversely,like charges (negative and negative, or positive and positive)repel one another. The attraction between an atoms electronsand its protons holds the atom together. The nucleus containsnearly all of the mass of the atom, but it occupies only a tinyfraction of the space inside the atom. If an atom was magnifieduntil it was as large as a football stadium, the nucleus would beabout the size of a grape. Atoms of the same element that differin mass number are called isotopes. 140
  139. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT118 注释particle [ˈpɑ:tikl] n.微粒electron [iˈlektrɔn] n.电子dense [dens] adj.密集的nucleus [ˈnju:kliəs] n.原子核proton [ˈprəutɔn] n.质子neutron [ˈnju:trɔn] n.中子electric charge [iˈlektrik-tʃɑːdʒ] n.电荷interact [ˌintərˈækt] v.相互作用negative [ˈneɡətiv] adj.负的positive [ˈpɔzitiv] adj.正的opposite [ˈɔpəzit] n.对立物pole [pəul] n.磁极 ,电极magnet [ˈmæɡnit] n.磁铁conversely [ˈkɔnvə:sli] adv.相反地like charges [ˈlaik-tʃɑ:dʒiz] n. 同性电荷attract [əˈtrækt] v.吸引repel [riˈpel] v.排斥attraction [əˈtrækʃən] n.引力mass [mæs] n.质量occupy [ˈɔkjupai] v.占用fraction [ˈfrækʃən] n.小部分magnify [ˈmæɡnifai] v.放大stadium [ˈsteidjəm] n.体育场property [ˈprɔpəti] n.性质grape [ɡreip] n.葡萄mass number [ˈmæs-ˈnʌmbə] n.(原子)质量数isotope [ˈaisəutəup] n.同位素 141
  140. UNIT119 In general, waves can be propagated or transmitted,transversely or longitudinally. In both cases, only the energy ofwave motion is propagated through the medium; no portion ofthe medium itself actually moves very far. 注释 propagate [ˈprɔpəɡeit] v.传播 transmit [trænzˈmit] v.传导 transversely [ˈtrænzvə:sli] adv.横向地 longitudinally [lɔndʒiˈtju:dinli] adv.纵向地 wave motion [ˈweiv-ˈməuʃən] n.波动 medium [ˈmi:djəm] n.介质 142
  141. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT120 As the energy of wave motion is propagated outward from the center of disturbance, the individual air molecules that carry the sound move back and forth, parallel to the direction of wave motion. Thus, a sound wave is a series of alternate increases and decreases of air pressure. Each individual molecule passes the energy on to neighboring molecules, but after the sound wave has passed, each molecule remains in about the same location. 注释energy [ˈenədʒi] n.能量disturbance [disˈtə:bəns] n.扰动back and forth [ˈbæk-ænd-ˈfɔːθ] adv.来回地alternate [ɔ:lˈtə:nit] adj.交替的air pressure [ɛə-ˈpreʃə] n.气压neighboring [ˈneibəriŋ] adj.邻近的 143
  142. UNIT121 Sounds can be produced at a desired frequency bydifferent methods. Sirens emit sound by means of an air blastinterrupted by a toothed wheel with 44 teeth. 注释 frequency [ˈfri:kwənsi] n.频率 siren [ˈsaiərən] n.汽笛 emit [iˈmit] v.发出 blast [blɑ:st] n.一股(强而突然的气流) interrupt [ˌintəˈrʌpt] v.中断 144
  143. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT122 The amplitude of a sound wave is the degree of motionof air molecules within the wave, which corresponds to thechanges in air pressure that accompany the wave. The greaterthe amplitude of the wave, the harder the molecules strike theeardrum, and the louder the sound that is perceived. 注释amplitude [ˈæmpliˌtju:d] n.振幅accompany [əˈkʌmpəni] v.伴随strike [straik] v.击打eardrum [ˈiədrʌm] n.耳膜perceive [pəˈsi:v] v.感到 145
  144. UNIT123 The distance at which a sound can be heard depends onits intensity. Intensity is the average rate of flow of energy perunit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation, similar tothe rate at which a river flows through a gate in a dam. 注释 intensity [inˈtensiti] n.强度 flow [fləu] n.传播 perpendicular [ˌpə:pənˈdikjulə] adj.垂直的 dam [dæm] n.坝 146
  145. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT124 Sound moves forward in a straight line when travelingthrough a medium having uniform density. Like light, however,sound is subject to refraction, which bends sound waves fromtheir original path. 注释straight [streit] adj.笔直的uniform [ˈju:nifɔ:m] adj.相同的density [ˈdensiti] n.密度subject to [ˈsʌbdʒikt-tuː] v.受……支配refraction [riˈfrækʃən] n.折射bend [bend] v.使弯曲 147
  146. UNIT125 Optics is a branch of physical science dealing with thepropagation and behavior of light. In a general sense, light isthat part of the electromagnetic spectrum that extends fromX rays to microwaves, and includes the radiant energy thatproduces the sensation of vision. 注释optics [ˈɔptiks] n.光学physical science [ˈfizikəl-saiəns] n.物理科学propagation [ˌprɔpəˈɡeiʃən] n.传播electromagnetic [iˌlektrəumæɡˈnetik] adj.电磁的spectrum [ˈspektrəm] n.光谱extend [iksˈtend] v.延伸X ray [eks-rei] n.X光microwave [ˈmaikrəweiv] n.微波radiant energy [ˈreidiənt-ˈenədʒi] n.放射性能量sensation [senˈseiʃən] n.感觉 148
  147. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT126 Lenses made with surfaces of small radius have shorterfocal lengths. A lens with two convex surfaces will alwaysrefract rays parallel to the optic axis, so that they converge toa focus on the side of the lens opposite to the object. Concavelenses form only virtual, erect, and diminished images. If theobject distance is smaller than the focal length of the lens, theimage is virtual, erect, and larger than the object. Observer isthen using the lens as a magnifier or simple a microscope. Theangle subtended at the eye by this virtual enlarged image isgreater than would be the angle subtended by the object if it isat the normal viewing distance. The ratio of these two angles isthe magnifying power of the lens. 注释lens [lenz] n.镜头 erect [iˈrekt] adj.竖立的radius [ˈreidjəs] n.半径(plural: radii [ˈreidiai]) diminish [diˈminiʃ] v.减少focal length [ˈfəukəl-leŋθ] n.焦距 virtual [ˈvə:tjuəl] adj.虚的convex [ˈkɔnˌveks] adj.凸的, 凸面的 magnifier [ˈmæɡnifaiə] n.放大镜refract [riˈfrækt] v.使折射 microscope [ˈmaikrəskəup] n.显微镜parallel [ˈpærəlel] adj.平行的 subtend [səbˈtend] v.对向optic axis [ˈɔptik-ˈæksis] n.光轴 ratio [ˈreiʃiəu] n.比, 比率converge [kənˈvə:dʒ] v.会聚 angle [ˈæŋɡl] n.角 ,角度concave lens [kɔnˈkeiv - lenz] n.凹透镜 149
  148. UNIT127 The elements of weather include temperature, humidity,cloudiness, precipitation, wind, and pressure. These elementsare organized into various weather systems, such as monsoons,areas of high and low pressure, thunderstorms, and tornadoes.All weather systems have well-defined cycles and structuralfeatures, and are governed by the laws of heat and motion.These conditions are studied in meteorology, the science ofweather and weather forecasting. Weather differs from climate,which is the weather that a particular region experiences over along period of time. 注释weather [ˈweðə] n.天气 cycle [ˈsaikl] n.循环, 周期humidity [hju:ˈmiditi] n.湿度 feature [ˈfi:tʃə] n.特征precipitation [priˌsipiˈteiʃən] n.降水 govern [ˈɡʌvən] v.支配pressure [ˈpreʃə] n.(气)压 motion [ˈməuʃən] n.运动various [ˈvɛəriəs] adj.不同的,好几个 meteorology [ˌmi:tiəˈrɔlədʒi] n.气象学monsoon [mɔnˈsu:n] n.季风 weather forecast [ˈweðə-ˈfɔ:kɑ:st] n.天气预报thunderstorm [ˈθʌndəstɔ:m] n.雷雨 region [ˈri:dʒən] n.地区tornado [tɔ:ˈneidəu] n.龙卷风 climate [ˈklaimit] n.气候well-defined [ˌwel-diˈfaind] adj.明确的 150
  149. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT128 Scientists use the Kelvin, or absolute, scale and the Celsius, or centigrade, scale to measure temperature. Most nations use the Celsius scale, although the United States continues to use the Fahrenheit scale. 注释Kelvin [ˈkelvin] n.开氏温标scale [skeil] n. 刻度Celsius [ˈselsjəs] adj.摄氏的centigrade [ˈsentiɡreid] adj. 摄氏温度的Fahrenheit scale [ˈfærənˌhait-skeil] n.华氏温标 151
  150. UNIT129 Most clouds and almost all precipitation are produced bythe cooling of air as it rises. When air temperature is reduced,excess water vapor in the air condenses into liquid droplets orice crystals to form clouds or fog. 注释 precipitation [priˌsipiˈteiʃən] n. 降水 reduce [riˈdju:s] v. 减少 excess [ˈekses] adj. 过量的 vapor [ˈveipə] n.蒸气 condense [kənˈdens] v.浓缩 ,凝结 droplet [ˈdrɔplit] n.小滴 crystal [ˈkristəl] n. 晶体 fog [fɔɡ] n.雾 152
  151. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT130 Fog is thickened and acidified when the air is filled withsulfur-laden soot particles produced by the burning of coal.Dense acid fogs that killed thousands of people in London up to1956 led to legislation that prohibited coal burning in cities. 注释thicken [ˈθikən] v.使变厚 ,使变浓acidify [əˈsidifai] v.酸化sulfur-laden [ˈsulfur-ˈleidn] adj.含有硫黄的soot particle [ˈsut-ˈpɑ:tikl] n. 煤烟颗粒coal [kəul] n.煤dense [dens] adj.(烟、雾等 )浓密的acid fog [ˈæsid-fɔg] n.酸雾legislation [ˌledʒisˈleiʃən] n.法规、法案 ,立法prohibit [prəˈhibit] v.禁止 153
  152. UNIT131 Optical phenomena, such as rainbows and halos, occurwhen light shines through cloud particles. Rainbows are seenwhen sunlight from behind the observer strikes the raindropsfalling from cumulonimbus clouds. The raindrops act as tinyprisms, bending and reflecting the different colors of light backto the observers eyes at different angles and creating bands ofcolor. Halos are seen when sunlight or moonlight in front of theobserver strikes ice crystals, and then passes through high thincirrostratus clouds. 注释optical phenomena [ɔptikəl-finɔminə] n.光学现象rainbow [ˈreinbəu] n.彩虹halo [ˈheiləu] n.日晕strike [straik] v.照在……上raindrop [ˈreindrɔp] n.雨滴cumulonimbus [ˈkju:mjuləuˈnimbəs] n.积雨云prism [ˈprizəm] n.棱镜bend [bend] v.使弯曲reflect [riˈflekt] v.反射angle [ˈæŋɡl] n.角,角度band [bænd] n.(光、频)带 ,(波)段cirrostratus [ˈsirəuˈstrɑ:təs] n.卷层云 154
  153. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT132 Precipitation takes a variety of forms, including rain,drizzle, freezing rain, snow, hail, and ice pellets or sleet.Snowflakes are either single ice crystal or clusters of icecrystals. Hailstones are balls of ice which consist of clustersof raindrops that have collided and frozen together. Largehailstones only occur in violent thunderstorms, in which strongupdrafts keep the hailstones suspended in the atmosphere longenough to grow large. 注释a variety of [ə-vəˈraiəti-əv] adj.多种多样的 hailstone [ˈheilˌstəun] n.(一粒)冰雹drizzle [ˈdrizl] n.细雨 collide [kəˈlaid] v.碰撞freezing rain [ˈfri:ziŋ-rein] n.冻雨 violent [ˈvaiələnt] adj.猛烈的hail [heil] n.冰雹 updraft [ˈʌpdrɑ:ft] n.上升气流ice pellet [ais-ˈpelit] n. 结冰的小球 suspend [səˈspend] v.悬浮(大气、液体中)sleet [sli:t] n.雨夹雪 ,雨淞snowflake [ˈsnəuˌfleik] n.雪花cluster [ˈklʌstə] n. 串 155
  154. UNIT133 Wind is the horizontal movement of air. Wind speeds inhurricanes and typhoons exceed 120 km/h near the stormscenter and may approach 320 km/h. The highest wind speedsat the surface of the Earth — as high as 480 km/h — occurin tornadoes. Except for these storms, wind speed usuallyincreases with height to the top of the troposphere. 注释 horizontal [ˌhɔriˈzɔntəl] adj.水平的 hurricane [ˈhʌrikən] n.飓风 typhoon [taiˈfu:n] n.台风 exceed [ikˈsi:d] v.超过(限度、范围) approach [əˈprəutʃ] v.接近,逼近 tornado [tɔ:ˈneidəu] n.龙卷风 height [hait] n.海拔 troposphere [ˈtrɔpəusfiə] n.对流层 156
  155. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT134 Since the early 20 th century, great strides have been made in weather prediction, largely as a result of computer development, but also because of instrumentation such as satellites and radars. Weather data from around the world are collected by the World Meteorological Organization, the National Weather Service, and other agencies and entered into computer models that apply the laws of motion and of the conservation of energy and mass to produce forecasts. In some cases, these forecasts have provided warning of major storms as much as a week in advance. However, because the behavior of weather systems is chaotic, it is impossible to forecast the details of weather more than about two weeks in advance. 注释stride [straid] n.进步prediction [priˈdikʃən] n.预报satellite [ˈsætəlait] n.人造卫星World Meteorological Organization [wə:ld-ˌmi:tiərəˈlɔdʒikəl-ˌɔ:ɡənaiˈzeiʃən] n.世界气象组织National Weather Service [ˈnæʃənəl-ˈweðə-ˈsə:vis] n.国家天气服务局agency [ˈeidʒənsi] n.机构 ,机关apply [əˈplai] v.应用law of motion [ˈlɔ:-əv-ˈməuʃən] n.运动定律laws conservation of energy/mass [ˈlɔ:z-ˌkɔnsəˈveiʃən-əv-ˈenədʒi/mæs] n.能量/质量守恒定律forecast [ˈfɔ:kɑ:st] n.预报in advance [in-ədˈvɑ:ns] adv.预先chaotic [keiˈɔtik] adj.无秩序的 157
  156. UNIT135 The three major subdivisions of the world ocean are theAtlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean,which are bounded by the continental masses. The two minorsubdivisions of the world ocean are the Southern Ocean,bounded by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to the northand the Antarctica to the south, and the Arctic Ocean, almostlandlocked except between Greenland and Europe. From theshorelines of the continents, a submerged part of the continentalmass, called the continental shelf, extends sea ward an averagedistance of 75 km; it varies in width from nearly zero to 1, 500 km.The shelf gives way abruptly at a depth of about 200 m to asteeper zone known as the continental slope, which descendsabout 3, 500 m. The continental rise, a gradually sloping zone ofsediment that is considered part of the ocean bottom, extendsabout 600 km from the base of the continental slope to the flatabyssal plains of the deep-ocean floor. In the central parts of theoceans are the midocean ridges, which are extensive mountainchains with inner troughs that are heavily intersected by cracks,called fracture zones. The ridge system seems to merge intothe continents in several areas, such as the Red Sea and theGulf of California, and such areas are regions of great geologicactivity, characterized by volcanoes, or earthquakes andfaults. The midocean ridges play a key role in plate tectonics(movements in the Earths crust), for it is from the inner troughsof these ridges that molten rock upwells from the Earths mantleand spreads laterally on both sides, adding new material to theEarths rigid crustal plates. 注释oceanography [ˌəuʃəˈnɔɡrəfi] n.海洋学subdivision [ˈsʌbdiˌviʒən] n.部分bound [baund] v.标明界限continental mass [ˌkɔntiˈnentəl-mæs] n.大陆块体Antarctic Circumpolar Current [ænˈtɑ:ktik-ˌsə:kəmˈpəulə-ˈkʌrənt] n.南极绕极流Antarctica [ænˈtɑ:ktikə] n.南极洲Arctic Ocean [ˈɑ:ktik-ˈəuʃən] n.北冰洋landlocked [ˈlændlɔkt] adj.被陆地包围的shoreline [ˈʃɔ:lain] n.海岸线submerged [səbˈmə:dʒd] adj.水下的continental shelf [ˌkɔntiˈnentəl-ʃelf] n.大陆架 158
  157. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT135shelf [ʃelf] n.架abruptly [əˈbrʌptli] adv.突然地steep [sti:p] adj.陡峭的zone [zəun] n.地带continental slope [ˌkɔntiˈnentəl-sləup] n.大陆斜坡descend [diˈsend] v.下降sloping [ˈsləupiŋ] adj.倾斜的sediment [ˈsedimənt] n.沉积物abyssal [əˈbisəl] adj.深海的ridge [ridʒ] n.海脊trough [trɔ:f] n.深海槽intersect [ˌintəˈsekt] v.交叉crack [kræk] n.裂缝fracture zone [ˈfræktʃə-zəun] n.断层带merge [mə:dʒ] v.并入geologic activity [dʒiəˈlɔdʒik-ækˈtiviti] n.地质活跃带volcano [vɔlˈkeinəu] n.火山earthquake [ˈə:θkweik] n.地震fault [fɔ:lt] n.断层plate tectonics [ˈpleit-tekˈtɔniks] n.板块构造论crust [krʌst] n.地壳molten [ˈməultən] adj.熔化的upwell [ʌpˈwel] v.涌起mantle [ˈmæntl] n.地幔laterally [ˈlætərəlli] adv.侧面地crustal plate [ˈkrʌstəl-ˈpleit] n.地壳板块 159
  158. UNIT136 The ocean floor is covered by an average of 0.5 km of sediment, which consists of rock particles and organic remains. Clay minerals, which are formed by the weathering of continental rocks and carried out to sea by rivers and wind, are usually abundant in the deep sea. Thick deposits of such detrital material are often found near mouths of rivers and on continental shelves; fine particles of clay are spread through the ocean and accumulate slowly on the deep-ocean floor. These sediments are stirred up and periodically redistributed by fierce current-generated disturbances that are called benthic storms, because they occur in the sparsely populated deep- sea habitat known as the benthic zone. Also accumulating as sediment in the benthic zone is the calcium carbonate shells of small organisms, such as foraminifera and the siliceous shells of marine protozoans. 注释sediment [ˈsedimənt] n.沉积物 fierce [fiəs] adj.猛烈的organic remains [ɔ:ˈɡænik - riˈmeins] n.有机残留物 disturbance [disˈtə:bəns] n.局部运动clay mineral [ˈklei-ˈminərəl] n.粘土矿物 benthic storm [ˈbenθik-stɔ:m] n.深海风暴weathering [ˈweðəriŋ] n.侵蚀 sparsely [spɑ:sli] adv.稀少地carry out [ˈkæri-ɑut] v.传送 habitat [ˈhæbitæt] n.栖息地abundant [əˈbʌndənt] adj.丰富的 benthic zone [ˈbenθik-zəun] n.深海区域deposit [diˈpɔzit] n.沉淀物 calcium carbonate [ˈkælsiəm-ˈkɑ:bəneit] n.碳酸钙detrital [diˈtraitəl] adj.由岩屑形成的 foraminifera [fəˌreimənifərə] n.有孔虫类mouth of river [ˈmauθ-əv-ˈrivə] n.入海口 siliceous [siˈliʃəs] adj.由硅石组成的accumulate [əˈkju:mjuleit] v.堆积 protozoan [ˌprəutəuˈzəuən] n.原生动物stir up [ˈstə:-ʌp] v.搅动 160
  159. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT137 The surface currents of the ocean are characterized by large gyres, or currents that are kept in motion by prevailing winds, but the direction of which is altered by the rotation of the Earth. Although the surface circulation of the ocean is a function of winds and the rotation of the earth, the deeper circulation in the oceans is a function of density differences between adjacent water masses. 注释current [ˈkʌrənt] n.水流gyre [ˈdʒaiə] n.漩涡motion [ˈməuʃən] n.运动rotation [rəuˈteiʃn] n.自转circulation [ˌsə:kjuˈleiʃən] n.循环density [ˈdensiti] n.比重adjacent [əˈdʒeisənt] adj.紧挨着的 161
  160. UNIT138 All volcanoes are formed by the accumulation of magma(molten rock that forms below the Earths surface). Magma canerupt through one or more volcanic vents, which can be a singleopening, a cluster of openings, or a long crack called a fissurevent. It forms deep within the Earth, generally within the upperpart of the mantle, or less commonly, within the base of theEarths crust. Some lava (molten rock that erupts at the Earthssurface) can be as thick and viscous as toothpaste, while otherlava can be as thin and fluid as warm syrup and flows rapidlydown the sides of a volcano. Once lava hardens, it formsigneous rock. After many eruptions, the volcanic materials pileup around the vent or vents. These piles form a topographicfeature, such as a hill, mountain, plateau, or crater that werecognize as a volcano. 162
  161. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT138 注释volcano [vɔlˈkeinəu] n.火山accumulation [əkju:mjuˈleiʃ(ə)n] n.堆积物magma [ˈmæɡmə] n.岩浆molten [ˈməultən] adj.熔化的erupt [iˈrʌpt] v.喷出volcanic vent [vɔlˈkænik-vent] n.火山口vent [vent] n.孔 ,口,裂口cluster [ˈklʌstə] n.串a cluster of [ə-ˈklʌstə-əv] adj.成群的 ,成串的crack [kræk] n.断裂处fissure vent [fiʃə-vent] n.断裂口fissure [ˈfiʃə] n.裂缝 ,裂隙mantle [ˈmæntl] n.地幔crust [krʌst] n.地壳lava [ˈlɑ:və] n.熔岩thick [θik] adj.厚的viscous [ˈviskəs] adj.粘性的toothpaste [ˈtu:θpeist] n.牙膏thin [θin] adj.薄的fluid [ˈflu:id] adj.易流动的syrup [ˈsirəp] n.糖浆harden [ˈhɑ:dn] v.变硬 ,凝固igneous rock [ˈiɡniəs-rɔk] n.火成岩pile up [ˈpail-ʌp] v.堆积pile [pail] n.堆积 ,堆topographic [ˌtɔpəˈɡræfik] adj.地形学上的plateau [ˈplætəu] n.高地crater [ˈkreitə] n.坑 ,火山[喷火]口 ;(月球上的 )环形山recognize [ˈrekəɡnaiz] v.识别 163
  162. UNIT139 Sedimentary rocks are classified, according to theirmanners of origin, into mechanical or chemical sedimentaryrocks. Mechanical rocks, or fragmental rocks, are composedof mineral particles produced by the mechanical disintegrationof other rocks and transported, without chemical deterioration,by flowing water. They are carried into larger bodies of water,where they are deposited in layers. Shale and sandstone arecommon sedimentary rocks of mechanical origin. 注释 sedimentary rock [sediˈmentəri-rɔk] n.沉积岩 manner [ˈmænə] n.样式 fragmental [fræɡˈmentəl] adj.碎屑状的 mineral [ˈminərəl] n.矿物 ,矿石 particle [ˈpɑ:tikl] n.颗粒 disintegration [disˌintiˈɡreiʃən] n.分裂,崩解 deterioration [diˌtiəriəˈreiʃən] n.磨损,腐化,变质 deposit [diˈpɔzit] v.沉积 ,沉淀 layer [ˈleiə] n.地层 shale [ʃeil] n.页岩 sandstone [ˈsændstəun] n.砂岩 164
  163. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT140 The materials making up chemical sedimentary rocksmay consist of the remains of microscopic marine organismsprecipitated on the ocean floor, as in the case of limestone.They may also have been dissolved in water circulating throughthe parent rock formation, and then deposited in a sea or lakeby precipitation from the solution. Halite, gypsum is formedby the evaporation of salt solutions and the consequentprecipitation of the salts. 注释make up [ˈmeik-ʌp] v.组成 dissolve [diˈzɔlv] v.溶解consist of [kənˈsist-əv] v.由……组成 circulate [ˈsə:kjuleit] v.循环microscopic organism solution [səˈlu:ʃən] n.溶液[ˌmaikrəskɔpik-ɔ:ɡənizəm]n.微生物 halite [ˈhælait] n.岩盐marine [məˈri:n] adj.海洋的 gypsum [ˈdʒipsəm] n.石膏precipitate [priˈsipiteit] v.沉淀 evaporation [iˌvæpəˈreiʃən] n.蒸发(作用)in the case of [in-ðə-ˈkeis-əv] adv.在……的情况下salt solution [ˈsɔ:lt-səˈlu:ʃən] n.盐溶液limestone [ˈlaimˌstəun] n.石灰岩 165
  164. UNIT141 Most shales (common name applied to fine-grained varieties of sedimentary rocks formed by the consolidation of beds of clay or mud) exhibit fine laminations that are parallel to the bedding planes and along which the rock breaks in an irregular curving fracture. Most varieties of shales are colored in various shades of gray, but other colors, such as red, pink, green, brown, and black, are often present. Shales are soft enough to be scratched with a knife, and feel smooth and almost greasy to the touch. Many shales yield oil when distilled by heat, and the sedimentary rocks containing larger quantities of oil are called oil shales. Widely distributed throughout the world, oil shales are a source of oil for countries lacking petroleum. 注释shale [ʃeil] n.页岩 shades of gray [ʃeidz-əv-ˈgrei] n.灰度梯度fine-grained [ˈfainˈ-ɡreind] adj.纹理细腻的,平整的 (深浅不同的各种灰色)consolidation [kənˌsɔliˈdeiʃən] n.加固 pink [piŋk] n.粉红色clay [klei] n.黏土 scratch [skrætʃ] v.刮擦exhibit [iɡˈzibit] v.显示,显出 greasy [ˈɡri:zi] adj.油腻的laminate [ˈlæmineit] n.层叠结构 yield [ji:ld] v.生出 出产, ;产生laminate to [ˈlæmineit-tu] adj.与……平行/相似的 distill [diˈstil] v.蒸馏bedding plane [ˈbediŋ-ˈplein] n.(岩层)层平面,底层 oil shale [ɔil-ʃeil] n.油母页岩curving [ˈkə:viŋ] adj.弯曲的 distribute [disˈtribju:t] v.分布,散布(over)fracture [ˈfræktʃə] n.岩石的裂缝或断层 petroleum [piˈtrəuliəm] n.石油 166
  165. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT142 All limestone forms from the precipitation of calciumcarbonate from water. Calcium carbonate leaves solutionsin many ways and each way produces a different kind oflimestone. When a drop of dilute hydrochloric acid is placedon a piece of limestone, the acid reacts with the calcite andforms bubbles of carbon dioxide. This "fizz" reaction is socharacteristic of limestone that many geologists carry a smallbottle of dilute hydrochloric acid into the field for a rapid andeasy identification of limestone. 注释limestone [ˈlaimˌstəun] n.石灰岩 bubble [ˈbʌbl] n.气泡precipitation [priˌsipiˈteiʃən] n.沉淀 carbon dioxide [kɑ:bən-daiɔksaid] n.二氧化碳calcium carbonate [ˈkælsiəm-ˈkɑ:bəneit] n.碳酸钙 fizz [fiz] n.嘶嘶声solution [səˈlu:ʃən] n.溶液 geologist [dʒiˈɔlədʒist] n.地质学家dilute [daiˈlju:t] adj.稀释的 field [fi:ld] n.野外hydrochloric acid [,haidrəklɔ:rik-ˈæsid] n.盐酸 identification [aiˌdentifiˈkeiʃən] n.鉴定acid [ˈæsid] n.酸calcite [ˈkælsait] n.方解石 167
  166. UNIT143 The point within the Earth along the rupturing geologicalfault where an earthquake originates is called the focus, orhypocenter. Seismologists know from observations that mostearthquakes originate as shallow-focus earthquakes, and mostof them occur near plate boundaries — areas where the Earthscrustal plates move against each other. 注释 rupture [ˈrʌptʃə] adj.断裂的 fault [fɔ:lt] n.断层 focus [ˈfəukəs] n.震源(“震中”是epicenter [ˈepiˌsentə]) hypocenter [ˈhaipəuˌsentə] n.震源 seismologist [saizˈmɔlədʒist] n.地震学家 boundary [ˈbaundəri] n.边界 crustal [ˈkrʌstəl] adj.地壳的 168
  167. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT144 The destruction an earthquake causes depends on itsmagnitude and duration, or the amount of shaking that occurs. Astructures design and the materials used in its construction alsoaffect the amount of damage the structure incurs. Earthquakesvary from small, imperceptible shaking to large shocks felt overthousands of kilometers. Earthquakes can deform the ground,make buildings and other structures collapse, and createtsunamis. 注释magnitude [ˈmæɡnitju:d] n.震级duration [djuəˈreiʃən] n.持续时间shaking [ˈʃeikiŋ] n.摇晃incur [inˈkə:] v.招致vary [ˈvɛəri] v.不同,变化imperceptible [ˌimpəˈseptibl] adj.极细微的deform [diˈfɔ:m] v.(使)变形collapse [kəˈlæps] n.倒塌tsunami [tsju:ˈnɑ:mi] n.海啸 169
  168. UNIT145 The sudden movement of rocks along a fault causesvibrations that transmit energy through the Earth in the form ofwaves, called body waves. There are two types of body waves:primary, or P, waves, and secondary, or S, waves. Body waves,or P and S waves, radiate out from the rupturing fault starting atthe focus of the earthquake. P waves are compression waves,because the rocky material in their path moves back and forth inthe same direction as the wave travels alternately, compressingand expanding the rock. P waves are the fastest seismic waves;they travel in strong rock at about 6 to 7 km per second. Pwaves are followed by S waves, which shear or twist, ratherthan compress the rock they travel through. S waves travelat about 3.5 km per second. S waves cause rocky materialto move either side to side or up and down perpendicular tothe direction the waves are traveling, thus shearing the rocks.Both P and S waves help seismologists to locate the focus andepicenter of an earthquake. 注释vibration [vaiˈbreiʃən] n.振动 alternate [ɔ:lˈtə:nit] adj.交替的transmit [ˈtrænzmit] v.传送 seismic wave [saizmik-weiv] n. 地震波primary [ˈpraiməri] adj.初级的 shear [ʃiə] v.剪切secondary [ˈsekəndəri] adj.第二等级的 twist [twist] n.扭曲primary wave [ˈpraiməri-weiv] n.纵波 side to side [ˈsai-tu-ˈsaid] adv.从一边到另一边secondary wave [ˈsekəndəri-weiv] n.横波 up and down [ˈʌp-ænd-ˈdaun] adv.上上下下radiate [ˈreidieit] v.散发 perpendicular [ˌpə:pənˈdikjulə] adj.垂直的compression [kəmˈpreʃən] n.压缩 epicenter [ˈepisentə] n.震中back and forth [ˈbæk-ænd-ˈfɔ:θ] adv.来回地 170
  169. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT146 Glaciers, an enduring accumulation of ice, snow, water, rocks, and sediments that moves under the influence of gravity, is an intriguing part of the Earth’s natural environment, and its majestic beauty in wild and inaccessible mountain settings is unparalleled. 注释glacier [ˈɡlæsjə] n.冰川accumulation [əkju:mjuˈleiʃ(ə)n] n.堆积物sediment [ˈsedimənt] n.沉积物gravity [ˈɡræviti] n.重力intriguing [inˈtri:ɡiŋ] adj.引人入胜majestic [məˈdʒestik] adj.雄伟的inaccessible [inækˈsesəbl] adj.难以接近unparalleled [ˌʌnˈpærəleld] adj.无可比拟的 171
  170. UNIT147 Ice sheets are the largest ice masses found on Earth,covering huge land areas. The ice sheet in Antarctica covers 13million sq km. It is over 4 km thick and its weight has depressedthe continent below sea level in many places. If this weight wasremoved, the continent would slowly rise and readjust itself, asEurope still does after the melting of the ice sheet that coveredthat continent during the last Ice Age. Ice caps are smaller thanice sheets. They form when snow and ice fill a basin or cover aplateau to a considerable depth. Ice fields develop where largeinterconnecting valley glaciers are separated by mountain peaksand ridges that project through the ice. 注释ice sheet [ais-ʃi:t] n.冰原 considerable [kənˈsidərəbl] adj.相当大的mass [mæs] n.块 ice field [ais-fi:ld] n.冰原depress [diˈpres] v.使降低 interconnecting [ˈintəkəˈnektiŋ] adj.互相连接的readjust [ˌri:əˈdʒʌst] v.重新调整 valley [ˈvæli] n.(山)谷melting [ˈmeltiŋ] n.融化 peak [pi:k] n.山顶Ice Age [ais-eidʒ] n.冰河时期 ridge [ridʒ] n.山脊ice cap [ais-kæp] n.冰冠 project [prəˈdʒekt] v.凸出basin [ˈbeisn] n.盆地plateau [ˈplætəu] n.高地 172
  171. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT148 As glaciers move over bedrock, they scrape and abradeits surface, producing fine-grained rock flour. Glaciers can alsopluck away rocks up to boulder size, and transport and depositthem along the margins of the glacier down in the valleys. Theglaciers deposit these materials as till, a sediment consistingof mud, sand, gravel, and boulders. Much of this material isdeposited in long mounds called moraines. Lateral moraines areformed on each side of a valley glacier where abraded sedimentand plucked rocks are deposited. 注释move over [mu:v-əuvə] v.挪开 margin [ˈmɑ:dʒin] n.边缘bedrock [ˈbedrɔk] n.岩床 till [til] n.冰渍scrape [skreip] v.刮擦 gravel [ˈɡrævəl] n.砂砾abrade [əˈbreid] v.磨损 mound [maund] n.堆flour [ˈflauə] n.细软的粉末 moraine [mɔˈrein] n.冰碛pluck away [plʌk-əwei] v.冰川冲走(岩石) lateral moraine [lætərəl-mɔrein] n.冰川侧碛boulder [ˈbəuldə] n.巨砾deposit [diˈpɔzit] v.使沉积 173
  172. UNIT149 Many glaciologists believe that the current worldwideretreat of glaciers is influenced by global warming. They believeglobal warming is caused by the build-up of greenhouse gasesin the atmosphere, since humans began using fossil fuelsduring the Industrial Revolution. Higher average temperaturesare causing glaciers to melt faster than they can be replenishedby winter snows. 注释 glaciologist [ˌɡleiʃiˈɔlədʒist] n.冰河学家 retreat [riˈtri:t] n.冰川后退 global warming [ɡləubəl-wɔ:miŋ] n.全球变暖 buildup [bild-ʌp] n.累积 greenhouse gas [ɡri:nhaus-ɡæs] n.温室气体 fossil fuel [ˈfɔsl-fjuəl] n.(煤、石油、天然气等)矿物燃料 replenish [riˈpleniʃ] v.补充 174
  173. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT150 The farther a glacier moves from its source ofaccumulation into warmer-lower-elevation regions, the morelikely it is to ablate or melt. As the ice ablates, it begins todeposit the material it has eroded in the mountains, as wellas any rock debris that has fallen into its crevasses. Just asstreams of liquid water create landforms when they deposit theirloads of material, streams of frozen water — glaciers — droptheir burden and shape the landscape as they recede. 注释elevation [ˌeliˈveiʃən] n.海拔ablate [æbˈleit] v.融化melt [melt] v.融化erode [iˈrəud] v.侵蚀debris [ˈdebri:] n.碎片crevasse [kriˈvæs] n.裂缝burden [ˈbə:dən] n.负载landscape [ˈlændskeip] n.地形recede [riˈsi:d] v.后退 175
  174. UNIT151 The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth. Thenatural satellites of the other planets in the solar system are alsosometimes referred to as moons. Telescopes have revealed awealth of lunar details since their invention in the 17th century,and spacecraft have contributed further knowledge since the1950s. 注释 moon [mu:n] n.月球 satellite [ˈsætəlait] n.人造卫星 solar system [səulə-sistəm] n.太阳系 refer to sb / sth as ... [rifəː-tuː-sʌmbədi/sʌmθiŋəz] v.称某人/某物为…… reveal [riˈvi:l] v.揭示 ,显示 a wealth of [ə-welθ-əv] adj.很多的 lunar [ˈlu:nə] adj.月球的 spacecraft [ˈspeiskrɑ:ft] n.宇宙飞船 contribute [kənˈtribjut] v.贡献 176
  175. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT152 As the Moon orbits Earth in a counterclockwise direction, the Earth itself rotates counterclockwise (from west to east) on its axis, and revolves around the Sun in a counterclockwise orbit. 注释orbit [ˈɔ:bit] v.绕(吸引中心 运转 n. 轨道counterclockwise [ˌkauntəˈklɔkwaiz] adj.逆时针方向的rotate [rəuˈteit] v.自转axis [ˈæksis] 轴(plural: axes [ˈæksi:z])revolve [riˈvɔlv] v.公转 177
  176. UNIT153 The Moon is full when it is farther away from the Sun thanthe Earth; it is new when it is closer. When it is more than halfilluminated, it is said to be in gibbous phase. When it is lessthan half illuminated, it is said to be in crescent phase. TheMoon is said to be waning as it progresses from full to new, andto be waxing as it proceeds from new to full. 注释 full [ful] adj.满月 new [nju:] adj.新月 (的) illuminate [iˈlju:mineit] v.照亮,使明亮 gibbous [ˈɡibəs] adj.光亮部大于半圆的 phase [feiz] n. 位相 crescent [ˈkresnt] adj.新月形的 crescent phase [kresnt-feiz] n.新月位相 waning [ˈweiniŋ] adj.(月亮)渐亏的 waxing [ˈwæksiŋ] adj.(月亮)渐盈的 178
  177. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT154 By a cosmic coincidence, the apparent sizes of the disk ofthe Moon and the disk of the Sun are approximately the samewhen seen from the Earth. If the Moons orbit lays exactly in theplane of the Earths orbit around the Sun, a solar eclipse wouldoccur somewhere on the Earth every month at new moon.However, solar eclipses occur only about 2 to 5 times a year.Partial eclipses, when the Moon only partially covers the disk ofthe Sun, happen more often than total eclipses. 注释cosmic [ˈkɔzmik] adj.宇宙的coincidence [kəuˈinsidəns] n.巧合approximately [əˈprɔksimitli] adv.大约lay [lei] v.位于plane [plein] n.平面eclipse [iˈklips] n.食occur [əˈkə:] v.出现 ,发生solar eclipse [səulə-iklips] n.日食partial eclipse [pɑ:ʃəl-iklips] n.偏食total eclipse [təutəl-iklips] n.日全食 179
  178. UNIT155 The Moons surface is covered with craters overlain by alayer of soil called regolith. Nearly all the craters are formed byexplosive impacts of high-velocity meteorites. 注释 crater [ˈkreitə] n.环形山 overlie [ˌəuvəˈlai] v.在……上面 regolith [ˈreɡəliθ] n.风化层 explosive [iksˈpləusiv] adj.爆炸(性)的 impact [ˈimpækt] n.冲击 velocity [viˈlɔsiti] n.速率 meteorite [ˈmi:tjərait] n.陨星 180
  179. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT156 Eight major or classical planets are currently recognized bythe International Astronomical Union (IAU), the body that givesofficial names to objects in the solar system. The planets arecommonly divided into two groups: the inner planets (Mercury,Venus, Earth, and Mars) and the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn,Uranus, and Neptune). The inner planets are small and arecomposed primarily of rock and iron. The outer planets aremuch larger and consist mainly of hydrogen, helium, and ice.Pluto, historically counted as the ninth planet, does not belongto either group, but was reclassified as a dwarf planet by theIAU in 2006. 注释major [ˈmeidʒə] adj.主要的 Neptune [ˈneptju:n] n.海王星classical [ˈklæsikəl] adj.传统的,古典的,经典的 compose [kəmˈpəuz] v.组成recognized [ˈrekəɡnaizd] adj.公认的 ,经过验证的 (be composed of:由……组成)solar system [səulə-sistəm] n.太阳系 primarily [ˈpraimərili] adv.主要地divide [diˈvaid] v.划分 consist of [kənˈsist-əv] v.由……组成Mercury [ˈmə:kjuri] n.水星 mainly [ˈmeinli] adv.主要地Venus [ˈvi:nəs] n.金星 hydrogen [ˈhaidrədʒən] n.氢Earth [ə:θ] n.地球 helium [ˈhi:ljəm] n.氦Mars [mɑ:z] n.火星 Pluto [ˈplu:təu] n.冥王星Jupiter [ˈdʒu:pitə] n.木星 dwarf planet [dwɔ:f-plænit] n.矮星Saturn [ˈsætən] n.土星Uranus [ˈju:ərənəs] n.天王星 181
  180. UNIT157 Mercury is surprisingly dense, apparently becauseit has an unusually large iron core. With only a transientatmosphere, Mercury has a surface that still bears the recordof bombardment by asteroidal bodies early in its history. Venushas a carbon dioxide atmosphere 90 times thicker than thatof Earth, causing an efficient greenhouse effect by which theVenusian atmosphere is heated. 注释 dense [dens] adj.密度大的 iron core [aiən-kɔ:] n.由铁组成的核 transient [ˈtrænziənt] adj.瞬间变化的 bombardment [bɔmˈbɑ:dmənt] n.撞击 asteroidal body [ˈæstərɔidl-bədi] n.行星体 carbon dioxide [kɑ:bən-daiɔksaid] n.二氧化碳 greenhouse effect [ɡri:nhaus-ifekt] n.温室效应 Venusian [vi:nˈju:siən] adj.金星的 182
  181. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT158 Jupiter is the largest of the planets. Its hydrogen and helium atmosphere contains pastel-colored clouds, and its immense magnetosphere, rings, and satellites make it a planetary system unto itself. Saturn rivals Jupiter, with a much more intricate ring structure and a similar number of satellites. 注释hydrogen [ˈhaidrədʒən] n.氢helium [ˈhi:ljəm] n.氦pastel [pæsˈtel] adj.色彩浅而柔和的immense [iˈmens] adj.极大的magnetosphere [mæɡˈni:təusfiə] n. 磁层planetary system [ˈplænitəri-ˈsistəm] n.行星系rival [ˈraivəl] v.相匹敌intricate [ˈintrikit] adj.复杂的 183
  182. UNIT159 Cosmology is a branch of astronomy, but the observationaland theoretical techniques used by cosmologists involve awide range of other sciences, such as physics and chemistry.Cosmology is distinguished from cosmogony, which used tomean the study of the origin of the universe but now usuallyrefers only to the study of the origin of the solar system. 注释 cosmogony [kɔzˈmɔgəni] n.宇宙起源论 cosmology [kɔzˈmɔlədʒi] n.宇宙天体学 astronomy [əsˈtrɔnəmi] n.天文学 observational [ˌɔbzəˈveiʃənəl] adj.观测的 theoretical [ˌθiəˈretikəl] adj.理论的 a wide range of [ə-ˈwaid-ˈreindʒ-əv] adj.广泛的 distinguish [disˈtiŋɡwiʃ] v.区别 origin [ˈɔridʒin] n.起源 184
  183. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT160 A galaxy is a massive ensemble of hundreds of millions ofstars, all gravitationally interacting, and orbiting about a commoncenter. Astronomers estimate that there are about 125 billiongalaxies in the universe. All the stars visible to the unaided eyesfrom the Earth belong to the Earths galaxy, the Milky Way. TheSun, with its associated planets, is just one star in this galaxy.Besides stars and planets, galaxies contain clusters of stars;atomic hydrogen gas; molecular hydrogen; complex moleculescomposed of hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, and silicon, amongothers; and cosmic rays, which are collectively called interstellarmatters. 注释galaxy [ˈɡæləksi] n.星系 molecular hydrogen [məlekjələ-ˈhaidrədʒən] n.分子氢massive [ˈmæsiv] adj.大量的 complex molecule [kɔmpleks-mɔlikju:l] n.复杂分子ensemble [ɔnˈsɔmbl] n.整体 nitrogen [ˈnaitrədʒən] n.氮gravitationally [ˌɡræviˈteiʃnəli] adv.引力地 silicon [ˈsilikən] n.硅interact [ˌintərˈækt] v.相互作用 among others [əmʌŋ-ˈʌðəz] adv.及其他orbit [ˈɔ:bit] v.绕(吸引中心)运转 cosmic ray [ˈkɔzmik-rei] n.宇宙射线unaided [ˈʌnˈeidid] adj.独立的 interstellar matter [ˈintə(:)ˈstelə-mætə] n.星际物质unaided eye [ʌneidid-ai] n.肉眼Milky Way [ˈmilki:-wei] n.银河associated [əˈsəuʃieitid] adj.关联的cluster [ˈklʌstə] n.星团atomic hydrogen gas [əˈtɔmik-ˈhaidrədʒən-ɡæs] n.原子氢气 185
  184. UNIT161 When viewed or photographed with a large telescope, onlythe nearest galaxies exhibit individual stars. For most galaxies,only the combined light of all the stars is detected. Galaxiesexhibit a variety of forms. Some have an overall globularshape, with a bright nucleus. Such galaxies, called ellipticals,contain a population of old stars, usually with little apparentgas or dust, and few newly formed stars. Elliptical galaxiescome in a vast range of sizes, from giant to dwarf. In contrast,spiral galaxies are flattened disk systems containing not onlysome old stars but also large populations of young stars, muchgas and dust, and molecular clouds that are the birthplace ofstars. Often the regions containing bright young stars and gasclouds are arranged in long spiral arms that can be observedto wind around the galaxy. Generally a halo of faint older starssurrounds the disk; a smaller nuclear bulge often exists, emittingtwo jets of energetic matter in opposite directions. 注释exhibit [iɡˈzibit] v.呈现 population [ˌpɔpjuˈleiʃən] n.个数detect [diˈtekt] v.探测 molecular cloud [məuˈlekjulə-klaud] n.分子云globular shape [ˈɡlɔbjulə-ʃeip] n.球形 spiral arm [ˈspaiərəl-ɑːm] n.旋臂nucleus [ˈnju:kliəs] n.核子 halo [ˈheiləu] n.光环elliptical [iˈliptikəl] n.椭圆星系 bulge [bʌldʒ] n.凸出部分giant [ˈdʒaiənt] adj.巨大的 emit [iˈmit] v.喷射dwarf [dwɔ:f] adj.矮小的 jet [dʒet] n.喷射物flattened disk system [flætn-disk-sistəm] n.平底圆盘状系统 186
  185. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT162 Other disk-like galaxies, with no overall spiral form, are classified as irregulars. These galaxies also have large amounts of gas, dust, and young stars, but no arrangement of a spiral form. They are usually located near larger galaxies, and their appearance is probably the result of a tidal encounter with the more massive galaxy. Some extremely peculiar galaxies are located in close groups of two or three, and their tidal interactions have caused distortions of spiral arms, producing warped disks and long streamer tails. Ring galaxies, for example, form when a small galaxy collides with the center of a spiral galaxy. An intense ring of stars forms at the outer edges of the new, combined galaxy. Quasars are objects that appear stellar or almost stellar, but their enormous redshifts identify them as objects at very large distances. They are probably closely related to radio galaxies. 注释irregular [iˈreɡjulə] n.不规则的物体tidal [ˈtaidl] adj.潮汐的encounter [inˈkauntə] n.相遇peculiar [piˈkju:ljə] adj.罕见的interaction [ˌintərˈækʃən] n.相互作用distortion [disˈtɔ:ʃən] n.扭曲变形warped [wɔ:pd] adj.弯曲的streamer tail [ˈstri:mə-teil] n.带状的尾巴collide [kəˈlaid] v.碰撞edge [edʒ] n.边缘quasar [ˈkweizɑ:] n.类星体stellar [ˈstelə] adj.恒星的redshift [red-ʃift] n.红移 187
  186. UNIT163 Pollution refers to contamination of the Earths environmentwith materials that interfere with human health, the quality oflife, or the natural functioning of ecosystems. There are twomain categories of pollutants. The biodegradable are materials,such as sewage, that rapidly decompose by natural processes.The nondegradable are materials that either do not decomposeor decompose slowly in the natural environment. 注释 pollution [pəˈluʃən] n.污染(作用) contamination [kənˌtæmiˈneiʃən] n.污染 ,污物 interfere [ˌintəˈfiə] v.有害于(with) function [ˈfʌŋkʃən] v.(机器、机制等)运行 ,发挥作用 ecosystem [ˈi:kəsistəm] n.生态系统 pollutant [pəˈlu:tənt] n.污染物 biodegradable [ˌbaiəudiˈɡreidəbl] adj.可以进行分解和还原处理的 sewage [ˈsjuidʒ] n.阴沟污物 ;污水 decompose [ˌdi:kəmˈpəuz] v.分解 ,分析 nondegradable [ˈnɔndiˈɡreidəbl] adj.不可以进行分解和还原处理的 188
  187. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT164 Because of the complex relationships among the many types of organisms and ecosystems, environmental contamination may have far-reaching consequences that are not immediately obvious or that are difficult to predict. For instance, scientists can only speculate on some of the potential impacts of the depletion of the ozone layer, the protective layer in the atmosphere that shields the Earth from the Suns harmful ultraviolet rays. Another major effect of pollution is the tremendous cost of pollution clean-up and prevention. The global effort to control emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas produced from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal or oil, or of other organic materials like wood, is one such example. 注释far-reaching [ˈfɑ:-ˈri:tʃiŋ] adj.深远的 ,广泛的consequence [ˈkɔnsikwəns] n.后果 ,影响immediately [iˈmi:diətli] adv.直接地 ,立即predict [priˈdikt] v.预测speculate [ˈspekjuleit] v.思索 ,推测(about, on, upon)impact [ˈimpækt] n.影响 ,效力ozone layer [ˈəuzəun-leiə] n.臭氧层shield [ʃi:ld] v.防御 ,保护ultraviolet ray [ˌʌltrəˈvaiəlit-rei] n.紫外线tremendous [triˈmendəs] adj.可怕的 ,惊人的emission [iˈmiʃən] n.发出(物) ,放射(物)combustion [kəmˈbʌstʃən] n.燃烧fossil fuel [ˈfɔsl-fjuəl] n.(煤、石油、天然气等)矿物燃料 189
  188. UNIT165 Research has shown that low-income populationsand minorities do not receive the same protection fromenvironmental contamination as do higher-income communities.Toxic waste incinerators, chemical plants, and solid wastedumps are often located in low-income communities becauseof a lack of organized, informed community involvement inmunicipal decision-making processes. 注释 minority [maiˈnɔriti] n.少数 toxic [ˈtɔksik] adj.有毒的 incinerate [inˈsinəreit] v.(把……)烧成灰 ,烧掉,焚化 incinerator [inˈsinəreitə] n.(垃圾的)焚化炉 waste dumps [ˈweist-ˈdʌmps] v.废料堆 informed [inˈfɔ:md] adj.见闻广的 ,有情报根据的 municipal [mjuˈnisipəl] adj.市政的 190
  189. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT166 Urban air pollution is commonly known as smog. The darkLondon smog that Evelyn wrote of is generally a smoky mixtureof carbon monoxide and organic compounds from incompletecombustion of fossil fuels such as coal, and sulfur dioxidefrom impurities in the fuels. As the smog ages and reactswith oxygen, organic and sulfuric acids condense as droplets,increasing the haze. 注释smog [smɔɡ] n.烟雾compound [ˈkɔmpaund] n.混合物sulfur [ˈsʌlfə] n.硫(磺)dioxide [daiˈɔksaid] n.二氧化物impurity [imˈpjuəriti] n.不洁,杂质age [eidʒ] v.老化,陈化condense [kənˈdens] v.浓缩,凝结droplet [ˈdrɔplit] n.小滴haze [heiz] n.霾,烟雾,霭 191
  190. UNIT167 The demand for fresh water rises continuously as theworlds population grows. From 1940 to 1990, withdrawals offresh water from rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and other sourcesincreased fourfold. Sewage, industrial wastes, and agriculturalchemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides are the main causesof water pollution. Erosion, the wearing away of topsoil by windand rain, also contributes to water pollution. Soil and silt washedfrom logged hillsides, plowed fields, or construction sites, canclog waterways and kill aquatic vegetation. Even small amountsof silt can eliminate desirable fish species. 注释withdrawal [wiðˈdrɔ:əl] n. & v.提取,收回 logged [lɔɡd] adj.低湿的 ,浸透的(土地)reservoir [ˈrezəvwɑ:] n.贮水池 ,水库 plow [plau] v.犁 ;耕fourfold [ˈfɔːfəuld] n.四倍 construction site [kənˈstrʌkʃən-sait] n.建筑工地fertilizer [ˈfə:tilaizə] n.肥料 clog [klɔɡ] v.阻塞,塞满pesticide [ˈpestisaid] n.杀虫剂 aquatic [əˈkwætik] adj.水生的 ,水栖的erosion [iˈrəuʒən] n.腐蚀 ,侵蚀(作用) eliminate [iˈlimineit] v.除去,消灭silt [silt] n.沙,淤泥 192
  191. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT168 Unhealthy soil management methods have seriouslydegraded soil quality, caused soil pollution, and enhancederosion. Treating the soil with chemical fertilizers, pesticides,and fungicides interferes with the natural processes occurringwithin the soil and destroys useful organisms such as bacteria,fungi, and other microorganisms. Improper irrigation practicesin areas with poorly drained soil may result in salt deposits thatinhibit plant growth and may lead to crop failure. 注释soil [sɔil] n.土地 ,土壤degrade [diˈɡreid] v 使剥蚀fungicide [ˈfʌndʒisaid] n.杀真菌剂interfere [ˌintəˈfiə] v.有害于microorganism [ˌmaikrəuˈɔ:ɡənizəm] n.微生物improper [imˈprɔpə] adj.不适当的 ,错误的irrigation [ˌiriˈɡeiʃən] n.灌溉practice [ˈpræktis] n.做法 ,技术drain [drein] v.(土地)排水 ,(资源等)逐渐枯竭deposit [diˈpɔzit] n.淤积 ,沉淀inhibit [inˈhibit] v.抑制 193
  192. UNIT169 Solid wastes are unwanted solid materials such asgarbage, paper, plastics and other synthetic materials, metals,and wood. Billions of tons of solid wastes are thrown outannually. Areas where wastes are buried, called landfills, arethe cheapest and most common disposal method for solidwastes worldwide. But landfills quickly become overfilled andmay contaminate air, soil, and water. Incineration, or burning, ofwaste reduces the volume of solid wastes, but produces denseashen wastes (some of which become airborne) that oftencontain dangerous concentrations of hazardous materials, suchas heavy metals and toxic compounds. 注释 garbage [ˈɡɑ:bidʒ] n.垃圾 ,废料 plastic [ˈplæ:stik] n.塑料 synthetic [sinˈθetik] adj.合成的 landfill [ˈlændfil] n.垃圾填埋洼地 disposal method [disˈpəuzəl-meθəd] n.处置方法 overfill [ˈəuvəˈfil] v.把……装得溢出 incinerate [inˈsinəreit] n.焚化 dense [dens] adj.(烟、雾等)浓密的 ,浓厚的 ashen [ˈæʃ(ə)n] adj.灰的 ,灰色的 airborne [ˈɛəbɔ:n] adj.(可以通过)空气传播的 hazardous [ˈhæzədəs] adj.危险的 194
  193. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT170 Noise, such as that produced by airplanes, traffic, or industrial machinery, is considered a form of pollution. Noise pollution is at its worst in densely populated areas. It can cause hearing loss, stress, high blood pressure, sleep loss, distraction, and productivity loss. Measured in decibels, noise intensity can range from zero, the quietest sound the human ear can detect, to over 160 decibels. 注释machinery [məˈʃi:nəri] n.机械设备distraction [disˈtrækʃən] n.使人分心的事,心乱,心烦decibel [ˈdesibel] n.分贝detect [diˈtekt] v.察觉到 195
  194. UNIT171 Settlers on the frontier lived on lands that were sparselypopulated. Although frontier life demanded self-reliance, settlersoften wanted government help for improving the new regionby building roads, recommending crops, running surveys,certifying claims, and dredging creeks. They also wanted thefederal government to provide protection for them from NativeAmericans who were occasionally hostile to settlers movingonto their lands. 注释settler [ˈsetlə] n. 移民者 certify [ˈsə:tifai] v. 证明frontier [ˈfrʌnˌtiə] n. 边境 dredge [dredʒ] v. 用挖掘机清除、加深或加宽sparsely [spɑ:sli] adv. 稀少地 creek [kri:k] n. 小溪self-reliance [ˈself-riˈlains] n. 依靠自己 federal [ˈfedərəl] adj. 联邦的recommend [ˌrekəˈmend] v. 推荐 hostile [ˈhɔstail] adj. 敌对的running survey [ˈrʌniŋ-ˈsəːvei] n.勘测 (be hostile to:对……有敌意) 196
  195. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT172 On the frontier, tools varied with time, place, andoccupation. In agriculture, of course, settlers depended onplow. If they turned to ranching, they needed a lariat (or rope),a branding iron, and a pair of pliers. If they took up mining, theycarried a pickax, a screen, and a skillet. 注释occupation [ˌɔkjuˈpeiʃən] n.职业plow [plau] n.犁ranch [rɑ:ntʃ] v.经营牧场lariat [ˈlæriət] n.套索rope [rəup] n.绳索branding iron [ˈbrændiŋ-ˈaiən] n.烙铁pliers [ˈplaiəz] n.老虎钳mining [ˈmainiŋ] n.采矿pickax [ˈpiˌkæks] n.镐screen [skri:n] n.筛子skillet [ˈskilit] n.煮锅(= frying pan) 197
  196. UNIT173 Until the people on the frontier moved beyond the forests,in the second half of the 19th century, they had to cut down treesto clear space in which to erect a log cabin, and, in time, togrow crops. So long as they remained in the forests, the mostimportant and most widely used tool was the single-bladedax which could be used to cut down trees, make firewood,and provide the wood for a log cabin. Some saws were used,although they remained primitive through the first 200 years offrontier America. 注释 erect [iˈrekt] v.搭建 cabin [ˈkæbin] n.小木屋 in time [ˈin-taim] adv.最终 ax [æks] n.斧头(也做ax ,plural: axes [ˈæksi:z] ) single-bladed ax [ˈsiŋɡl-bleidid-æks] n.单刃斧 log cabin [lɔg-kæbən] n.小木屋 saw [sɔ:] n.锯 primitive [ˈprimitiv] adj.原始的 198
  197. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT174 Frontier houses were built in all sizes and shapes and to all degrees of comfort. Logs for a log cabin were hewn from whatever was available; oak and pine were the favorite woods. Settlers might add split logs for floors; cover the roof with bark, thatch, or shingles; or build a log fireplace and chimney daubed with mud. As the mud filling the holes on the outside of the cabin dried, the settlers might smooth and whitewash it. 注释hew [hju:] v.砍 [ past: hewn ]oak [əuk] n.橡木pine [pain] n.松树split [split] adj.劈开的bark [bɑ:k] n.树皮thatch [θætʃ] n.茅草shingle [ˈʃiŋɡl] n.木瓦fireplace [ˈfaiəpleis] n.壁炉chimney [ˈtʃimni] n.烟囱daub [dɔ:b] v.涂抹smooth [smu:ð] v.使光滑whitewash [ˈ(h)waitwɔʃ] v.用石灰水粉刷 199
  198. UNIT175 People on the frontier amused themselves primarily byvisiting neighbors. A mans visit to a tavern or the familysattendance at a church revival provided events to be recalled indetail through the long cold evenings of the winter. The frontierfamily yearned for other faces. If people lived close enough, theraising of a log cabin could be a great social event. The womenwould bake for days, game would be killed and salted down,and, unless the religion of the frontier community forbade it, rumand whiskey would be collected for a work-and-play party thatmight last as long as several days. 注释 tavern [ˈtævə:n] n.酒馆 attendance [əˈtendəns] n.出席 revival [riˈvaivəl] n.奋兴大会(尤指旨在促进基督教信仰的布道会) yearn [jə:n] v.向往 game [ɡeim] n.猎物 forbid [fəˈbid] v.禁止 rum [rʌm] n.朗姆酒 200
  199. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT176 Northeast Indians hunted a variety of game, large andsmall: deer, rabbit, squirrel, beaver, and various birds, such asturkey, partridge, duck, and goose. They also hunted moose,elk, and bear. Some peoples living near the prairies of theMississippi River Valley hunted the North American bison, orbuffalo. In addition to hunting with spears, bows and arrows, andclubs, they used traps, snares, and deadfalls (traps designedto cause heavy objects, such as logs, to fall, disabling or killingprey). They used disguises to get close to animals, lured preywith animal calls, and set fires to drive animals toward thehunters or traps. 注释hunt [hʌnt] v.狩猎 spear [spiə] n.矛game [ɡeim] n.猎物 bow [bəu] n.弓rabbit [ˈræbit] n.野兔 arrow [ˈærəu] n.箭squirrel [ˈskwirəl] n.松鼠 club [klʌb] n.棍棒beaver [ˈbi:və] n.海狸 trap [træp] n.陷阱turkey [ˈtə:ki] n.火鸡 snare [snɛə] n.陷阱partridge [ˈpɑ:tridʒ] n.鹌鹑 deadfall [ˈdedfɔ:l] n.陷阱moose [mu:s] n.驼鹿 disable [disˈeibl] v.使残废elk [elk] n.麋鹿 disguise [disˈɡaiz] n.伪装prairie [ˈprɛəri] n.大草原 lure [luə] v.引诱bison [ˈbaisn] n.野牛 prey [prei] n.猎物buffalo [ˈbʌfələu] n.北美野牛 201
  200. UNIT177 Northeast Indians also fished rivers, streams, lakes, andponds. They caught fish with harpoons, hooks, nets, and traps.Peoples living along the Atlantic Coast depended on shellfish forpart of their diet. Wild plant foods were also an important foodsource, including berries, nuts, roots, stalks, and leaves. Sometribes along the western Great Lakes collected a tall grasswith an edible grain, referred to as a wild rice. Peoples living inmaple country collected sap from the trees in early spring, andboiled it down into maple syrup and sugar. 注释stream [stri:m] n.河流 tribe [traib] n.部落pond [pɔnd] n.池塘 edible grain [ˈedibl-ɡrein] n.食用谷物harpoon [hɑ:ˈpu:n] n.鱼叉 maple [ˈmeipl] n.枫树hook [huk] n.鱼钩 sap [sæp] n.树液net [net] n.网 boil [bɔil] n.煮shellfish [ˈʃelˌfiʃ] n.贝类 maple syrup [ˈmeipl-sirəp] n.枫糖浆: 由糖枫汁液berry [ˈberi] n.浆果 做成的甜糖浆nut [nʌt] n.坚果root [ru:t] n.根stalk [stɔ:k] n.茎 202
  201. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT178 Most Northeast peoples supplemented a hunting-gathering diet with farming. The Iroquois thought of their three most important crops — maize (corn), beans, and squash. Corn stalks supported the vines of bean plants, while the large- leafed squash plants served to block weed growth. Algonquian peoples introduced the Pilgrims and other early settlers in their homelands to these cultivated crops in addition to many wild foods, including maple sugar, cranberries, blueberries, lobsters, clams, and oysters. 注释supplement [ˈsʌpliment] v.补充Iroquois [ˈirəkwɔi,ˈirəkwɔiz] n.易洛魁族人(北美印第安人的一个民族)maize [meiz] n.玉米bean [bi:n] n.豆squash [skwɔʃ] n.南瓜corn stalk [kɔ:n-stɔːk] n.玉米杆vine [vain] n.藤蔓weed [wi:d] n.杂草Algonquian [ælˈgɔŋkwi:ən,-ki:ən] n.阿尔贡金族人(北美印第安人的一个民族)pilgrim [ˈpilɡrim] n.移民者:1620年 ,在新英格兰建立普利茅斯殖民地的英国主张脱离国教者settler [ˈsetlə] n.移民者cultivate [ˈkʌltiveit] v.耕种in addition to [in-ədiʃən-tuː] prep. 除……之外还cranberry [ˈkrænbəri] n.蔓越橘blueberry [ˈblu:bəri] n.蓝莓lobster [ˈlɔbstə] n.龙虾clam [klæm] n.蛤oyster [ˈɔistə] n.牡蛎 203
  202. UNIT179 Family played an important role in Northeast Indiansociety. Most tribes were further organized into clans — clustersof related families who claimed a common ancestor. TheIroquois was a matrilineal society, with descent and propertypassing through the female line. Each clan was headed by anelder woman, known as the clan mother, who owned the cropsand the communal dwellings and held great political power.They elected tribal chiefs, who were generally male, retainedthe right to veto actions they opposed, and had to approvedeclarations of war. Unlike the Iroquois, the Algonquian was apatrilineal society, with descent and property traced through themale line. 注释 tribe [traib] n.部落 clan [klæn] n.部族 ancestor [ˈænsistə] n.祖先 matrilineal [ˌmætriˈliniəl] adj.母系的 descent [diˈsent] n.血统 clan mother [klæn-mʌðə] n.族长 dwelling [ˈdweliŋ] n.住处 ,居住空间 chief [tʃi:f] n.首领 retain [riˈtein] v.保留 veto [ˈvi:təu] v.否决 declaration [ˌdekləˈreiʃən] n.宣言 patrilineal [ˌpætrəˈliniəl] adj.父系的 trace [treis] v.顺着 ;追溯 204
  203. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT180 Most Southeast peoples located their villages along rivervalleys and planted their crops in nearby fields. Homes andpublic buildings were typically rectangular or, less frequently,circular. Most structures were constructed of wattle and daub,a type of architecture in which branches and vines were tiedover pole frameworks and covered with a mixture of mud orclay. Sometimes structures were covered with plant materials,including thatch — made from straw, reeds, rushes, andgrasses — as well as woven mats, bark, bamboo stalks, andpalm fronds. Animal hides were also used as coverings. Forswampy areas the Seminole people built chickees, distinctiveopen-sided houses on stilts with wooden platforms and thatchedroofs. 注释locate [ləuˈkeit] v.设置 ,确定……的位置 straw [strɔ:] n.麦杆valley [ˈvæli] n.流域 ,河谷 rush [rʌʃ] n.灯心草rectangular [rekˈtæŋɡjulə] adj.矩形的 mat [mæt] n.草垫circular [ˈsə:kjulə] adj.圆形的 bark [bɑ:k] n.树皮wattle [ˈwɔtl] n. 柳栅 :用嫩枝、芦苇或枝条编成 palm frond [ˈpɑ:m - frɔnd] n.棕榈叶 的构架 ,用以筑墙、篱笆和屋顶 hide [haid] n.兽皮daub [dɔ:b] n.涂料 :柔软粘稠的涂抹原料 ,如泥 swampy [ˈswɔmpi] adj.沼泽的 灰、润滑脂或泥浆 Seminole [ˈseminəul] n.塞米诺族印第安人branch [brɑ:ntʃ] n. 树枝 chickee [ˈtʃiki:] n.(西米诺尔印第安人的)棕榈叶顶棚屋vine [vain] n. 藤蔓 distinctive [disˈtiŋktiv] adj.独特的,有特色的framework [ˈfreimwə:k] n.(框架)结构 stilt [stilt] n.支撑物mud [mʌd] n.泥clay [klei] n.黏土thatch [θætʃ] n.茅草 205
  204. UNIT181 In warm weather, Southeast Indian men typically wore only breechcloths, usually of deerskin. Women typically wore wraparound plant-fiber skirts and shell necklaces. In cold weather, men wore deerskin shirts, leggings, and moccasins; women wore deerskin capes and moccasins. For ceremonial purposes, tribal leaders and priests wore capes of feathers. Among some Southeast tribes, men plucked out their hair with shell tweezers, and tattooed themselves with designs representing exploits in war and with totems (symbols that serve as an emblem of a family or clan). Elaborate tattoos also adorned some Southeast women. 注释breechcloth [ˈbri:tʃklɔθ] n.短裤 tweezers [ˈtwi:zəz] n.镊子deerskin [ˈdiəskin] n.鹿皮 tattoo [təˈtu:] v.刺花纹wraparound [ˈræpəˌraund] adj.裹身的 exploit [iksˈplɔit] n.功绩[勋] 英勇的行为 ,necklace [ˈneklis] n.项链 totem [ˈtəutəm] n.图腾legging [ˈleɡiŋ] n.紧身裤 emblem [ˈembləm] n.象征cape [keip] n.披肩 ,短斗篷 elaborate [iˈlæbəreit] adj.精巧的,精细的moccasin [ˈmɔkəsin] n.鹿皮靴 adorn [əˈdɔ:n] v.装饰ceremonial [ˌseriˈməunjəl] adj.仪式场合的priest [pri:st] n.祭司capes of feathers [keips-əv-feðəz] n.扎满羽毛的披肩pluck out [ˈplʌk-aut] v.拔掉 206
  205. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT182 The Green Corn Ceremony was an annual renewal andthanks-giving festival performed by the Cherokee, Creek, andother Southeast tribes. It was held in mid or late summer, whenthe corn was ready for roasting. The ceremony lasted from fourto eight days and included ritual fasting, dancing, and feasting.Old fires were extinguished, and a new sacred fire was lit fromwhich every household obtained fire. New tools, weapons, andclothing were made. Wrongdoers were forgiven for most crimesexcept murder. A beverage known as the Black Drink — sonamed by English traders because of its dark color — wasbelieved to purify spiritually all those who imbibed it. Differenttribes had different recipes for this ritual tea, made from varyingspecies of holly, tobacco, and other plants. 注释renewal [riˈnjuəl] n.更新 extinguish [iksˈtiŋɡwiʃ] v. 熄(灯) ,灭(火),熄灭festival [ˈfestəvəl] adj.节日的 sacred fire [ˈseikrid-faiə] n.祭祀的火焰Cherokee [ˌtʃerəˈki:] n.切罗基族 wrongdoer [ˈrɔ:ŋˌdu:ə,ˈrɔŋ-] n.做坏事的人 (北美易洛魁人的一支)人 beverage [ˈbevəridʒ] n.饮料Creek [kri:k] n.美国克里克族印第安人 purify [ˈpjuərifai] v.净化roast [rəust] v.烘烤 imbibe [imˈbaib] v.喝ceremony [ˈseriməni] n.仪式 recipe [ˈresəpi] n.秘方ritual [ˈritʃuəl] adj.(宗教)仪式的 holly [ˈhɔli] n.冬青树feast [fi:st] n.宴会 207
  206. UNIT183 Book refers to a volume of many sheets of paper boundtogether, containing text, illustrations, music, photographs,or other kinds of information. The pages are sewn or gluedtogether on one side and bound between hard or soft papercovers. 注释 volume [ˈvɔlju:m] n.卷 sheet [ʃi:t] n.(一)张 bound [baund] adj.连在一起的 illustration [ˌiləˈstreiʃən] n.插图 sew [səu] v.缝合 glue [ɡlu:] v.粘合 208
  207. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT184 The 4th century also marked the culmination of a gradualprocess, began about the 1st century, in which the inconvenientscroll was replaced by the rectangular codex (Latin for book),the direct ancestor of the modern book. The codex, as first usedby the Greeks and Romans for business accounts or schoolwork, was a small ringed notebook consisting of two or morewooden tablets covered with wax, which could be marked witha stylus, smoothed over, and reused many times. Additionalleaves, made of parchment, were sometimes inserted betweenthe tablets. 注释culmination [kʌlmiˈneiʃ(ə)n] n.顶点 account [əˈkaunt] n.账目gradual [ˈɡrædjuəl] adj.逐渐的 tablet [ˈtæblit] n.写字板inconvenient [ˌinkənˈvi:njənt] adj.不方便的 wax [wæks] n.蜡scroll [skrəul] n.书卷 stylus [ˈstailəs] n.(古人刻写蜡板的)尖笔rectangular [rekˈtæŋɡjulə] adj.矩形的 smooth over [ˈsmu:ð-əuvə] v.擦除codex [ˈkəudeks] n.抄本 leaf [li:f] n.书页 (plural codices [ˈkəudisi:z]) : parchment [ˈpɑ:tʃmənt] n.羊皮纸ancestor [ˈænsistə] n.祖先 insert [inˈsə:t] v.插入,夹进 209
  208. UNIT185 In time, the codex came to consist of many sheets ofpapyrus or, later, parchment, gathered in small bundles foldedin the middle. These gatherings were laid one upon the other,stitched together through the folds, and attached to woodenboards by thongs. 注释 in time [in-taim] adv.最终 consist of [kənˈsist-əv] v.由……组成 papyrus [pəˈpaiərəs] n.(古代)纸(莎)草纸(plural:papyri [pəpaiəri]) bundle [ˈbʌndl] n.捆 gathering [ˈɡæðəriŋ] n.订成书贴的书页 stitch [stitʃ] v.缝合 fold [fəuld] n.折页 thong [θɔŋ] n.皮带 210
  209. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破UNIT186 The earliest form of Western writing was cuneiform, madeby pressing an angular stick of three or four sides into softclay that was then baked, making these wedge-shaped markspermanent. The next major developments in writing tools werethe use of the brush and of the mallet and chisel by the Greeks.Writing found on ancient Greek pottery was done with a smallround brush, and early Greek letters were incised on stone witha metal chisel driven by a mallet. Romans, using broad-edgedtools, introduced variations in the width of alphabetic marks. 注释cuneiform [ˈkju:niifɔ:m] n.楔形文字 mallet [ˈmælit] n.木槌press [pres] v.压 chisel [ˈtʃizl] n.凿子angular [ˈæŋɡjulə] adj.有角的 pottery [ˈpɔtəri] n.陶器clay [klei] n.黏土 incise [inˈsaiz] v.刻bake [beik] v. 烧硬 variation [ˌvɛəriˈeiʃən] n.变体wedge-shaped [ˈwedʒʃeipt] adj.楔形的 alphabetic [ˌælfəˈbetik] adj.照字母次序的permanent [ˈpə:mənənt] adj. 持久的brush [brʌʃ] n.刷子 211
  210. UNIT187 By the beginning of the 1st century AD, Roman writingimplements varied according to both the purpose of the writingand the surface used. Ephemeral writing and school exerciseswere often done with pointed styluses, made of metal or boneon small wax-coated wooden tablets. Letters were scratchedon the waxed surface with the pointed end of the stylus anderasures were made with the other, blunt end of the same tool.Permanent writing was done on papyrus with a reed cut to apoint and dipped in ink. Flat brushes and reeds cut with a broadedge were used on smooth surfaces, such as specially preparedanimal skins (vellum or parchment) and plaster or stone walls.Inscriptional writing was done with mallet and chisel, but thestyle of these inscribed letters, with their variations from thick tothin strokes. 注释writing implement [raitiŋ-ˈimplimənt] n.书写用具ephemeral [iˈfemərəl] adj.短暂的wax-coated [wæks-kəutid] adj.涂蜡的scratch [skrætʃ] v.刻划blunt [blʌnt] adj.(笔尖等)无尖锋的,钝的permanent writing [ˈpə:mənənt-raitiŋ] n.能够长时间保留的书写reed [ri:d] n.芦苇dip [dip] v.浸蘸vellum [ˈveləm] n.牛皮纸plaster [ˈplɑ:stə] n.胶泥,灰泥,涂墙泥inscriptional [inˈskripʃənəl] adj .碑文的stroke [strəuk] n.笔划 212
  211. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT188 As the size of writing became smaller, both writing tools and surfaces changed. Vellum or parchment books replaced the papyrus roll, and the quill replaced the reed pen. 注释papyrus [pəˈpaiərəs] n.莎草纸quill [kwil] n.羽毛笔 213
  212. UNIT189 The success of ball pen was based upon a viscous, oil-based ink. Early ballpoint pens did not write well; they tended toskip, and the slow-drying oil-based ink smudged easily. 注释 ball pen [bɔ:l-pen] n.圆珠笔 viscous [ˈviskəs] adj.黏性的 skip [skip] v.滑,笔触中途不出油 smudge [smʌdʒ] v.弄脏 ,涂去,使模糊 214
  213. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT190 Unlike its predecessors, the fiber-tip pen uses dye as a writing fluid. As a result, the fiber-tip pen can produce a wide range of colors unavailable in ballpoint and fountain pen inks. 注释fiber-tip pen [ˈfaibə-tip-ˈpen] n.纤维笔dye [dai] n.染料fluid [ˈflu:id] n.液fountain pen [ˈfauntin-ˈpen] n.自来水钢笔 215
  214. UNIT191 One of the most popular tools for ephemeral writing is thepencil. Pencil marks, unlike those made by writing implementsusing fluids, can be easily erased. Although commonly calledlead pencils, they do not contain any of that metal but arecomposed of a mixture of graphite (a form of carbon) and clay. 注释 mark [mɑ:k] n.(笔)迹 ,痕迹 erase [iˈreiz] v.擦掉 lead [led] n.铅 graphite [ˈɡræfait] n.石墨 clay [klei] n.黏土 216
  215. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 UNIT192 The mechanical pencil, patented in 1877, consists of a cylindrical piece of pencil lead inserted into a metal or plastic barrel against a movable rod that can be adjusted by a screwing motion to expose part of the lead. 注释mechanical pencil [miˈkænikəl-pensl] n.自动铅笔patent [ˈpeitənt] v.获得专利cylindrical [siˈlindrik(ə)l] adj.圆柱的plastic barrel [ˈplɑ:stik-bærəl] n.塑料管rod [rɔd] n.杆screw [skru:] v.拧 ,转expose [iksˈpəuz] v.使暴露 ,使露出 217
  216. Word List-A-o a cluster of [ə-ˈklʌst-əv] adj.成群的 ,成串的o a variety of [ə-vəˈraiəti-əv] adj.多种多样的o a wealth of [ə-welθ-əv] adj.很多的o a wide range of [ə-waid-reindʒ-əv] adj.广泛的o abdomen [ˈæbdəmən] n.腹部o ablate [æbˈleit] v.融化o abrade [əˈbreid] v.磨损o abruptly [əˈbrʌptli] adv.突然地o absorb [əbˈsɔ:b] v.吸收o absorption [əbˈsɔ:pʃən] n.吸收o abundance [əˈbʌndəns] n.丰富o abundant [əˈbʌndənt] adj.丰富的o abyssal [əˈbisəl] adj.深海的o acclaim [əˈkleim] n.称赞o accompany [əˈkʌmpəni] v.伴随o accomplish [əˈkɔmpliʃ] v.完成o account [əˈkaunt] n.账目o account for [əˈkaunt-fɔː] v.占据o accumulate [əˈkju:mjuleit] v.堆积o accumulation [əkju:mjuˈleiʃ(ə)n] n.堆积物o acid [ˈæsid] n.酸o acid fog [ˈæsid-fɔg] n.酸雾o acidify [əˈsidifai] v.酸化o acrobat [ˈækrəbæt] n.杂技演员o action [ˈækʃən] n.机械装置o actually [ˈæktʃuəli] adv.实际上o adapt [əˈdæpt] v.适应o adapted [əˈdæptid] adj.适合的o adjacent [əˈdʒeisənt] adj.紧挨着的o administrative [ədˈministrətiv] adj.管理的o admit [ədˈmit] v.许可进入o adorn [əˈdɔ:n] v.装饰o aerodynamic [ˌeərəudaiˈnæmik] adj.空气动力学的 218
  217. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o aerophone [ˈeərəˌfəun] n.管乐器o aesthetic [i:sˈθetik] adj.美学的o affect [əˈfekt] v.影响o age [eidʒ] v.老化 ,陈化o agency [ˈeidʒənsi] n.机构 ,机关o agent [ˈeidʒənt] n.媒介; 作用物o air pressure [ɛə-ˈpreʃə] n.气压o airborne [ˈɛəbɔ:n] adj. (可以通过)空气传播的o algae [ˈældʒi:] n.藻类 海藻(singular: alga [ˈælɡə]) ,o Algonquian [ælˈgɔŋkwi:ənˌ-ki:ən] n. 阿尔贡金族人(北美印第安人的一个民族)o align [əˈlain] v.排列o alignment [əˈlainmənt] n. 直线排列o alimentary canal [ˌæliˈmentəri-kənæl] n.消化道o alphabetic [ˌælfəˈbetik] adj.照字母次序的o alpine region [ˈælpain-ˈri:dʒən] n.高山区o alter [ˈɔ:ltə] v.改变o alternate [ɔ:lˈtə:nit] adj.交替的o aluminum [ˌælju:ˈminjəm] n.铝o amateur [ˈæmətə] n.业余艺术家o amateur hobbyist [ˈæmətə-ˈhɔbiist] n.业余爱好者o amber [ˈæmbə] n.琥珀o amino acid [ˈæminəu-ˈæsid] n.氨基酸o among others [əˈmʌŋ-ˈʌðəz] adv.及其他o amphibian [æmˈfibiən] n.两栖动物o amplitude [ˈæmplitju:d] n.振幅o anatomy [əˈnætəmi] n.人体解剖o ancestor [ˈænsistə] n.祖先o angiosperm [ˈændʒiəspə:m] n.被子植物o angle [ˈæŋɡl] n.角 ,角度o angler [ˈæŋɡlə] n.垂钓者o angling [ˈæŋɡliŋ] n.钓鱼,钓鱼术o angular [ˈæŋɡjulə] adj.有角的o animal [ˈæniməl] n.动物o anodized coating [ˈænəudaizd-ˈkəutiŋ] n.电镀层,电镀膜 [ anodize v.阳极氧化: 用电解方式给(金属面)镀上一层保护性或装饰 性的氧化物 ]o Antarctic Circumpolar Current [ænˈtɑ:ktik-ˌsə:kəmˈpəulə-ˈkʌrənt] n.南极绕极流o Antarctica [ænˈtɑ:ktikə] n.南极洲o antenna [ænˈtenə] n. 触须o anthropologist [ˌænθrəˈpɔlədʒist] n.人类学家o antibiotics [ˌæntibaiˈɔtiks] n.抗生素,抗生学 219
  218. o antibody [ˈæntiˌbɔdi] n.抗体o antibody molecule [ˈæntiˌbɔdi-ˈmɔlikju:l] n.抗体分子o antigen [ˈæntidʒən] n.抗原o anuran [əˈnjuərən] n.无尾目o aorta [eiˈɔ:tə] n.主动脉o appeal [əˈpi:l] v.对……有吸引力o applause [əˈplɔ:z] n.喝彩o apply [əˈplai] v.涂 搽 撒; 应用 , ,o apprentice [əˈprentis] n.学徒o approach [əˈprəutʃ] v.接近 ,逼近o approximately [əprɔksiˈmətli] adv.大约o aquatic [əˈkwætik] adj.水生的 ,水栖的o aqueous [ˈeikwiəs] adj.水的o arachnid [əˈræknid] n.蜘蛛纲动物o arch [ɑ:tʃ] n.拱(连柱的)o architect [ˈɑ:kitekt] n.建筑师o architecture [ˈɑ:kitektʃə] n.建筑 建筑学 ,o Arctic Ocean [ˈɑ:ktik-ˈəuʃən] n.北冰洋o arise [əˈraiz] v.起, 发生o arrow [ˈærəu] n.箭o arsenal [ˈɑ:sənəl] n.武器库o arteriole [ɑ:ˈtiriəul] n.小动脉o artery [ˈɑ:təri] n.动脉o arthropod [ˈɑ:θrəpɔd] n.节肢动物o artisan [ˌɑ:tiˈzæn] n.工匠o ash wood [ˈæʃ-wuːd] adj.梣木的o ashen [ˈæʃ(ə)n] adj.灰的 ,灰色的o asphalt [ˈæsfælt] n.沥青o aspiring [əsˈpaiəriŋ] adj.有志向的o associated [əˈsəuʃieitid] adj.关联的o assume [əˈsju:m] v.承担; 采用o asteroidal body [ˈæstərɔidlˈbədi] n.行星体o astronomy [əsˈtrɔnəmi] n.天文学o atom [ˈætəm] n.原子o atomic hydrogen gas [əˈtɔmik-ˈhaidrədʒən-ɡæs] n.原子氢气o attach [əˈtætʃ] v.附加; 贴上; 系; 附上o attach to [əˈtætʃ-tuː] v.把……放在o attendance [əˈtendəns] n.出席o attract [əˈtrækt] v.吸引o attraction [əˈtrækʃən] n.引力o audible [ˈɔ:dəbl] adj.听得见的o audience [ˈɔ:djəns] n.观众 220
  219. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o audition [ɔ:ˈdiʃən] v.在试演中评估某一人物o auditorium [ˌɔ:diˈtɔ:riəm] n.观众席o auditory [ˈɔ:ditəri] adj.听觉的o augment [ɔ:ɡˈment] v.增补 ,扩充o autonomic nervous system [ˌɔ:təuˈnɔmik-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.自主神经系统o ax [æks] n.斧头(也做axe,plural: axes[ˈæksi:z] )o axis [ˈæksis] 轴(plural: axes[ˈæksi:z])-B-o back and forth [bæk-ænd-fɔ:θ] adv.来回地o backbone [ˈbækbəun] n.脊椎o bacteria [bækˈtiəriə] n.细菌(singular: bacterium [bækˈteriəm] )o bait [beit] n.饵o bake [beik] v.烘焙; 烧硬o ball pen [bɔ:l-pen] n.圆珠笔o ballast [ˈbæləst] n.道碴o bamboo [bæmˈbu:] n.竹子o band [bænd] n.(光、 频)带 ,(波)段o barbed foreleg [baːbd-ˈfɔːleg] n.有倒钩的前肢o bark [bɑ:k] n. 树皮o base [beis] n.碱基 :嘌呤(腺嘌呤和鸟嘌呤)或嘧啶(胸嘧啶、胸腺 嘧啶和尿嘧啶)的一种o basin [ˈbeisn] n.盆地o basketry [ˈbɑ:skitri] n.编篮工艺o bass [beis] n.低音部分o bass bar [beis-bɑ:r] n.低音梁o bassoon [bəˈsuːn] n.低音管 ,巴松o bazaar [bəˈzɑ:] n.集市o be associated with [bi:-əˈsəuʃieitid-wið] v.与……相关o be composed of [biː-kəmˈpəuzd-əv] n.由……组成o be responsible for [biː-riˈspɔnsəbl-fɔː] n.为……负责o beak [bi:k] n.喙o beam [bi:m] n.梁o bean [bi:n] n.豆o beaver [ˈbi:və] n.海狸o bedding plane [ˈbediŋ-plein] n.(岩层)层平面,底层o bedrock [ˈbedrɔk] n.岩床o beech [bi:tʃ] n.山毛榉o beetle [ˈbi:tl] n.甲虫o bell [bel] n.铃、钟、或钟琴 221
  220. o belly [ˈbeli] n.(弦乐器的)面板o bend [bend] v.使弯曲o beneficial [ˌbeniˈfiʃəl] adj.有益的o Bengal [beŋˈɡɔ:l] n.孟加拉o bent [bent] adj.弯的o benthic storm [ˈbenθik-stɔ:m] n.深海风暴o benthic zone [ˈbenθik-zəun] n.深海区域o berry [ˈberi] n.浆果o beverage [ˈbevəridʒ] n.饮料o bill [bil] n.啄o bind [baind] v.绑定 ,缔结o binder [ˈbaində] n.粘合剂o biochemist [ˈbaiəuˈkemist] n.生物化学家o biodegradable [ˌbaiəudiˈɡreidəbl] adj.可以进行分解和还原处理的o biodiversity [ˌbaiəudaiˈvə:səti] n.生物多样性o bioluminescent [baiəuˌlu:miˈnesnt] adj.发(冷)光的o biomolecule [ˌbaiəuˈmɔlikju:l] n.生物分子o bird of prey [bəːd-əv-prei] n.食肉鸟,猛禽o bison [ˈbaisn] n.野牛o bite [bait] v.咬o black walnut [blæk-ˈwɔ:lnət] n.黑胡桃o blast [blɑ:st] n.一股(强而突然的气流)o bleach [bli:tʃ] n.漂白剂o blend in [blend-in] v.与(环境等)协调o blender [ˈblendə] n.搅拌机o blind [blaind] n.窗帘(尤指固定在卷轴上能够拉下来的布质窗帘)o blossom [ˈblɔsəm] n.花簇o blueberry [ˈblu:bəri] n.蓝莓o blunt [blʌnt] adj.(笔尖等)无尖锋的 ,钝的o boil [bɔil] v&n.煮o bombardment [bɔmˈbɑ:dmənt] n.撞击o bone marrow [bəun-ˈmærəu] n.骨髓o boring [ˈbɔ:riŋ] n.钻(孔)o botanist [ˈbɔtənist] n.植物学家o boulder [ˈbəuldə] n.巨砾o bound [baund] v.标明界限; adj. 连在一起的o boundary [ˈbaundəri] n.边界o bow [bəu] n.琴弓; 弓o bowed string [baud-striŋ] adj.演奏弦乐的o brace [breis] n.手摇曲柄钻o braise [breiz] v.炖:先用油炒 ,然后在有盖容器中炖o branch [brɑ:ntʃ] n.树枝 222
  221. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o branding iron [ˈbrændiŋ-ˈaiən] n.烙铁o brass [brɑ:s] n.铜管乐器o break down [breik-daun] v.分解o breastbone [ˈbrestbəun] n.胸骨o breechcloth [ˈbri:tʃklɔθ] n.短裤o breed [bri:d] v.生育; 繁殖o bring out [briŋ-aut] v.显示出o broil [brɔil] v.(用火)烤o broiler [ˈbrɔilə] n.适于烤焙的嫩鸡o brush [brʌʃ] n.刷子o bubble [ˈbʌbl] n.气泡o buffalo [ˈbʌfələu] n.北美野牛o bug [bʌɡ] n.虫子o build up [bild-ʌp] v.堆积o building block [ˈbildiŋ-blɔk] n.结构单元o buildup [bildʌp] n.累积o bulge [bʌldʒ] n.凸出部分o bundle [ˈbʌndl] n.捆o burden [ˈbə:dən] n.负载o burrow [ˈbʌrəu] n.洞穴o butterfly [ˈbʌtəflai] n.蝴蝶o by means of [bai-miːnz-əv] prep. 通过……方式-C-o cabin [ˈkæbin] n.小木屋o caecilian [si:ˈsiliən] n.蚓螈(无足目约150种两栖动物的统称)o calcite [ˈkælsait] n.方解石o calcium [ˈkælsiəm] n.钙o calcium carbonate [ˈkælsiəm-ˈkɑ:bəneit] n.碳酸钙o cameo [ˈkæmiəu] n.浮雕o camera [ˈkæmərə] n.照相机o camera obscura [ˈkæmərə-ɔbˈskjuərə] n.暗箱o camouflage [ˈkæməflɑ:ʒ] n.伪装o campo [ˈkæmpəu] n.南美草原o canal [kəˈnæl] n.运河; 导管o cancellous [ˈkænsiləs] adj.网状骨质的o cancellous bone [ˈkænsiləs-bəun] n.松质骨o cane [kein] n.藤条o canopy [ˈkænəpi] n.天篷:树林中最上面一层o capable of [ˈkeipəbl-əv] adj.有能力的 223
  222. o cape [keip] n.披肩,短斗篷o capes of feathers [keips-əv-ˈfeðəz] n.扎满羽毛的披肩o capillary [kəˈpiləri] n.毛细血管o capital-intensive [ˌkæpitl-inˈtensiv] adj.资本密集型的o capon [ˈkeipən] n.阉鸡o capsid [ˈkæpsid] n.衣壳(包裹着一个病毒粒子的蛋白质外壳)o carbohydrate [ˌkɑ:bəuˈhaidreit] n.碳水化合物o carbon [ˈkɑ:bən] n.碳o carbon cycle [ˈkɑ:bən-ˈsaikl] n.碳循环o carbon dioxide [ˈkɑ:bən-daiˈɔksaid] n.二氧化碳o cardiac [ˈkɑ:diæk] adj.心脏(病)的o carnivore [ˈkɑ:nivɔ:] n.食肉动物o carnivorous [kɑ:ˈnivərəs] adj.(动物)食肉的o carpenter [ˈkɑ:pintə] n.木匠o carry out [ˈkæri-aut] v.传送o cartilaginous [ˌkɑ:tiˈlædʒinəs] adj.软骨的,软骨质的o carve [kɑ:v] v.切割o cast [kɑ:st] v.投射; 指定角色; 抛o caste [kɑ:st] n.有社会组织的昆虫的阶级o casting [ˈkɑ:stiŋ] n.铸造o casting director [ˈkɑ:stiŋ-diˈrektə] n.负责挑选演员的人,星探o castrate [kæsˈtreit] v.阉割o catalyst [ˈkætəlist] n.催化剂o caterpillar [ˈkætəpilə] n.毛虫o caudata [kɑːdeitə] n.有尾目o causative agent [ˈkɔ:zətiv-ˈeidʒənt] n.病原体o C-clamp [siː-klæmp] n.C型夹o ceiling [ˈsi:liŋ] n.天花板o celebrated [ˈselibreitid] adj.著名的o cell [sel] n.细胞; 蜂房o cell biology [sel-baiˈɔlədʒi] n.细胞生物学o cell membrane [sel-ˈmembrein] n.细胞膜o cell wall [sel-wɔːl] n.细胞壁o cellular immunity [ˈseljulə-iˈmju:nəti] n.细胞免疫o Celsius [ˈselsjəs] adj.摄氏的o cement [siˈment] n.水泥o cement concrete [siˈment-ˈkɔnkriːt] n.水泥混凝土o centigrade [ˈsentiɡreid] adj. 摄氏温度的o central nervous system [ˈsentrəl-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.中枢神经系统o ceramic [siˈræmik] adj.陶器的o ceremonial [ˌseriˈməunjəl] adj.仪式场合的o ceremony [ˈseriməni] n.仪式 224
  223. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o certify [ˈsə:tifai] v.证明o chamber [ˈtʃeimbə] n.房间; 腔; 心室; 有机物体内封闭的腔;室o chaotic [keiˈɔtik] adj.无秩序的o characteristic [ˌkæriktəˈristik] n.特性o chemical cycle [ˈkemikəl-ˈsaikl] n.化学循环o chemical reaction [ˈkemikəl-riːˈækʃən] n.化学反应o Cherokee [ˌtʃerəˈki:] n.切罗基族(北美易洛魁人的一支)人o chest [tʃest] n.胸部; 胸腔o chew [tʃu:] v.咀嚼o chick [tʃik] n.小鸡o chickee [ˈtʃiki:] n. (西米诺尔印第安人的)棕榈叶顶棚屋o chief [tʃi:f] n.首领o chimney [ˈtʃimni] n.烟囱o chisel [ˈtʃizl] n.凿子o chitinous [ˈkaitinəs] adj.壳质的o chloroplast [ˈklɔ:rəuplæst] n.叶绿体o chord [kɔ:d] n.和弦o chordophone [ˈkɔːdəufəun] n.弦乐器o choreographer [ˌkɔriˈɔɡrəfə] n.舞蹈指导o choroid [ˈkɔ:rɔid] n.脉络膜o chromatic [krəuˈmætik] adj.半音(阶)的, 含半音的o chromatically [krəuˈmætikli] adv.半音地o chromosome [ˈkrəuməsəum] n.染色体o chrysalis [ˈkrisəlis] n.蛹o chyme [kaim] n.食糜:部分消化的食物的稠状半流体物,从胃进入 十二指肠o cigar-shaped [siˈɡɑ:-ʃeipt] adj. 雪茄形的o ciliary body [ˈsiliəri-ˈbɔdi] n.睫状体o circuit [ˈsə:kit] n.一圈o circular [ˈsə:kjulə] adj.圆形的o circulate [ˈsə:kjuleit] v.循环o circulation [ˌsə:kjuˈleiʃən] n.循环o circulatory system [sə:kjuˈleitəri-ˈsistəm] n.循环系统o cirrostratus [ˈsirəuˈstrɑ:təs] n.卷层云o cladding [ˈklædiŋ] n.覆层 :在高温高压下结合到另一金属上的金属外层o clam [klæm] n.蛤o clan [klæn] n.部族o clan mother [klæn-ˈmʌðə] n.族长o clarinet [ˌklæriˈnet] n.单簧管, 黑管o class [klɑ:s] n.类; 纲o classical [ˈklæsikəl] adj.传统的,古典的,经典的o clay [klei] n.黏土, 泥土 225
  224. o clay mineral [klei-ˈminərəl] n.粘土矿物o clef [klef] n.谱号o clientele [ˌklaiənˈtel] n.顾客o climate [ˈklaimit] n.气候o clog [klɔɡ] v.阻塞 ,塞满o clown [klaun] n.小丑o club [klʌb] n.棍棒o cluster [ˈklʌstə] n.串; 星团o cnidarian [naiˈdeəri:ən] n.刺胞动物o coal [kəul] n.煤o coast [kəust] n.海岸o coating [ˈkəutiŋ] n.涂层; 外壳; 覆盖层o cocoon [kəˈku:n] n.茧o cod [kɔd] n.鳕鱼o code [kəud] n.法规o codex [ˈkəudeks] n.抄本(plural:codices [ˈkəudisi:z])o cohere [kəuˈhiə] v.粘合o coil [kɔil] v.盘绕; n.(一)卷o coincidence [kəuˈinsidəns] n.巧合o coitus [ˈkɔitəs] n.性交o collaborative [kəˈlæbəreitiv] adj.协作的o collapse [kəˈlæps] n. 倒塌o collide [kəˈlaid] v.碰撞o colony [ˈkɔləni] n.群体o column [ˈkɔləm] n.柱(a colum of air 气柱)o combination [ˌkɔmbiˈneiʃən] n. 组合o combine [kəmˈbain] v.结合o combustion [kəmˈbʌstʃən] n.燃烧o comedy [ˈkɔmidi] n.喜剧o commercial [kəˈmə:ʃəl] adj.商业的o communal [ˈkɔmjunl] adj.群居的o commuter [kəˈmju:tə] n.通勤者(定期从一地到另一地旅行的人,如从 郊区到城市并回来)o compact bone [kəmˈpækt-bəun] n.密质骨o competitive [kəmˈpetitiv] adj.竞争的o complement [ˈkɔmplimənt] n.补体o complex molecule [ˈkɔmpleks-ˈmɔlikju:l] n.复杂分子o component [kəmˈpəunənt] n.零件 ,构件; 组成部分o compose [kəmˈpəuz] v.组成(be composed of:由……组成)o composer [kəmˈpəuzə] n.作曲家o composition [ˌkɔmpəˈziʃən] n.乐曲o compound [ˈkɔmpaund] n.化合物; 混合物 226
  225. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o compression [kəmˈpreʃən] n.压缩o concave lens [kɔnˈkeiv-lenz] n.凹透镜o concentric [kɔnˈsentrik] adj.同一中心的o concrete [ˈkɔnkri:t] n.混凝土; v. 浓缩,凝结o condition [kənˈdiʃən] n.病痛o cone [kəun] n.球果o conform [kənˈfɔ:m] v.(to, with)遵照 ,依照o conjunctiva [ˌkɔndʒʌŋkˈtaivə] n.(眼球)结膜o consequence [ˈkɔnsikwəns] n.后果 ,影响o conserve [kənˈsə:v] v.保存o considerable [kənˈsidərəbl] adj.相当大的o consist of [kənˈsist-əf] v.由……组成o consolidation [kənˌsɔliˈdeiʃən] n.加固o constant [ˈkɔnstənt] adj.恒久不变的o constituent [kənˈstitjuənt] n.成分o construction site [kənˈstrʌkʃən-sait] n.建筑工地o contact [ˈkɔntækt] n.关联o contamination [kənˌtæmiˈneiʃən] n.污染 ,污物o continental mass [ˌkɔntiˈnentəl-mæs] n.大陆块体o continental shelf [ˌkɔntiˈnentəl-ʃelf] n.大陆架o continental slope [ˌkɔntiˈnentəl-sləup] n.大陆斜坡o continuous [kənˈtinjuəs] adj.连续的o contour [ˈkɔntuə] n.(音调或声调的 )升降曲线 ;变化方式o contract [kənˈtrækt] v.收缩o contractile [kənˈtræktail] adj.会缩的o contraction [kənˈtrækʃən] n.收缩o contribute [kənˈtribjut] v.贡献o controversial [ˌkɔntrəˈvə:ʃəl] adj.有争议的o conurbation [ˌkɔnəˈbeiʃən] n.(连带卫星城镇和市郊的 )大都市o converge [kənˈvə:dʒ] v.聚合于, 集中于一点, 会聚o conversely [ˈkɔnvə:sli] adv.相反地o convex [ˈkɔnveks] adj.凸的, 凸面的o convey [kənˈvei] v.转达o conveyance [kənˈveiəns] n.运送o cookery [ˈkukəri] n.烹饪o coordinate [kəuˈɔ:dineit] v.调整o coral [ˈkɔrəl] n.珊瑚o core [kɔ:] n.中心o corn stalk [ˈkɔ:n-stɔːk] n.玉米杆o cornea [ˈkɔ:niə] n.角膜o cornerstone [ˌkɔ:nəˈstəun] n.基础o corresponding to [ˌkɔrəsˈpɔndiŋ - tuː] adj.与……相应的 227
  226. o corridor [ˈkɔridɔ:] n.走廊o cortex [ˈkɔ:teks] n.大脑皮层o cosmic [ˈkɔzmik] adj.宇宙的o cosmic ray [ˈkɔzmik-rei] n.宇宙射线o cosmology [kɔzˈmɔlədʒi] n.宇宙天体学o costume [ˈkɔstju:m] n.装束o cotton [ˈkɔtən] n.棉布o counterclockwise [ˌkauntəˈklɔkwaiz] adj.逆时针方向的o crab [kræb] n.蟹o crack [kræk] n.裂缝; 断裂处o craft [krɑ:ft] n.工艺o craftspeople [krɑːftspiːpl] n.道具师o cranberry [ˈkrænbəri] n.蔓越橘o cranial nerve [ˈkreinjəl-nəːv] n.颅神经o crater [ˈkreitə] n.坑,火山[喷火]口;(月球上的)环形山o crayfish [ˈkreifiʃ] n.龙虾o creek [kri:k] n.小溪o Creek [kri:k] n.美国克里克族印第安人o crescent [ˈkresnt] adj.新月形的o crescent phase [ˈkresnt-feiz] n.新月位相o Cretaceous [kriˈteisiəs] n.白垩纪o crevasse [kriˈvæs] n.裂缝o crew [kru:] n.全体人员o cricket [ˈkrikit] n.蟋蟀o criteria [kraiˈtiəriə] n.标准o crossbeam [ˈkrɔsbi:m] n.横梁o cross-pollination [ˌkrɔsˌpɔləˈneiʃən] n.异花传粉o crowd ... to ... [kraud-tuː] v.把……挤进……;把……塞进……o crown [kraun] n.树冠o crust [krʌst] n.地壳o crustacean [krʌˈsteiʃən] n.甲壳纲动物o crustal [ˈkrʌstəl] adj.地壳的o crustal plate [ˈkrʌstəl-pleit] n.地壳板块o crystal [ˈkristəl] n.晶体o crystalline [ˈkristəlain] adj.水晶的o cube [kjuːb] n.立方体o cuckoo [ˈkuku:] n. 杜鹃; adj.寄生的o cuckoo bee [ˈkuku:-ˈbiː] n.寄生蜂o cue [kju:] n.提示o cuisine [kwiˈzi:n] n.烹饪法o culmination [ˌkʌlmiˈneiʃ(ə)n] n.顶点o cultivate [ˈkʌltiveit] v.耕种 228
  227. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o cumulonimbus [ˈkju:mjuləuˈnimbəs] n.积雨云o cuneiform [ˈkju:niifɔ:m] n.楔形文字o cure [kjuə] v.治疗o current [ˈkʌrənt] n.水流o curtain [ˈkə:tn] n.窗帘o curving [ˈkə:viŋ] adj.弯曲的o cuttlefish [ˈkʌtlfiʃ] n.乌贼, 墨鱼o cycle [ˈsaikl] n.循环, 周期o cylinder [ˈsilində] n.圆柱体o cylindrical [siˈlindrik(ə)l] adj.圆柱的o cytoplasm [ˈsaitəplæzəm] n.细胞质-D-o dam [dæm] n.坝o damper [ˈdæmpə] n.制音器o daub [dɔ:b] v.涂抹; n. 涂料 :柔软粘稠的涂抹原料 ,如泥灰、润滑脂或泥浆o deadfall [ˈdedfɔ:l] n.陷阱o deafen [ˈdefn] v.使聋o debris [ˈdebri:]n.碎片(plural: debris [ˈdebri:z])o decay [diˈkei] v.腐烂o decibel [ˈdesibel] n.分贝o deciduous forest [diˈsidʒjuəs-ˈfɔrist] n.落叶林o deciduous monsoon forest [diˈsidʒjuəs-mɔnˈsu:n-ˈfɔrist] n. 落叶季雨林o declaration [ˌdekləˈreiʃən] n.宣言o decompose [ˌdi:kəmˈpəuz] v.分解,分析o decorative [ˈdekərətiv] adj.装饰性的o deem [di:m] v.视为o deerskin [ˈdiəskin] n.鹿皮o defend [diˈfend] v.防卫o deficiency [diˈfiʃənsi] n.缺乏o defoliation [ˌdi:fəuliˈeiʃən] n.落叶o deform [diˈfɔ:m] v.(使)变形o degrade [diˈɡreid] v. 使剥蚀o dense [dens] adj.密集的o density [ˈdensiti] n.密度; 比重o deoxyribonucleic acid [di:ˌɔksi:ˌraibəunu:ˈkli:ik-ˈæsid] n. 脱氧核糖核酸o deposit [diˈpɔzit] n.沉淀物; 淤积 ,沉淀; v. 沉积 ,沉淀; 使沉积o depress [diˈpres] v.使降低o deregulation [di:ˌreɡjuˈleiʃən] n.缩小国家对经济干预的范围 229
  228. o dermis [ˈdə:mis] n.真皮o descend [diˈsend] v.下降o descent [diˈsent] n. 血统o detect [diˈtekt] v.察觉到; 探测o deterioration [diˌtiəriəˈreiʃən] n.磨损 ,腐化,变质o detrital [diˈtraitəl] adj.由岩屑形成的o devastate [ˈdevəsteit] v.糟蹋o Devonian [deˈvəuniən] n.泥盆纪o diagnose [ˈdaiəɡnəuz] v.诊断o dialogue [ˈdaiəlɔɡ] n.对白o diameter [daiˈæmitə] n.直径o diaphragm [ˈdaiəfræm] n.隔膜o differentiating [ˌdifəˈrenʃieitiŋ] adj.分化o digest [daiˈdʒest] v.消化o digestion [diˈdʒestʃən] n.消化o dilute [daiˈlju:t] adj.稀释的o diminish [diˈminiʃ] v.减少o dinosaur [ˈdainəsɔ:] n.恐龙o dioxide [daiˈɔksaid] n.二氧化物o dip [dip] v.浸蘸o director [diˈrektə] n.导演o disable [disˈeibl] v.使残废o disease [diˈzi:z] n.疾病o disguise [disˈɡaiz] n.伪装o disintegration [disˌintiˈɡreiʃən] n.分裂 ,崩解o disorder [disˈɔ:də] n.失调 紊乱 ,o disposal method [disˈpəuzəl-ˈmeθəd] n. 处置方法o dissipate [ˈdisipeit] v. 使耗散o dissolve [diˈzɔlv] v.溶解o distasteful [disˈteistful] adj.(令人 )不愉快的o distill [diˈstil] v.蒸馏o distinct [disˈtiŋkt] adj.截然不同的o distinction [disˈtiŋkʃən] n.区别o distinctive [disˈtiŋktiv] adj.独特的 ,有特色的o distinguish [disˈtiŋɡwiʃ] v.区别o distortion [disˈtɔ:ʃən] n.扭曲变形o distraction [disˈtrækʃən] n.使人分心的事 ,心乱 ,心烦o distribute [disˈtribju:t] v.分配; 分布 ,散布(over)o disturbance [disˈtə:bəns] n.扰动; 局部运动o diverse [daiˈvəs] adj.不同的o divide [diˈvaid] v.划分o division [diˈviʒən] n.部分 230
  229. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o dodder [ˈdɔdə] n.菟丝子o dome [dəum] n.穹隆(结构) :类似于穹隆(弓形、有拱的 )或圆屋顶的结构o domestic [dəˈmestik] adj.家庭的; 驯养的o doorway [ˈdɔ:wei] n.门口o dowel [ˈdɑuəl] n.暗榫o dragonfly [ˈdræɡənflai] n.蜻蜓o drain [drein] v.(土地)排水 ,(资源等)逐渐枯竭o drainer [ˈdreinə] n.下水道装置,滤水器o drama [ˈdrɑ:mə] n.戏剧o dramaturge [ˈdræməˌtɜ:dʒ] n.剧作家o draw [drɔ:] v.拉o dredge [dredʒ] v.用挖掘机清除、加深或加宽o drill [dril] n.钻孔机o drizzle [ˈdrizl] n.细雨o drone [drəun] n.雄蜂o droplet [ˈdrɔplit] n.小滴o drought injury [draut-ˈindʒəri] n.旱害o drug [drʌɡ] n.药物o drum [drʌm] n.鼓o dry heat [drai-hiːt] n.干热o dual system [ˈdju:əl-ˈsistəm] n.双重系统o duct [dʌkt] n.管 :管状体内通道 ,尤指运输腺分泌物的管道o dulcimer [ˈdʌlsimə] n.洋琴o duplicate [ˈdju:plikit] v.复制o duration [djuəˈreiʃən] n. 持续时间o dwarf [dwɔ:f] adj. 矮小的o dwarf planet [dwɔ:f-ˈplænit] n. 矮星o dwelling [ˈdweliŋ] n. 住处 ,居住空间o dwindle [ˈdwindl] v.减少o dye [dai] n.染料-E-o eardrum [ˈiədrʌm] n.耳膜o Earth [ə:θ] n.地球o earthen [ˈə:θən] adj.土制的o earthquake [ˈə:θkweik] n.地震o ebony [ˈebəni] n.乌木o ecdysis [ˈekdisis] n.蜕皮(plural: ecdyses[ˈekdisi:z] )o echinoderm [iˈkainəˌdə:m] n.棘皮类动物o eclipse [iˈklips] n.食 231
  230. o ecosystem [ˈi:kəsistəm] n.生态系统o edge [edʒ] n.边缘o edible [ˈedibl] adj.可食用的o edible grain [ˈedibl-ɡrein] n.食用谷物o egg [eɡ] n.卵o ejaculate [iˈdʒækjuleit] v.射精; adj.复杂的; 精心制作的; 精巧的 ,精细的o elbowd [ˈelbəud] adj.像肘一样弯曲的o electric charge [iˈlektrik-tʃɑ:dʒ] n.电荷o electric elevator [iˈlektrik-eliveitə] n.电梯o electromagnetic [iˌlektrəumæɡˈnetik] adj.电磁的o electron [iˈlektrɔn] n.电子o element [ˈelimənt] n.环境; 元素o elevation [ˌeliˈveiʃən] n.海拔o eliminate [iˈlimineit] v.除去,消灭o elk [elk] n.麋鹿o elliptical [iˈliptikəl] n.椭圆星系o elongated [ˈi:lɔŋɡeitid] adj.被拉长的o embed [imˈbed] v.镶嵌o emblem [ˈembləm] n.象征o embryo [ˈembriəu] n.胚胎o emerge from [iˈmə:dʒ-frɔm] v.自……出现o emission [iˈmiʃən] n.发出(物) ,放射(物)o emit [iˈmit] v.发出; 喷射o emulsion [iˈmʌlʃən] n.感光乳剂o enamel [iˈnæməl] n.瓷漆 :一种玻璃似的 ,烧制在金属、玻璃或瓷器 上通常不透明的、保护性或装饰性的覆盖层o encaustic [inˈkɔ:stik] n.蜡画o encounter [inˈkauntə] n.相遇o end [end] n.目的o endocrine [ˈendəukrain] adj.内分泌的o energy [ˈenədʒi] n.能量o energy-efficient [ˈenədʒi-iˈfiʃənt] adj. 能源节约的o engulf [inˈɡʌlf] v.吞没o enormous [iˈnɔ:məs] adj.巨大的, 庞大的o ensemble [ɔnˈsɔmbəl] n.合奏; 整体o entertain [ˌentəˈtein] v.娱乐o envelope [ˈenvələup] n.包裹性的结构或包皮 ,例如膜,或者病毒的包膜o enzyme [ˈenzaim] n.酶o ephemeral [iˈfemərəl] adj. 短暂的o epicenter [ˈepisentə] n.震中o epidermis [ˌepiˈdə:mis] n.表皮o equator [iˈkweitə] n.赤道 232
  231. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o equivalent interval [iˈkwivələnt-ˈintəvəl] n.等间隔的音程o eradication [iˌrædiˈkeiʃən] n.根除o erase [iˈreiz] v.擦掉o erect [iˈrekt] v.竖立 ,建立; 搭建; adj.竖立的o erode [iˈrəud] v.侵蚀o erosion [iˈrəuʒən] n.腐蚀 ,侵蚀(作用)o erupt [iˈrʌpt] v.喷出o esophagus [i(:)ˈsɔfəɡəs] n.食道o estrogen [ˈestrədʒən] n.雌激素o eukaryotic cell [juˈkæriəutik-sel] n.真核细胞o eusocial [ju:ˈsəuʃəl] adj.完全群居的o evaporation [iˌvæpəˈreiʃən] n.蒸发 ;蒸腾(作用)o evolutionary [ˌi:vəˈlu:ʃənəri] adj.进化的o evolve [iˈvɔlv] v.进化o exceed [ikˈsi:d] v. 超过(限度、范围)o excess [ˈekses] adj.过量的o excessive [ikˈsesiv] adj.过度的, 过分的o excrete [eksˈkri:t] v.排泄,分泌; 排出o excretory [eksˈkri:təri] adj.排泄的o exert [iɡˈzə:t] v.行使(职权等) ,使受(影响等)o exhale [eksˈheil] v.呼气o exhibit [iɡˈzibit] v.显示 ,显出; 呈现o exoskeleton [ˌeksəuˈskelitən] n.外骨骼o expel [iksˈpel] v.喷出 发射; 排出 ,o exploit [iksˈplɔit] v.开拓 n. 功绩[勋],英勇的行为o explosive [iksˈpləusiv] adj.爆炸(性)的o expose [iksˈpəuz] v.曝光 ,暴露; 使暴露 ,使露出o exposure [iksˈpəuʒə] n.曝光o exquisitely [ˈekskwizitli] adv.非常地o extend [iksˈtend] v.延伸o extinguish [iksˈtiŋɡwiʃ] adj.熄(灯) ,灭(火) ,熄灭o extraordinarily [ikˈstrɔ:dənərili] adv.格外地o eyeball [ˈaibɔ:l] n.眼球o eye-catching [ˈai-ˌkætʃiŋ] adj.引人注目的o eyelash [ˈailæʃ] n.睫毛o eyelid [ˈailid] n.眼睑-F-o fabric weaving [ˈfæbrik-ˈwiːviŋ] n.纺织编织o facade [fəˈsɑ:d] n.(建筑物的)外立面,尤指正面 233
  232. o facilitate [fəˈsiliteit] v.提供便利o Fahrenheit scale [ˈfærənhait-skeil] n.华氏温标o fair [fɛə] n.集市o falcon [ˈfɔ:lkən] n.猎鹰o family [ˈfæmili] n.科o far-reaching [ˈfɑ:-ˈri:tʃiŋ] adj.深远的,广泛的o fashion [ˈfæʃən] v.制造o fasten [ˈfɑ:sən] v.使固定;加固o fat [fæt] n.油脂o fatal [ˈfeitəl] adj.致命的o fatty [ˈfæti] adj.含脂肪的,脂肪状的o fault [fɔ:lt] n. 断层o feast [fi:st] n.宴会o feature [ˈfi:tʃə] n.特征o feces [ˈfi:si:z] n.粪便o federal [ˈfedərəl] adj.联邦的o feedback [ˈfi:dbæk] n.反馈o felt [felt] n.毛毡o fertility rite [fəːˈtiliti-rait] n.丰收仪式o fertilized [ˈfə:tilaizid] adj.已受精的o fertilized egg [ˈfə:tilaizd-eg] n.受精卵o fertilizer [ˈfə:tilaizə] n.肥料o festival [ˈfestəvəl] adj.节日的o fiber [ˈfaibə] n.纤维o fiberglass [ˈfaibəɡlɑ:s] n.玻璃纤维o fiber-tip pen [ˈfaibə-tip-pen] n.纤维笔o field [fi:ld] n.野外o fierce [fiəs] adj. 猛烈的o figuration [ˌfiɡjuˈreiʃən] n.用装饰音装饰o file [fail] n.锉刀o filler [ˈfilə] n.填充料o film [film] n.胶片o fin [fin] n.鱼鳍o fine [fain] adj.(区别)微小的;细微的o fine-grained [ˈfain-ˈɡreind] adj. 纹理细腻的 ,平整的o finishing [ˈfiniʃiŋ] n.抛光o fir [fə:] n.枞树,冷杉o fireplace [ˈfaiəpleis] n.壁炉o fishery [ˈfiʃəri] n.食用鱼类,捕鱼业o fishing [ˈfiʃiŋ] n.钓鱼o fishing rod [ˈfiʃiŋ-rɔd] n.钓竿o fissure [ˈfiʃə] n.裂缝,裂隙 234
  233. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o fissure vent [ˈfiʃə-vent] n.断裂口o fizz [fiz] n.嘶嘶声o flank [flæŋk] v.位于……的两侧o flat [flæt] adj.扁平的o flatten [ˈflætn] v.使变平o flattened disk system [ˈflætn-disk-ˈsistəm] n.平底圆盘状系统o flexible [ˈfleksəbl] adj.柔韧的; 有弹性的o float [fləut] v.漂浮o flounder [ˈflaundə] n.比目鱼o flour [ˈflauə] n.细软的粉末o flow [fləu] n.传播o fluid [ˈflu:id] adj.易流动的; n. 液o flush [flʌʃ] v.冲掉o flute [flu:t] n.竖笛,横笛o fly [flai] n.苍蝇o focal [ˈfəukəl] adj.焦点的o focal length [ˈfəukəl-leŋθ] n.焦距o focus [ˈfəukəs] n.震源(“震中”是epicenter)o fog [fɔɡ] n.雾o fold [fəuld] n.层; 折页o folk [fəuk] adj.民间的o forage [ˈfɔridʒ] v.觅食o foraminifera [fəˌreiməˈnifərə] n.有孔虫类o forbid [fəˈbid] v. 禁止o forecast [ˈfɔ:kɑ:st] n. 预报o foreign [ˈfɔrin] adj. 异质的,外来的o forelimb [ˈfɔ:lim] n.前肢o forest [ˈfɔrist] n.森林o forked [fɔ:kt] adj.叉状的o fossil [ˈfɔsl] n.化石o fossil fuel [ˈfɔsl-fjuəl] n. (煤、石油、天然气等)矿物燃料o fountain [ˈfauntin] n.喷泉o fountain pen [ˈfauntin-pen] n.自来水钢笔o fourfold [fɔːfəuld] n. 四倍o fowl [fɑul] n.家禽o fraction [ˈfrækʃən] n.小部分o fracture [ˈfræktʃə] n. 岩石的裂缝或断层o fracture zone [ˈfræktʃə-zəun] n. 断层带o fragment [ˈfræɡmənt] n.碎片o fragmental [fræɡˈmentəl] adj. 碎屑状的o fragrance [ˈfreiɡrəns] n.香气o frame [freim] n.骨架 235
  234. o framework [ˈfreimwə:k] n.(框架)结构o freestanding [ˈfri:ˌstændiŋ] adj.(雕刻、建筑物等)独立的,自力撑持的o freezing rain [ˈfri:ziŋ-rein] n.冻雨o freight [freit] n. 货物o frequency [ˈfri:kwənsi] n. 频率o fringe [frindʒ] n.(地毯等的)穗,须边,流苏o frog [frɔɡ] n.青蛙o frontier [ˈfrʌnˌtiə] n.边境o fry [frai] v.油炸o fryer [fraiə] n.适于油炸的嫩鸡o fuel [fjuəl] n.燃料, 能量o full [ful] n.满月o fume [fju:m] n.浓烟o function [ˈfʌŋkʃən] v. (机器、机制等)运行,发挥作用o fungi [ˈfʌndʒai] n.真菌类; 真菌类(singular: fungus [ˈfʌŋɡəs])o fungicide [ˈfʌndʒisaid] n.杀真菌剂o funnel [ˈfʌnl] n.漏斗-G-o galaxy [ˈɡæləksi] n.星系o game [ɡeim] n.猎物o garbage [ˈɡɑ:bidʒ] n.垃圾,废料o gasoline [ˈɡæsəli:n] n.汽油o gastric [ˈɡæstrik] adj.胃的o gastrointestinal [ˌɡæstrəuinˈtestənl] adj.肠胃的o gathering [ˈɡæðəriŋ] n.订成书贴的书页o gauge [ɡeidʒ] n.轨距o gear [ɡiə] n.设备; v.使适合于o gelatin [ˈdʒelətin,ˈdʒeləˈti:n] n.凝胶o gene [dʒi:n] n.基因o genetic material [dʒiˈnetik-məˈtiəriərl] n.遗传物质o genetic structure [dʒiˈnetik-ˈstrʌktʃə] n.遗传结构o genetics [dʒiˈnetiks] n.遗传学o genus [ˈdʒi:nəs] n.种, 类o geologic activity [dʒiəˈlɔdʒik-ækˈtiviti] n.地质活跃带o geologist [dʒiˈɔlədʒist] n.地质学家o geology [dʒiˈɔlədʒi] n.地质学o gesture [ˈdʒestʃə] n.造型o giant [ˈdʒaiənt] adj.巨大的o gibbous [ˈɡibəs] adj.光亮部大于半圆的 236
  235. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o gill [dʒil] n.腮o give up [giv-ʌp] v.把……输送到……o give way to [ɡiv-wei-tu] v.退让o glacier [ˈɡlæsjə] n.冰川o glaciologist [ˌɡleiʃiˈɔlədʒist] n.冰河学家o gland [ɡlænd] n.腺o glaze [ɡleiz] n.釉料o glide [ɡlaid] v.滑行o global warming [ˈɡləubəl-ˈwɔ:miŋ] n.全球变暖o globular shape [ˈɡlɔbjulə-ʃeip] n.球形o glucose [ˈɡlu:kəus] n.葡萄糖o glue [ɡlu:] v.粘合o gong [ɡɔŋ] n.锣o Gothic [ˈɡɔθik] adj.哥特式的o gouge [ɡaudʒ] n.半圆凿o govern [ˈɡʌvən] v.支配o gradual [ˈɡrædjuəl] adj.逐渐的o grain [ɡrein] n.纹理图案o grand [ɡrænd] adj.大的o grant [ɡrɑ:nt] v.授与(权利) ;让与(财产)o grape [ɡreip] n.葡萄o graphite [ˈɡræfait] n.石墨o grasshopper [ˈɡrɑ:sˌhɔpə] n.蝗虫o grassland [ˈɡrɑ:slænd] n.草原o grate [ɡreit] n. 壁炉o gravel [ˈɡrævəl] n.砂砾o gravitationally [ˌɡræviˈteiʃnəli] adv.引力地o gravity [ˈɡræviti] n.重力o greasy [ˈɡri:si] adj.油腻的o greenhouse effect [ˈɡri:nhaus-iˈfekt] n.温室效应o greenhouse gas [ˈɡri:nhaus-ɡæs] n.温室气体o greywater [ˈgreiwɔ:tə] n.生活污水o gross capacity [ɡrəus-kəˈpæsiti] n.总容量o grub [ɡrʌb] n.幼虫o guild [ɡild] n.协会o guitar [ɡiˈtɑ:] n.吉他o gullet [ˈɡʌlit] n.食管o gymnophiona [ˈdʒimɔpfinə] n.无足目o gymnosperm [ˈdʒimnəuˌspə:m] n.裸子植物o gypsum [ˈdʒipsəm] n.石膏o gypsy moth [ˈdʒipsi-mɔθ] n.舞毒蛾o gyre [ˈdʒaiə] n. 漩涡 237
  236. -H-o habitat [ˈhæbitæt] n.栖息地o hail [heil] n.冰雹o hailstone [ˈheilstəun] n.(一粒)冰雹o halide [ˈhælaid] adj.卤化物(的)o halite [ˈhælait] n.岩盐o hallux [ˈhæləks] n.(鸟)后趾,(人)大拇趾o halo [ˈheiləu] n.日晕; 光环o hammer [ˈhæmə] v.锤打; n.音锤o hard palate [hɑ:d-ˈpælit] n.硬颚o harden [ˈhɑ:dn] v.变硬 ,凝固o hardwood [ˈhɑ:dwud] n.阔叶树o harmony [ˈhɑ:məni] n.和声o harp [hɑ:p] n.竖琴o harpoon [hɑ:ˈpu:n] n.鱼叉o harvest [ˈhɑ:vist] v.收获 ,捕获o hatch [hætʃ] v.孵化o hawk [hɔ:k] n.鹰o hazardous [ˈhæzədəs] adj.危险的o haze [heiz] n.霾,烟雾,霭o height [hait] n.海拔o helium [ˈhi:ljəm] n.氦o hemisphere [ˈhemiˌsfiə] n.半球o hemoglobin [ˌhi:məuˈɡləubin] n.血色素o hemp [hemp] n.大麻纤维o heretofore [ˈhiətuˈfɔ:] adv.迄今为止o hew [hju:] v.砍o hide [haid] n.兽皮o hinge [hindʒ] n.枢纽,门枢,节点o hollow [ˈhɔləu] adj.中空的o hollowed log [ˈhɔləud-lɔg] n.中空的原木o holly [ˈhɔli] n.冬青树o honeycomb [ˈhʌnikəum] n.蜂窝o hook [huk] n.鱼钩o horizontal [ˌhɔriˈzɔntəl] adj.水平的o hormone [ˈhɔ:məun] n.荷尔蒙o horny [ˈhɔ:ni] adj.角状的o hostile [ˈhɔstail] adj.敌对的(be hostile to:对……有敌意)o hostility [hɔsˈtiliti] n.反对 238
  237. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o house [haus] v.包含o humidity [hju:ˈmiditi] n.湿度o humor [ˈhju:mə] n.体液o humoral immunity [ˈhju:mərəl-iˈmju:nəti] n.体液免疫o hunt [hʌnt] v.狩猎o hurricane [ˈhʌrikən] n.飓风o hydrochloric acid [ˌhaidrəˈklɔ:rik-ˈæsid] n.盐酸o hydrogen [ˈhaidrədʒən] n.氢o hygienic [haiˈdʒi:nik] adj.卫生学的(hygiene [ˈhaidʒi:n]卫生学)o hymenoptera [ˈhaimiˌnɔptərə] n.膜翅目o hypocenter [ˈhaipəuˌsentə] n.震源-I-o ice age [ais-eidʒ] n.冰河时期o ice cap [ais-kæp] n.冰冠o ice field [ais-fi:ld] n.冰原o ice pellet [ais-ˈpelit] n. 结冰的小球o ice sheet [ais-ʃi:t] n. 冰原o identification [aiˌdentifiˈkeiʃən] n.鉴定o idiophone [ˈidiəufəun] n.体鸣乐器o igneous rock [ˈiɡniəs-rɔk] n.火成岩o illuminate [iˈlju:mineit] v.照亮 ,使明亮o illustration [ˌiləˈstreiʃən] n.插图o image [ˈimidʒ] n.影像o imago [iˈmeiɡəu] n.成虫o imbibe [imˈbaib] v.喝o imitation [ˌimiˈteiʃən] n.道具o immediate [iˈmi:diət] adj.立即的o immediately [iˈmi:diətli] adv.直接地 ,立即o immense [iˈmens] adj.极大的; v.浸没o immune system [iˈmju:n-ˈsistəm] n.免疫系统o impact [ˈimpækt] n.冲击; 影响,效力o imperceptible [ˌimpəˈseptibl] adj.极细微的o implantation [ˌimplɑ:nˈteiʃən] n.胚胎植入o impression [imˈpreʃən] n.印痕o improper [imˈprɔpə] adj.不适当的,错误的o improvised text [ˈimprəvaizd-tekst] n.同步字幕o impulse [ˈimpʌls] n.神经脉冲o impurity [imˈpjuəriti] n.不洁 ,杂质o in addition to [in-əˈdiʃən-tuː] prep. 除……之外又 239
  238. o in advance [in-ədˈvɑ:ns] adv.预先o in concert [in-ˈkɔnsət] adv.同时o in place [in-pleis] adv.在适当的位置o in response to [in-riˈspɔns-tuː] prep.相应 ,回应o in tandem with [in-ˈtændəm-wið] adv.同……合作o in that [in-ðæt] n.因为o in the case of [in-ðə-keis-əv] adv.在……的情况下o in the round [in-ðə-raund] adj.雕刻成立体(的),栩栩如生的 ,表现无余的o in time [in-taim] adv.最终o inaccessible [inækˈsesəbl] adj.难以接近o incinerate [inˈsinəreit] v.(把……)烧成灰 ,烧掉,焚化; n. 焚化o incinerator [inˈsinəreitə] n.(垃圾的)焚化炉o incise [inˈsaiz] v.刻o incomprehensible [inˌkɔmpriˈhensəbl] adj.不能理解的o inconspicuous [ˌinkənˈspikjuəs] adj.不显眼的o inconvenient [ˌinkənˈvi:njənt] adj.不方便的o incubate [ˈinkjubeit] v.孵化o incur [inˈkə:] v.招致o indented [inˈdentid] adj.锯齿状的o indigestible [ˌindiˈdʒestibl] adj.难消化的o inelastic [iniˈlæstik] adj.无弹性的o infection [inˈfekʃən] n.传染 ,感染o infectious [inˈfekʃəs] adj.有传染性的o infectious agent [inˈfekʃəs-ˈeidʒənt] n.传染因子o inferior [inˈfiəriə] adj. 处于下方的o informed [inˈfɔ:md] adj.见闻广的 ,有情报根据的o infrastructure [ˈinfrəˌstrʌktʃə] n.基础设施o inhale [inˈheil] v.吸气o inhibit [inˈhibit] v.抑制o injury [ˈindʒəri] n.伤害o innermost [ˈinəməust] adj.最里面的o inscription [inˈskripʃən] adj. 碑文的o insert [inˈsə:t] v.插入 ,夹进o instruct [inˈstrʌkt] v.教导o instrument [ˈinstrumənt] n.乐器o insulate [ˈinsjuleit] v. 隔热o insulation [ˌinsjuˈleiʃən] n.绝缘 ,绝热o insulin [ˈinsjulin] n.胰岛素o intensity [inˈtensiti] n.强度o intention [inˈtenʃən] n.意图 ,目的o interact [ˌintərˈækt] v.相互作用o interaction [ˌintərˈækʃən] n. 相互作用 240
  239. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o interconnecting [ˈintəkəˈnektiŋ] adj. 互相连接的o interdependence [ˌintədiˈpendəns] n.相互依赖o interfere [ˌintəˈfiə] v.有害于(with)o interior [inˈtiəriə] adj.内部的,内地的o interior design [inˈtiəriə-diˈzain] n.室内设计o interlace [ˌintə(:)ˈleis] v.(使)交织o interpretation [ˌintə:priˈteiʃən] n. 演绎o interrupt [ˌintəˈrʌpt] v.中断o intersect [ˌintəˈsekt] v.交叉o interstellar matter [ˈintə(:)ˈstelə-ˈmætə] n.星际物质o intestinal [inˈtestinl] adj.肠的o intricate [ˈintrikit] adj.复杂的o intriguing [inˈtri:ɡiŋ] adj.引人入胜o invader [inˈveidə] n.侵入物o invertebrate [inˈvə:tibrət] n.无脊椎动物o involve [inˈvɔlv] v.包括o iris [ˈaiəris] n.虹膜o iron core [ˈaiən-kɔ:] n.由铁组成的核o Iroquois [ˈirəkwɔiˌˈirəkwɔiz] n. 易洛魁族人(北美印第安人的一个民族)o irregular [iˈreɡjulə] n.不规则的物体o irrigation [ˌiriˈɡeiʃən] n.灌溉o isotope [ˈaisəutəup] n.同位素o ivory [ˈaivəri] n.象牙-J-o jaw [dʒɔ:] n.颌, 颚o jellyfish [ˈdʒelifiʃ] n.水母o jerk [dʒə:k] n.抽搐o jet [dʒet] n.喷射物o joining [ˈdʒɔiniŋ] n.拼接o jointed [ˈdʒɔintid] adj.有关节的o journeyman [ˈdʒə:nimən] n.熟练工人o juggler [ˈdʒʌɡlə] n.魔术师o juice [dʒu:s] n.体液o Jupiter [ˈdʒu:pitə] n.木星o jute cord [dʒuːt-kɔːd] n.黄麻绳 241
  240. -K-o keel [ki:l] n.(船的)龙骨o Kelvin [ˈkelvin] n.开氏温标o keratin [ˈkerətin] n.角质o kidney [ˈkidni] n.肾o kiln [kiln] n.窑o kitchen [ˈkitʃin] n.厨房o knee joint [niː-dʒɔint] n.膝关节o knife [naif] n.刀o knotting [ˈnɔtiŋ] n.结形花边(流苏)-L-o lace [leis] v.穿线o lack [læk] v.缺乏; 缺少o lacquer [ˈlækə] n.天然漆 一种用作表面涂层的光滑的树脂般的物质 :o laminate [ˈlæmineit] n. 层叠结构o laminate to [ˈlæmineit-tu] adj.与……平行/相似的o landfill [ˈlændfil] n.垃圾填埋洼地o landlocked [ˈlændlɔkt] adj.被陆地包围的o landlord [ˈlændlɔ:d] n.房东o landscape [ˈlændskeip] n. 地形o large intestine [lɑːdʒ-inˈtestin] n.大肠o lariat [ˈlæriət] n.套索o larva [ˈlɑ:və] n.(昆虫的)幼虫(plural: larvae [lɑːviː] )o larva phase [ˈlɑːvə-feiz] n.幼虫阶段o larval [ˈlɑ:vəl] adj.幼虫状态的o lateral fin [ˈlætərəl-fin] n.侧鳍o lateral moraine [ˈlætərəl-mɔˈrein] n.冰川侧碛o laterally [ˈlætərəlli] adv. 侧面地o latrine [ləˈtri:n] n.公共厕所o lava [ˈlɑ:və] n.熔岩o law [lɔ:] n.法律o law of motion [lɔ:-əv-ˈməuʃən] n.运动定律o laws conservation of energy/mass [lɔ:z-ˌkɔnsəˈveiʃən-əv-ˈenədʒi/mæs] n.能量/质量守恒定律o lay [lei] v.位于o layer [ˈleiə] n.地层 242
  241. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o lead [led] n.铅o leaf [li:f] n.书页o lease [li:s] n.租约o leather [ˈleðə] n.皮革o ledge [ledʒ] n.壁架o legging [ˈleɡiŋ] n.紧身裤o legislation [ˌledʒisˈleiʃən] n.法规、法案,立法o lens [lenz] n.透镜, 镜头o Lepidoptera [ˌlepəˈdɔptərə] n.鳞翅目o lessee [leˈsi:] n.承租人o lessor [leˈsɔ:] n.出租人o lever [ˈli:və] n.控制杆o liberalization [ˌlibərəlaiˈzeiʃən] n.自由化o life span [laif-spæn] n.寿命o ligament [ˈliɡəmənt] n.系带,韧带o lightproof [ˈlaitpru:f] adj.不透光o like charges [laik-tʃɑ:dʒiz] n. 同性电荷o limb [lim] n.肢o lime [laim] n.石灰o limestone [ˈlaimˌstəun] n.石灰岩o linen [ˈlinin] n.亚麻布o liner [ˈlainə] n.衬里o linseed oil [ˈlinsiːd-ɔil] n.亚麻油o lipid [ˈlipidˌˈlaipid] n.脂质,油脂o liver [ˈlivə] n.肝脏o loblolly pine [ˈlɔblɔli-pain] n.火炬松o lobster [ˈlɔbstə] n.龙虾o locate [ləuˈkeit] v.设置 ,确定……的位置o log cabin [lɔg-ˈkæbən] n.小木屋o logged [lɔɡd] adj.低湿的 ,浸透的(土地)o logistics [ləˈdʒistiks] n.物流o longitudinally [lɔndʒiˈtju:dinli] adv.纵向地o longleaf pine [ˈlɔ:ŋˌli:f-pain] n.长叶松o loom [lu:m] n.织布机o loop [lu:p] n.环o loudness [ˈlaudnis] n.响度o lubricate [ˈlu:brikeit] v.使润滑; 加油润滑o lumber [ˈlʌmbə] n.木材o lunar [ˈlju:nə] adj.月球的o lung [lʌŋ] n.肺o lure [luə] n.诱饵; v. 引诱o lute [lu:t] n.鲁特琴 243
  242. o lymphocyte [ˈlimfəusait] n. 淋巴细胞o lyre [ˈlaiə] n.里拉 ,七弦竖琴(古希腊的一种弦乐器)o lyrical [ˈlirikəl] adj.抒情的-M-o machinery [məˈʃi:nəri] n.机械设备o maggot [ˈmæɡət] n.蛆o magma [ˈmæɡmə] n.岩浆o magnet [ˈmæɡnit] n.磁铁o magnetic field [mæɡˈnetik-fiːld] n.磁场o magnetosphere [mæɡˈni:təusfiə] n.磁层o magnifier [ˈmæɡnifaiə] n.放大镜o magnify [ˈmæɡnifai] v.放大o magnitude [ˈmæɡnitju:d] n.量值; 震级o mainly [ˈmeinli] adv. 主要地o maize [meiz] n.玉米o majestic [məˈdʒestik] adj.雄伟的o major [ˈmeidʒə] adj. 主要的o make up [meik-ʌp] v.构成,组成o make up of [meik-ʌp-əv] n.构成,组成o makeup [ˈmeikʌp] n.化妆品; 结构o mallet [ˈmælit] n.木槌o mammal [ˈmæməl] n.哺乳动物o manipulate [məˈnipjuleit] v.(熟练地)操作、使用(机器等); 处理o manner [ˈmænə] n.样式o mantle [ˈmæntl] n.地幔o mantle cavity [ˈmæntl-ˈkæviti] n.外套腔o maple [ˈmeipl] n.枫木; 枫树o maple syrup [ˈmeipl-ˈsirəp] n.枫糖浆: 由糖枫汁液做成的甜糖浆o marble [ˈmɑ:bl] n.大理石o marble slab [ˈmaːbl-slæb] n.大理石板o margin [ˈmɑ:dʒin] n.边缘o marine [məˈri:n] adj.海洋的o maritime [ˈmæritaim] adj.海洋性的o mark [mɑ:k] n.(笔)迹 ,痕迹o marrow [ˈmærəu] n.骨髓o Mars [mɑ:z] n.火星o masking [ˈmɑ:skiŋ] n.遮蔽o masonry wall [ˈmeisənri-wɔːl] n.砖墙 ,砖瓦墙o mass [mæs] n.质量; 块 244
  243. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o mass extinction [mæs-iksˈtiŋkʃən] n.大量消亡o mass number [mæs-ˈnʌmbə] n.(原子)质量数o massive [ˈmæsiv] adj.大量的o master [ˈmɑ:stə] n.大师o masterpiece [ˈmɑ:stəpi:s] n.杰作o mat [mæt] n.垫子; 草垫o mate [meit] v.交配o matrilineal [ˌmætriˈliniəl] adj.母系的o mechanical pencil [miˈkænikəl-ˈpensl] n.自动铅笔o mechanism [ˈmekənizəm] n.机械装置o medicine [ˈmedisin] n.医学 ,药o medium [ˈmi:djəm] n.介质o megalopolis [ˌmeɡəˈlɔpəlis] n.特大城市o melody [ˈmelədi] n.曲调o melt [melt] v. 融化o melting [ˈmeltiŋ] n. 融化o membrane [ˈmembrein] n.(动物或植物体内的)薄膜, 隔膜; 膜o membranophone [memˈbreinəfəun] n.膜鸣乐器o menace [ˈmenəs] n.威胁o menopause [ˈmenəpɔ:z] n.经绝期o menstruation [ˌmenstruˈeiʃən] n.月经期间o Mercury [ˈmə:kjuri] n.水星o merge [mə:dʒ] v.并入o Mesozoic [ˌmesəuˈzəuik] n.中生代o metabolism [məˈtæbəlizəm] n.新陈代谢o metal oxide [ˈmetl-ˈɔksaid] n.金属氧化物o metamorphosis [ˌmetəˈmɔ:fəsis] n.变态 ,蜕变o meteorite [ˈmi:tjərait] n.陨星o meteorology [ˌmi:tiəˈrɔlədʒi] n.气象学o metropolis [miˈtrɔpəlis] n.大城市o metropolitan [ˌmetrəˈpɔlitən] adj.大城市的o microbiological [ˈmaikrəubaiəˈlɔdʒikəl] adj.微生物学的o microorganism [ˌmaikrəuˈɔ:ɡənizəm] n.微生物o microscope [ˈmaikrəskəup] n.显微镜o microscopic [ˌmaikrəsˈkɔpik] adj. 极微小的o microscopic organism [,maikrəˈskɔpik-ˈɔ:ɡənizəm] n.微生物o microwave [ˈmaikrəweiv] n.微波o microwave oven [ˈmaikrəuweiv-ˈʌvən] n.微波炉o migrate [maiˈɡreit] v.迁徙o Milky Way [ˈmilki:-wei] n.银河o mime [maim] n.笑剧; 滑稽演员o mimed performance [maimd-pəˈfɔːməns] n.笑剧、闹剧表演 245
  244. o mineral [ˈminərəl] n. 矿物 ,矿石o mining [ˈmainiŋ] n.采矿o minority [maiˈnɔriti] n.少数o minstrel [ˈminstrəl] n.诗歌演唱者o mistletoe [ˈmisltəu] n.槲寄生o mite [mait] n.螨类o mitochondria [ˌmaitəˈkɔndriə] n.线粒体o moccasin [ˈmɔkəsin] n.鹿皮靴o moist [mɔist] adj.潮湿的o moisten [ˈmɔisn] v.使潮湿o mold [məuld] v.塑造o molecular cloud [məuˈlekjulə-klaud] n.分子云o molecular hydrogen [məˈlekjələ-ˈhaidrədʒən] n.分子氢o molecule [ˈmɔlikju:l] n.分子o mollusk [ˈmɔləsk] n.软体动物o molt [məult] v.换毛o molten [ˈməultən] adj.熔化的; 熔融的o molting [ˈməultiŋ] n.蜕皮o monopolistic [məˌnɔpəˈlistik] adj.垄断的o monopoly [məˈnɔpəli] n.垄断o monsoon [mɔnˈsu:n] n.季风o Moon [mu:n] n.月球o moose [mu:s] n.驼鹿o moraine [mɔˈrein] n.冰碛o mortar [ˈmɔ:tə] n.砂浆, 灰浆o mortise [ˈmɔ:tis] n.榫眼o mosaic [mɔˈzeiik] n.镶嵌工艺o moth [mɔθ] n.蛾o mother-of-pearl [ˌmʌðər-əv-pɜ:l] n.珍珠母o motion [ˈməuʃən] n. 运动o motivate [ˈməutiveit] v.激发o motor [ˈməutə] n.运动肌o mound [maund] n.堆o mouth of river [mauθ-əv-ˈrivə] n.入海口o move over [mu:v-ˈəuvə] v.挪开o mud [mʌd] n.泥o multicellular [ˌmʌltiˈseljulə] adj.多细胞的o multiply [ˈmʌltiplai] v.增加o municipal [mjuˈnisipəl] adj.市政的o muscle [ˈmʌsl] n.肌肉o muscle tone [ˈmʌsl-təun] n.肌肉弹性 ,肌肉张力o musculoskeletal [ˌmʌskjuləuˈskelitəl] adj.肌(与)骨骼的 246
  245. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o musical instrument [ˈmjuːzikəl-ˈinstrtrumənt] n.乐器o mutualism [ˈmju:tjuəlizəm,ˈmju:tʃuəlizəm] n.共生o Myanmar [ˈmjænmɑ:] n.缅甸o myth [miθ] n.神话-N-o nail [neil] n.指甲o National Weather Service [ˈnæʃənəl-ˈweðə-ˈsə:vis] n.国家天气服务局o neck [nek] n.琴颈o necklace [ˈneklis] n.项链o nectar [ˈnektə] n.花蜜o needle [ˈni:dl] n.针o negative [ˈneɡətiv] adj.负的o negative image [ˈneɡətiv-ˈimidʒ] n. 底片(负像)o negative mold [ˈnegətiv-kɑːst] n.凹模o neighboring [ˈneibəriŋ] adj.邻近的o nematode [ˈnemətəud] n.线虫o Neptune [ˈneptju:n] n.海王星o nervous system [ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.神经系统o nest [nest] n.巢o net [net] n.网o neutral tissue [ˈnjuərəl-ˈtisju:] n.神经组织o neutron [ˈnju:trɔn] n.中子o new [nju:] adj.新月(的)o newt [nju:t] n.蝾螈o niche [nitʃ] n.壁橱; 合适的环境o nictitating membrane [ˈniktiˌteitiŋ-ˈmembrein] n.瞬膜 :鸟类、爬行动物和一 些哺乳动物的内生透明眼睑,闭上可保护和滋润眼睛o nitrogen [ˈnaitrədʒən] n.氮o nitrogen cycle [ˈnaitrədʒən-ˈsaikl] n.氮循环o nocturnal [nɔkˈtə:nl] adj.夜间的o node [nəud] n.中转站o nondegradable [ˈnɔndiˈɡreidəbl] adj.不可以进行分解和还原处理的o nonprofit [ˌnɔnˈprɔfit] adj.非赢利的o Northern coniferous forest [ˈnɔːð(ə)n-kəuˈnifərəs-ˈfɔrist] n.北方针叶树林o notation [nəuˈteiʃən] n.谱号 [musical notation: 音乐记谱]o nucleic acid [nju:ˈkli:ik-ˈæsid] n.核酸o nucleus [ˈnju:kliəs] n.细胞核; 原子核; 核子o nurse [nə:s] v.护理o nut [nʌt] n. 坚果 247
  246. o nutrient [ˈnju:triənt] n. 营养品; 营养物质o nutritional [nju:ˈtriʃənəl] adj.营养的-O-o oak [əuk] n.橡树; 橡木o oboe [ˈəubəu,ˈəubi] n.双簧管o observational [ˌɔbzəˈveiʃənəl] adj.观测的o obtain [əbˈtein] v.获取o occupation [ˌɔkjuˈpeiʃən] n.职业o occupy [ˈɔkjupai] v.占用, 填满o occur [əˈkə:] v.出现,发生o oceanography [ˌəuʃəˈnɔɡrəfi] n.海洋学o octave [ˈɔktiv] n.八度音程(音阶)o octopus [ˈɔktəpəs] n.章鱼o offensive [əˈfensiv] adj.冒犯的o oil shale [ɔil-ʃeil] n.油母页岩o olfactory [ɔlˈfæktəri] adj.嗅觉的o opaque [əuˈpeik] adj.不透明的; 不反射光线的o operation [ˌɔpəˈreiʃən] n.运营o opposite [ˈɔpəzit] n.对立物o optic axis [ˈɔptik-ˈæksis] n.光轴o optical phenomena [ˈɔptikəl-fiˈnɔminə] n.光学现象o optics [ˈɔptiks] n.光学o orbit [ˈɔ:bit] v. 绕(吸引中心)运转 n.轨道o orchestra [ˈɔ:kistrə] n.管弦乐o orchid [ˈɔ:kid] n.兰花o order [ˈɔ:də] n.目o Ordovician [ˌɔ:dəˈviʃən] n.奥陶纪o organelle [ɔ:ɡəˈnel] n.细胞器o organic remains [ɔ:ˈɡænik-riˈmeins] n. 有机残留物o organism [ˈɔ:ɡənizəm] n.有机物o origin [ˈɔridʒin] n.起源o ornamental [ˌɔ:nəˈmentl] adj.装饰性的o osteon [ˈɔstiɔn] n.骨单位(密质骨构造的基本单位)o ostrich [ˈɔstritʃ] n.鸵鸟o otherwise [ˈʌðəwaiz] adj.别样的,另外一种的o oven [ˈʌvən] n.烤炉o overfill [ˈəuvəˈfil] v.把……装得溢出o overlap [ˌəuvəˈlæp] v.与……重叠o overlapping [ˈəuvəˈlæpiŋ] n.重叠 248
  247. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o overlie [ˌəuvəˈlai] v.在……上面o overspin wire [ˈəuvəspin-ˈwaiə] n.缠弦o ovulation [ˌɔvjuˈleiʃən] n.排卵o ovum [ˈəuvəm] n.卵子o owl [ɑul] n.猫头鹰o oxygen [ˈɔksidʒən] n.氧; 氧气o oyster [ˈɔistə] n.牡蛎o ozone layer [ˈəuzəun-ˈleiə] n.臭氧层-P-o pack into [pæk-ˈintu] v.将……装(塞,挤)入o paint [peint] n.油漆o paleontologist [ˌpæliɔnˈtɔlədʒist] n.古生物学者o paleontology [ˌpæliɔnˈtɔlədʒi] n.古生物学o Paleozoic [pæliəˈzəuik] n.古生代o palm frond [pɑ:m-frɔnd] n.棕榈叶o pan [pæn] n.平底锅o pancreas [ˈpæŋkriəs] n.胰, 胰腺o pantomime [ˈpæntəmaim] n.哑剧表演o papyrus [pəˈpaiərəs] n.(古代)纸(莎)草纸(plural:papyri[pəˈpaiəri])o parallel [ˈpærəlel] adj.平行的o paralysis [pəˈrælisis] n.麻痹, 瘫痪o parasite [ˈpærəsait] n.寄生物o parasitic [ˌpærəˈsitik] adj.寄生的o parathyroid [ˌpærəˈθairɔid] adj.副甲状腺的o parchment [ˈpɑ:tʃmənt] n.羊皮纸o parlor [ˈpɑ:lə] adj.客厅的o parrot [ˈpærət] n.鹦鹉o partial eclipse [ˈpɑ:ʃəl-iˈklips] n.偏食o participate [pɑ:ˈtisipeit] v.参与o particle [ˈpɑ:tikl] n.微粒; 颗粒o partridge [ˈpɑ:tridʒ] n.鹌鹑o pass through [ˈpæs-ˌθru:] v.经过o passage [ˈpæsidʒ] n.转变o passageway [ˈpæsidʒwei] n.出入口o passive elongation [ˈpæsiv-i:lɔŋˈɡeiʃən] n.被动延伸o pastel [pæsˈtel] n.彩色蜡笔画; adj. 色彩浅而柔和的o pastry [ˈpeistri] n.糕点o patent [ˈpeitənt] v.获得专利o patrilineal [ˌpætrəˈliniəl] adj.父系的 249
  248. o pattern [ˈpætən] n.模式o peak [pi:k] n.山顶o pebble [ˈpebl] n.鹅卵石o peculiar [piˈkju:ljə] adj.罕见的o pedal [ˈpedl] n.踏板o pegbox [ˈpegbɔks] n.(弦乐器的)弦轴箱o pelvis [ˈpelvis] n.骨盆o penetrate [ˈpenitreit] v.穿透o penguin [ˈpeŋɡwin] n.企鹅o pentatonic [ˌpentəˈtɔnik] adj.五声音阶的o perceive [pəˈsi:v] v.察觉; 感到o perch [pə:tʃ] n.栖木:供鸟栖息的枝条o percussion [pə:ˈkʌʃən] n.打击乐器o perform [pəˈfɔ:m] v.演奏; 执行o performer [pəˈfɔ:mə] n.表演者o periodically [ˌpiəriˈɔdikəli] adv.周期性地o peripheral nervous system [pəˈrifərəl-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.周围神经系统o peristalsis [ˌperiˈstælsis] n.蠕动o permanent [ˈpə:mənənt] adj.持久的o permanent writing [ˈpə:mənənt-ˈraitiŋ] n. 能够长时间保留的书写o perpendicular [ˌpə:pənˈdikjulə] adj.垂直的o perpendicularly [ˌpəːpənˈdikjuləli] adv.垂直地o personal hygiene practice [ˈpə:sənəl-ˈhaidʒi:n-ˈpræktis] v.个人卫生习惯o persuade [pəˈsweid] v.说服o pest [pest] n.害虫o pesticide [ˈpestisaid] n.杀虫剂o petal [ˈpetl] n.花瓣o petroleum [piˈtrəuliəm] n.石油o phagocyte [ˈfæɡəusait] n.噬菌细胞o pharynx [ˈfæriŋks] n.咽o phase [feiz] n.位相o phosphorus [ˈfɔsfərəs] n.磷o photography [fəˈtɔɡrəfi] n.摄影o photosynthesis [ˌfəutəuˈsinθəsis] n.光合作用o physical science [ˈfizikəl-ˈsaiəns] n.物理科学o piano [piˈænəu] n.钢琴o pianoforte [piˌænəuˈfɔ:ti] n.钢琴(piano的旧称)o pick up [pik-ʌp] v.获得o pickax [ˈpiˌkæks] n.镐o picture frame [ˈpiktʃə-freim] n.相框o pigment [ˈpiɡmənt] n.色素o pile [pail] n.堆积,堆 250
  249. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o pile up [pail-ʌp] v.堆积o pilgrim [ˈpilɡrim] n.移民者:1620年,在新英格兰建立普利茅斯殖民地 的英国主张脱离国教者o pillar [ˈpilə] n.柱状物o pine [pain] n.松树o pink [piŋk] n.粉红色o pipe [paip] n.风笛o pipeline [ˈpaiplain] n.管道, 输送管道o pistil [ˈpistil] n.雌蕊o pitch [pitʃ] n.音高o pituitary [piˈtju:itəri] n.(脑)垂体o pizzicato [ˌpitsiˈkɑːtəu] n.拨奏乐曲o plait [plæt] v.把……打成辫o plane [plein] n.刨子; 平面o planetary system [ˈplænitəri-ˈsistəm] n.行星系o plank [plæŋk] n.支架 [ wrest plank: (校准弦音的)扭钥架 ]o plant [plɑ:nt] n.植物o plasma [ˈplæzmə] n.血浆o plaster [ˈplɑ:stə] n.石膏; 胶泥,灰泥,涂墙泥o plastic [ˈplæ:stik] n.塑料o plastic barrel [ˈplæ:stik-ˈbærəl] n.塑料管o plate tectonics [pleit-tekˈtɔniks] n.板块构造论o plateau [ˈplætəu] n.高地o pliers [ˈplaiəz] n.老虎钳o plow [plau] v.犁;耕; n.犁o pluck [plʌk] v.拨(弦)o pluck away [plʌk-əˈwei] v.冰川冲走(岩石)o pluck out [plʌk-aut] v.拔掉o plumage [ˈplu:midʒ] n.鸟类的羽毛o Pluto [ˈplu:təu] n.冥王星o poach [pəutʃ] v.水煮o pole [pəul] n.杆; 磁极,电极o poliomyelitis [ˌpəuliəumaiəˈlaitis] n.小儿麻痹症,急性骨髓灰白质炎o pollen [ˈpɔlin] n.花粉o pollinate [ˈpɔlineit] v.授粉,传粉o pollutant [pəˈlu:tənt] n.污染物o pollution [pəˈluʃən] n.污染(作用)o pond [pɔnd] n.池塘o population [ˌpɔpjuˈleiʃən] n.个数o pore [pɔ:] n.毛孔o portrait [ˈpɔ:trit] n.肖像o positive [ˈpɔzitiv] adj.正的 251
  250. o positive cast [ˈpɔzitiv-kɑːst] n.正像o possession [pəˈzeʃən] n.占有,拥有o post [pəust] n.杆o postal service [ˈpəustəl-ˈsə:vis] n.邮电业o post-and-lintel [pəust-ænd-ˈlintl] n.连梁柱o posterior [pɔˈstiəriə] n.身体后部; adj. 后面的,尾部的o posterior lobe [pɔˈstiəriə-ləub] n.后叶o posture [ˈpɔstʃə] n.姿势o pot [pɔt] n.锅o potters wheel [ˈpɔtəs-wiːl] n.陶轮o pottery [ˈpɔtəri] n.陶器o poultry [ˈpəultri] n.家禽o pour [pɔ:] v.浇注o pour on [pɔːr-ɔn] v.把……倒在……上o practice [ˈpræktis] n.做法,技术o prairie [ˈpreəri] n. 大草原o praying mantis [ˈpreiiŋ - ˈmæntis] n.螳螂o precipitate [priˈsipiteit] v.沉淀o precipitation [priˌsipiˈteiʃən] n.降水; 沉淀o precise [priˈsais] adj.精确的o predator [ˈpredətə] n.捕食者o predict [priˈdikt] v.预测o prediction [priˈdikʃən] n.预报o preen [pri:n] v.(鸟)用嘴整理(羽毛)o pregnancy [ˈpreɡnənsi] n.怀孕o preserve [priˈzə:v] v.保存o press [pres] v.压o pressure [ˈpreʃə] n.(气)压o prey [prei] n.被掠食者,战利品; 猎物o priest [pri:st] n.祭司o primarily [ˈpraimərili] adv.主要地o primary [ˈpraiməri] adj.初级的o primary wave [ˈpraiməri-weiv] n.纵波o primitive [ˈprimitiv] adj.自然的; 原始的o principal [ˈprinsəpəl] adj.主要的o principle [ˈprinsəpl] n.原则o prism [ˈprizəm] n.棱镜o privately owned [ˈpraivitli-əund] adj.私有的o privatization [ˌpraivətəˈzeiʃən] n.私有化o prize [praiz] v.珍视o process [ˈprəuses] n.过程o processing [prəuˈsesiŋ] n.处理 252
  251. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o producer [prəˈdju:sə] n.制片人o production [prəˈdʌkʃən] n.作品 ,成品,电影制片o profusion [prəˈfju:ʒən] n.大量(a profusion of: 大量的)o progressively [prəˈgresivli] adj.逐步地o prohibit [prəˈhibit] v.禁止o project [prəˈdʒekt] v.凸出o projection [prəˈdʒekʃən] n.凸出物o prokaryote cell [prəuˈkæriəut-sel] n.原核生物细胞o prolong [prəˈlɔŋ] v.延长o pronounced [prəˈnaunst] adj.显著的o propagate [ˈprɔpəɡeit] v.传播o propagation [ˌprɔpəˈɡeiʃən] n.传播o propel [prəˈpel] v.推动o property [ˈprɔpəti] n.财产 ,所有物 , 道具; 性质o props [prɔps] n.小道具o propulsive [prəˈpʌlsiv] adj.有推进力的o protein [ˈprəuti:n] n.蛋白质o proton [ˈprəutɔn] n.质子o protozoan [ˌprəutəuˈzəuən] n. 原生动物(plural: protozoa[ˌprəutəuˈzəuə])o puberty [ˈpju:bəti] n.青春期o public utility [ˈpʌblik-juˈtiliti] n.公用事业o publicly owned [ˈpʌblikli:-əund] adj.公有的o pullet [ˈpulit] n.小母鸡o pump [pʌmp] v.输送o punch [pʌntʃ] n.打孔器o pupa [ˈpju:pə] n.蛹(plural: pupae [ˈpjuːpiː])o pupil [ˈpju:pəl] n.瞳孔o puppet show [ˈpʌpit - ʃəu] n.木偶剧o puppeteer [ˌpʌpiˈtiə] n.演木偶戏的人o purify [ˈpjuərifai] v.净化o pursue [pəˈsju:] v.追捕, 追击o put together [put-təˈgeðə] v.组合o putty [ˈpʌti] n.(嵌装玻璃等用的)油灰-Q-o quasar [ˈkweizɑ:] n.类星体o quiescent [kwiˈesənt] adj.休眠的o quill [kwil] n.羽毛笔o quilt [kwilt] n.被子o quilting [ˈkwiltiŋ] n.被子面料 253
  252. -R-o rabbit [ˈræbit] n.野兔o radiant energy [ˈreidiənt-ˈenədʒi] n.放射性能量o radiate [ˈreidieit] v.散发o radius [ˈreidjəs] n.半径(plural: radii [ˈreidiai])o rail transport [reil-trænsˈpɔ:t] n.铁路运输o rain forest [rein-ˈfɔrəst] n.雨林o rainbow [ˈreinbəu] n.彩虹o raindrop [ˈreindrɔp] n.雨滴o ranch [rɑ:ntʃ] v.经营牧场o range [reindʒ] n.火炉o rasp [rɑ:sp] n.粗锉:一种有锋利、突出、尖锐凸起的钝锉o ratio [ˈreiʃiəu] n.比, 比率o react [riˈækt] v.起反应o readjust [ˌri:əˈdʒʌst] v. 重新调整o rear [riə] adj.后面的o recede [riˈsi:d] v.后退o receptor [riˈseptə] n.感受器o recipe [ˈresəpi] n.秘方o recognize [ˈrekəɡnaiz] v.认出; 识别o recognized [ˈrekəɡnaizd] adj.公认的, 经过验证的o recommend [ˌrekəˈmend] v.推荐o recreation [ˌrekriˈeiʃn] n. 消遣o rectangular [rekˈtæŋɡjulə] adj.矩形的o rectrix [ˈrektriks] n.舵羽(鸟尾上的硬毛)o redshift [ˈredʃift] n.红移o reduce [riˈdju:s] v.减少o reed [ri:d] n.芦苇; 簧片o reef [ri:f] n.礁, 暗礁o refer to [riˈfə:-tu:] v.指的是……o refer to sb / sth as ... [riˈfə:-tu:-ˈsʌmbədi/ˈsʌmθiŋ-æz] v. 称某人/某物为……o reflect [riˈflekt] v.反射o reflex [ˈri:fleks] n.反射o refract [riˈfrækt] v.使折射o refraction [riˈfrækʃən] n.折射o region [ˈri:dʒən] n.地区o register [ˈredʒistə] n.音域o regolith [ˈreɡəliθ] n.风化层 254
  253. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o regulate [ˈreɡjuleit] v.调节 校准 , 控制 ,o regulation [ˌreɡjuˈleiʃən] n.规章制度o rehearsal [riˈhə:səl] n. 彩排o reinforce [ˌri:inˈfɔ:s] v.加强o release [riˈli:s] v.释放o relief [riˈli:f] n.浮雕o rely on [riˈlai-ɔn] v.依赖,依靠o remains [riˈmeins] n.遗体o renewal [riˈnjuəl] n.更新o rent [rent] n.租金o repel [riˈpel] v.排斥o replenish [riˈpleniʃ] v.补充o reproduce [ˌri:prəˈdju:s] v.繁殖o reproduction [ˌri:prəˈdʌkʃən] n.复制品; 繁殖, 生殖o reproductive organ [ˈri:prəˈdʌktiv-ˈɔ:ɡən] n.生殖器官o reptile [ˈreptail] n.爬行动物o resemble [riˈzembl] v.类似; 类似于o reservoir [ˈrezəvwɑ:] n.贮水池 ,水库o resilient [riˈziliənt] adj.有弹性的o resist [riˈzist] v.抵抗; 对抗o resonance [ˈrezənəns] n.共振o respectively [risˈpektivli] adv.分别地o respiratory system [risˈpaiərətəri-ˈsistəm] n.呼吸系统o retailing [ˈri:teiliŋ] n.零售业o retain [riˈtein] v.保留o retina [ˈretinə] n.视网膜o retreat [riˈtri:t] n.冰川后退o reveal [riˈvi:l] v.揭示 ,显示o revival [riˈvaivəl] n.复兴大会(尤指旨在促进基督教信仰的布道会)o revolve [riˈvɔlv] v.公转o rhythm [ˈriðəm] n.节奏o rhythmic patterns [ˈriðmik-ˈpætən] n.有节奏的模式o rib [rib] n.琴骨; 肋骨o ribonucleic acid [raibənju:ˈkli:ik-ˈæsid] n.核糖核酸(略作RNA)o ribosome [ˈraibəsəum] n.核糖体o ridge [ridʒ] n.海脊,山脊o ritual [ˈritʃuəl] n.(宗教)仪式; adj.(宗教)仪式的o rival [ˈraivəl] v.相匹敌o roast [rəust] v.烘烤o rod [rɔd] n.杆o rolling pin [ˈrəuliŋ-pin] n.擀面杖o rooster [ˈru:stə] n.公鸡 255
  254. o root [ru:t] n.根o root drowning [ru:t-ˈdrauniŋ] n.根部溺死o rope [rəup] n.绳索o rotate [rəuˈteit] v.自转o rotation [rəuˈteiʃn] n.自转o row [rəu] n.一排, 一行o rub [rʌb] v.摩擦o rug [rʌɡ] n.地毯o rum [rʌm] n.朗姆酒o running survey [ˈrʌniŋ-sə:ˈvei] n.勘测o rupture [ˈrʌptʃə] adj.断裂的o rush [rʌʃ] n.灯心草-S-o saclike [ˈsæklaik] adj.囊状的o sacred fire [ˈseikrid-ˈfaiə] n. 祭祀的火焰o salamander [ˈsæləmændə] n.火蜥蜴o saliva [səˈlaivə] n.唾液o salt solution [sɔ:lt-səˈlu:ʃən] n.盐溶液o saltwater [ˈsɔ:ltˌwɔ:tə] n. 盐水o sandpaper [ˈsændˌpeipə] n.砂纸; v.用砂纸磨光(某物)o sandstone [ˈsændstəun] n.砂岩o sanitation [ˌsæniˈteiʃən] n. 公共卫生o sap [sæp] n. 树液o satellite [ˈsætəlait] n. 人造卫星o Saturn [ˈsætən] n.土星o sauté [sɔːˈtei] v.炒o saw [sɔ:] n.锯o sawfly [ˈsɔ:flai] n.叶蜂o sawing [ˈsɔ:iŋ] n.锯o saxophone [ˈsæksəfəun] n.萨克斯管o scale [skeil] n.音阶; 鱼鳞; 刻度o scatter over [ˈskætə-əuvə] v.分布在……o scavenger [ˈskævindʒə] n.食腐动物o scene [si:n] n.景色o scenery [ˈsi:nəri] n.舞台布景o school [sku:l] n. 学派o sclera [ˈskliərə] n.巩膜o scope [skəup] n.范围; 乐谱; v.打记号于o scorpion [ˈskɔ:piən] n.蝎子 256
  255. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o scrape [skreip] n. 浅坑; v. 刮擦o scratch [skrætʃ] v.刮擦; 刻划o screen [skri:n] n.筛子o screw [skru:] v.拧 ,转o script [skript] n.剧本o scroll [skrəul] n.涡卷形头:提琴类乐器上的弯曲状饰头; 书卷o sculpt [skʌlpt] v.雕刻o sculpture [ˈskʌlptʃə] n.雕刻o sea urchin [si:-ˈə:tʃin] n.海胆o sealer [ˈsi:lə] n.封底漆o seaport [ˈsi:pɔ:t] n.港口o season [ˈsi:zən] n.适合某种活动的季节/期间o secondary [ˈsekəndəri] adj.第二等级的o secondary wave [ˈsekəndəri-weiv] n.横波o secrete [siˈkri:t] v.分泌o secretion [siˈkri:ʃən] n.分泌物o secure to [siˈkjuə-tu] v.固定在……o sediment [ˈsedimənt] n.沉积物o sedimentary rock [sediˈmentəri-rɔk] n.沉积岩o segmented [seɡˈmentid] adj.分段的o seismic wave [ˈsaizmik-weiv] n.地震波o seismologist [saizˈmɔlədʒist] n.地震学家o seize [si:z] v.抓住, 捉住o self-reliance [ˈself-riˈlains] n.倚靠自己o Seminole [ˈseminəul] n.塞米诺族印第安人o sensation [senˈseiʃən] n.感觉o sensitized paper [ˈsensitaizd-ˈpeipə] n.感光纸o sensory system [ˈsensəri-ˈsistəm] n.感觉系统o sepal [ˈsepəl] n.萼片o septic tank [ˈseptik-tæŋk] n.化粪池o sequence [ˈsi:kwəns] n.顺序 ,序列o serve [sə:v] v.满足 ,服务o settler [ˈsetlə] n.移民者o sew [səu] v.缝合o sewage [ˈsjuidʒ] n.阴沟污物 ;污水o sewer [sjuə] n.排水沟o shades of gray [ʃeidz-əv-grei] n.灰度梯度(深浅不同的各种灰色)o shake [ʃeik] v.摇晃o shaking [ˈʃeikiŋ] n.摇晃o shale [ʃeil] n.页岩o shear [ʃiə] v.剪切o shears [ʃiəz] n.剪刀 257
  256. o sheath [ʃi:θ] v.包裹o shed [ʃed] v.脱落 ,蜕(皮) ,脱(毛)o sheer [ʃiə] adj.绝对的o sheet [ʃi:t] n.(一)张o shelf [ʃelf] n.架o shell [ʃel] n.外壳o shellac [ʃəˈlæk] n.虫胶清漆:用于涂饰木料o shellfish [ˈʃelˌfiʃ] n.贝类o shelter [ˈʃeltə] n.遮蔽处o shield [ʃi:ld] v.防御,保护o shingle [ˈʃiŋɡl] n.木瓦o shock [ʃɔk] v.震撼o shoreline [ˈʃɔ:lain] n.海岸线o shortleaf pine [ʃɔːtˈliːf-pain] n.短叶松o shoulder [ˈʃəuldə] n.肩o shrimp [ʃrimp] n.虾o side to side [said-tu-said] adv.从一边到另一边o siliceous [siˈliʃəs] adj.由硅石组成的o silicon [ˈsilikən] n.硅o silken [ˈsilkən] adj.柔软光滑的o silt [silt] n.沙 ,淤泥o silver salt [ˈsilvə-sɔːlt] n.银盐o similarity [ˌsimiˈlæriti] n.相似o simultaneously [ˌsiməlˈteiniəsli] adv.同时地o single-bladed ax [ˈsiŋɡl-bleidid-æks] n.单刃斧o sink [siŋk] n.水槽o siren [ˈsaiərin] n.土鳗; 汽笛o sisal [ˈsisəl] n.波罗麻 :一种分布在墨西哥和中美洲的植物o skeletal muscle [ˈskelitl-ˈmʌsl] n.骨骼肌o skeletal nervous system [ˈskelitl-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.骨骼神经系统o skeleton [ˈskelitn] n.框架结构,整体框架; 骨骼o skillet [ˈskilit] n.煎锅(= frying pan)o skip [skip] v.滑 ,笔触中途不出油o skull [skʌl] n.颅骨o skyscraper [ˈskaiˌskreipə] n.摩天大楼o slash pine [slæʃ-pain] n.沼泽松o sleet [sli:t] n.雨夹雪,雨淞o sloping [ˈsləupiŋ] adj.倾斜的o slough off [slau-ɔf] v.脱落o small intestine [smɔːl-inˈtestin] n.小肠o smallpox [ˈsmɔ:lpɔks] n.天花o smog [smɔɡ] n.烟雾 258
  257. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o smooth [smu:ð] v.使光滑o smooth muscle [smu:ð-ˈmʌsl] n.平滑肌o smooth over [smu:ð-ˈəuvə] v.擦除o smudge [smʌdʒ] v.弄脏 ,涂去 ,使模糊o snare [snɛə] n.陷阱o snout [snaut] n.口鼻部o snowflake [ˈsnəufleik] n.雪花o snugly [ˈsnʌɡli] adv.紧紧地o soar [sɔ:] v.振翅飞行o social status [ˈsəuʃəl-ˈsteitəs] n.社会地位o softwood [ˈsɔftwud] n.针叶树o soil [sɔil] n.土地 ,土壤o solar eclipse [ˈsəulə-iˈklips] n.日食o solar system [ˈsəulə-ˈsistəm] n.太阳系o solid [ˈsɔlid] adj.结实的o solidify [səˈlidifai] v.(使)凝固o solitary [ˈsɔlitəri] adj.独居的o solution [səˈlu:ʃən] n. 溶液o somatic nervous system [səˈmætik-ˈnə:vəs-ˈsistəm] n.躯体神经系统o songbird [ˈsɔŋbə:d] n.鸣禽o sonic [ˈsɔnik] adj.声音的o soot particle [sut-ˈpɑ:tikl] n.煤烟颗粒o sophisticated [səˈfistikeitid] adj.复杂精巧的o sound [saund] n.声音o spacecraft [ˈspeiskrɑ:ft] n.宇宙飞船o span [spæn] v.(桥、拱等)横跨o sparsely [spɑ:sli] adv.稀少地o spatula [ˈspætjulə] n.(调拌用的)刮铲o spatulate [ˈspætjulit] adj.竹片状的o spear [spiə] n.矛o species [ˈspi:ʃi:z] n.物种o spectrum [ˈspektrəm] n.光谱o speculate [ˈspekjuleit] v.思索 ,推测(about, on, upon)o sperm [spə:m] n.精子o sphere [sfiə] n.球(体)o spherical [ˈsferikəl] adj.球形的o spider [ˈspaidə] n.蜘蛛o spinal cord [ˈspainl-kɔːd] n.脊髓o spiral arm [ˈspaiərəl-ɑːm] n.旋臂o spleen [spli:n] n.脾o splint [splint] n.薄木条o split [split] n.裂缝; adj.劈开的 259
  258. o spongy bone [ˈspʌndʒi-bəun] n.松质骨o spoon [spu:n] n.匙o sprawl [sprɔ:l] n. (城市的)无计划扩展o spread [spred] v.扩散,传播o spruce [spru:s] n.云杉质木材o spruce budworm [spru:s-ˈbʌdwə:m] n.云杉蚜虫o square [skwɛə] n.直角尺; adj.正方形的o squash [skwɔʃ] n.南瓜属植物o squid [skwid] n.鱿鱼o squirrel [ˈskwirəl] n.松鼠o stadium [ˈsteidjəm] n.体育场o staff [stɑ:f] n.五线谱; 全体职员o stain [stein] n.着色剂o staircase [ˈsteəkeis] n.楼梯o stalk [stɔ:k] n.茎o stamen [ˈsteimen] n.雄蕊o stand [stænd] n.高大树丛o statistics [stəˈtistiks] n.统计学o steam [sti:m] v.蒸o steep [sti:p] adj. 陡峭的o stellar [ˈstelə] adj.恒星的o stem [stem] n.茎o step [step] n.音级o stew [stju:] v.炖:用小火烧或慢慢地煮沸来烹饪(食物)o stiffen [ˈstifn] v.(使)变硬o stilt [stilt] n.支撑物o stimulus [ˈstimjuləs] n.刺激o sting [stiŋ] v.螫o stir up [stə:-ʌp] v. 搅动o stitch [stitʃ] n.&v.缝合o stock [stɔk] n.浓汤o stomach [ˈstʌmək] n.胃o stove [stəuv] n.炉子o straight [streit] adj.直的; 笔直的o strand [strænd] n.串,(绳子的)股; 线、束o straw [strɔ:] n.麦杆o stream [stri:m] n.河流o streamer tail [ˈstri:mə-teil] n. 带状的尾巴o streamlined [ˈstri:mlaind] adj.流线型的o stretch [stretʃ] v.&n.伸展; adj.有弹性的o stride [straid] n.进步o strike [straik] v.敲击; 照在……上; 击打 260
  259. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o string [striŋ] n.琴弦, 弦乐器o strip [strip] n.条o stroke [strəuk] n.笔划o style-defining [stail-diˈfainiŋ] adj.定义完整的,仔细定义过的o stylus [ˈstailəs] n.(古人刻写蜡板的)尖笔o subarctic [ˈsʌbˈɑ:ktik] adj.亚寒带o subdivision [ˈsʌbdiˌviʒən] n.部分o subject [ˈsʌbdʒikt] n.对象o subject to [ˈsʌbdʒikt-tuː] v.受……支配; 使遭受o submerged [səbˈmə:dʒd] adj.水下的o subtend [səbˈtend] v.对向o subtle [ˈsʌtl] adj.微小的o subtropical [ˈsʌbˈtrɔpikəl] adj.亚热带的o subunit [sʌbˈju:nit] n.子(分,亚)组o suburb [ˈsʌbə:b] n.城郊o sucker-bearing [ˈsʌkə-ˈbeəriŋ] adj.长着吸盘的o suction cup [ˈsʌkʃən-kʌp] n.吸盘o suffocation [ˌsʌfəˈkeiʃn] n.窒息o sugar maple [ˈʃuɡə-ˈmeipl] n.糖枫o sulfur [ˈsʌlfə] n.硫(磺)o sulfur-lɑden [ˈsʌlfə-ˈleidn] adj. 含有硫黄的o sullage [ˈsʌlidʒ] n.(房屋、街道等排出的)污物o sunscald [ˈsʌnskɔ:ld] n.日灼病o superior [sjuˈpiəriə] adj. 处于上方的o supple [ˈsʌpl] adj.柔软的o supplement [ˈsʌpliment] v.补充o survivor [səˈvaivə] n.幸存者o suspend [səˈspend] v.悬挂; 悬浮(大气、液体中)o sustain [səˈstein] v.维持o sustaining [səsˈteiniŋ] adj.支持的o swallow [ˈswɔləu] v.吞咽o swampy [ˈswɔmpi] adj.沼泽的o symbiosis [ˌsimbaiˈəusis] n.共生(现象)o symbiotic [ˌsimbaiˈɔtik] adj.共生的o sympathetic vibration [ˈsimpəˈθetik-vaiˈbreiʃən] n.共振o synthetic [sinˈθetik] adj.合成的o syrup [ˈsirəp] n. 糖浆 261
  260. -T-o tablet [ˈtæblit] n.写字板o tail [teil] n.尾o tailpiece [ˈteilpi:s] n.系弦钮o talon [ˈtælən] n.爪o tap [tæp] n.轻打o tarsus [ˈtɑ:səs] n.跗骨o taste bud [teist-bʌd] n.味蕾o tattoo [təˈtu:] v.刺花纹o tavern [ˈtævə:n] n.酒馆o tear gland [tiə-ɡlænd] n.泪腺o tempera [ˈtempərə] n.蛋彩画o Temperate evergreen forest [ˈtempərit-ˈevəɡri:n-ˈfɔrist] n.温带绿叶林o Temperate rain forest [ˈtempərit-rein-ˈfɔrist] n.温带雨林o tenant [ˈtenənt] n.房客o tend [tend] v.照顾o tendon [ˈtendən] n.腱o tenon [ˈtenən] n.(木工的)榫o tension [ˈtenʃən] n.绷紧状态; 压力 张力 ,o tentacle [ˈtentəkl] n. 触角, 触须o terminal [ˈtə:minəl] n.终点站o terminate [ˈtə:mineit] v.结束o terrace [ˈterəs] n.阳台o terra-cotta [ˈterəˈkɔtə] n.赤陶o tessera [ˈtesərə] n.镶嵌物o texture [ˈtekstʃə] n.质地o thatch [θætʃ] n.茅草o theater [ˈθiətə] n.戏剧o theatrical text [θiˈætrikəl-tekst] n.戏剧文本o theoretical [ˌθiəˈretikəl] adj. 理论的o thick [θik] adj. 厚的o thicken [ˈθikən] v.使变厚 ,使变浓o thin [θin] adj.薄的o thong [θɔŋ] v.给……装上皮带; n.皮带o throw [θrəu] n.投, 掷, 抛投掷的距离; v.投; 掷; 扔; 抛o thunderstorm [ˈθʌndəstɔ:m] n.雷雨o thymus [ˈθaiməs] n.胸腺o tick [tik] n.(寄生于体大动物的吸血小虫)壁虱o tidal [ˈtaidl] adj.潮汐的o tie [tai] n.枕木 262
  261. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o tile [tail] n.饰面砖 ,瓷砖o till [til] n.冰渍o timber [ˈtimbə] n.木材o tint [tint] n.带白的颜色, 淡色; v.染色; 着色于……o tissue [ˈtisju:] n.组织o toad [təud] n.蟾蜍o toe [təu] n.脚趾o toll [təul] n.通行费o tone [təun] n.音调o tongue [tʌŋ] n.舌头o toothpaste [ˈtu:θpeist] n.牙膏o topographic [ˌtɔpəˈɡræfik] adj.地形学上的o torn [tɔ:n] n.(tear的过去分词)撕o tornado [tɔ:ˈneidəu] n.龙卷风o total eclipse [ˈtəutəl-iˈklips] n.日全食o totem [ˈtəutəm] n.图腾o touch [tʌtʃ] v.接触o tough [tʌf] adj.坚硬的o toxic [ˈtɔksik] adj.有毒的o trabecula [trəˈbekjulə] n.小梁o trace [treis] v.追踪 ,探索; 顺着;追溯o trachea [trəˈki:ə] n.气管o tragedy [ˈtrædʒidi] n.悲剧o transformation [ˌtrænsfəˈmeiʃən] n.转变o transient [ˈtrænziənt] adj.瞬间变化的o translate into [trænsˈleit-ˈintu] v.转化为o translucent [trænzˈlu:snt] adj.半透明的o transmission [trænzˈmiʃən] n.传播o transmit [trænzˈmit] v.传送 ,传导; n.传送o transparent [trænsˈpeərənt] adj.透明的o transversely [ˈtrænzvə:sli] adv.横向地o trap [træp] v.捕捉; 困住; n.陷阱o treadle loom [ˈtredl-luːm] n.脚踏织机o treble [ˈtrebl] n.高音部分o tremendous [triˈmendəs] adj.可怕的,惊人的o tremolo [ˈtremələu] n.颤音o trend [trend] n.趋势o Triassic [traiˈæsik] n.三叠纪o tribe [traib] n.部落o trisquare [ˈtraiˌskweə] n.曲尺o tropical [ˈtrɔpikəl] adj.热带的o tropical rain forest [ˈtrɔpikl-rein-ˈfɔrist] n.热带雨林 263
  262. o Tropical savanna forest [ˈtrɔpikl-səˈvænə-ˈfɔrist] n.热带稀树草原o Tropical scrub forest [ˈtrɔpikl-skrʌb-ˈfɔrist] n.热带灌丛林o troposphere [ˈtrɔpəusfiə] n.对流层o trough [trɔ:f] n.深海槽o truly social [ˈtruːli-ˈsəuʃəl] n.完全社会性的o tsunami [tsju:ˈnɑ:mi] n.海啸o tulip [ˈtju:lip] n.郁金香o tuning peg [ˈtju:niŋ-peɡ] n.调音弦轴o tuning pin [ˈtjuːniŋ-pin] n.调音弦轴o turkey [ˈtə:ki] n.火鸡o tussock moth [ˈtʌsək-mɔθ] n.毒蛾o tweezers [ˈtwi:zəz] n.镊子o twist [twist] v.捻o twist [twist] n. 扭曲o typhoon [taiˈfu:n] n.台风-U-o ultraviolet ray [ˌʌltrəˈvaiəlit-rei] n.紫外线o unaided [ˈʌnˈeidid] adj.独立的o unaided eye [ʌnˈeidid-ai] n.肉眼o undergo [ˌʌndəˈɡəu] v.经历(变迁等) ;遭受(苦难等)o underlie [ˌʌndəˈlai] v.成为……的基础o underneath [ˌʌndəˈni:θ] prep.在……的下面o undetectable [ˈʌndiˈtektəbl] adj.未被发现的o unfold [ʌnˈfəuld] v.展开o unicellular [ˈju:niˈseljulə] adj.单细胞的o uniform [ˈju:nifɔ:m] adj.相同的o union [ˈju:njən] n.结合o unique [ju:ˈni:k] adj.独特的o unparalleled [ˌʌnˈpærəleld] adj.无可比拟的o unveil [ʌnˈveil] v.揭去o up and down [ʌp-ænd-daun] adv.上上下下o updraft [ˈʌpdrɑ:ft] n.上升气流o upright [ˈʌprait] adj.立式的o upwell [ʌpˈwel] v. 涌起o Uranus [ˈju:ərənəs] n.天王星o urban [ˈə:bən] adj.城市的o urine [ˈjuərin] n.尿o utensil [ju:ˈtensl] n.器具o uterus [ˈju:tərəs] n.子宫 264
  263. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破-V-o vaccine [ˈvæksi:n] n.疫苗o vacuole [ˈvækjuəul] n.液泡o vagina [vəˈdʒainə] n.阴道o valley [ˈvæli] n.(山)谷; 流域,河谷o valve [vælv] n.瓣膜o vapor [ˈveipə] n.蒸气o variation [ˌveəriˈeiʃən] n.变体o various [ˈveəriəs] adj.许多的 ,多样的; 不同的 ,好几个o varnish [ˈvɑ:niʃ] n.清漆 :用于把表面涂成坚硬的、有光泽的透明的膜o vary [ˈveəri] v.不同 ,变化o vasopressin [ˌvæsəuˈpresin] n.血管加压素,血压激素o vast [vɑ:st] adj.大量的o vaudeville [ˈvɔ:dəvil] n.歌舞杂耍o vault [vɔ:lt] n.拱(不连柱的)o vehicle [ˈvi:ikl] n.交通工具; 调漆料o vein [vein] n.静脉o vellum [ˈveləm] n.牛皮纸o velocity [viˈlɔsiti] n.速率o venae cavae [ˈvi:ni:-ˈkiviː] n.腔静脉(singular: vena [ˈvi:nə] cava [ˈkiːvə])o vent [vent] n.孔,口,裂口o ventilation [ˌventiˈleiʃən] n.通风设备o venture [ˈventʃə] v.冒险o Venus [ˈvi:nəs] n.金星o Venusian [vi:nˈju:siən] adj.金星的o vertebra [ˈvə:tibrə] n.脊椎骨o vertebrate [ˈvə:tibrit] n.脊椎动物o vessel [ˈvesəl] n.血管o veto [ˈvi:təu] v. 否决o via [ˈvaiə] prep.通过o vibration [vaiˈbreiʃən] n.振动o vibration consequence [vaiˈbreiʃən-ˈkɔnsikwəns] n.振动频率o victim [ˈviktim] n.牺牲品o vigorously [ˈviɡərəsli] adv.竭力地o vine [vain] n.藤蔓o violent [ˈvaiələnt] adj.猛烈的o violin [ˌvaiəˈlin] n.小提琴o virtual [ˈvə:tjuəl] adj.虚的o virtually [ˈvə:tʃuəli] adv.实际上 265
  264. o virus [ˈvaiərəs] n.病毒o viscous [ˈviskəs] adj.黏性的o vital [ˈvaitəl] adj.极重要的o volcanic vent [vɔlˈkænik-vent] n.火山口o volcano [vɔlˈkeinəu] n.火山o volume [ˈvɔlju:m] n.体积; 卷o voluntary [ˈvɔləntəri] adj.自主的-W-o wagon [ˈwæɡən] n.四轮马车o waist [weist] n.昆虫腹部的较窄部位o wall hanging [wɔːl-ˈhæŋiŋ] n.壁毯o waning [ˈweiniŋ] adj.(月亮)渐亏的o warm-blooded [ˌwɔ:mˈblʌdid] adj.(动物) 恒温的o warp [wɔ:p] n.织物上纵的方向的纱或线o warped [wɔ:pd] adj. 弯曲的o wasp [wɔsp] n.黄蜂o waste dumps [weist-dʌmps] v.废料堆o waste substance [weist-ˈsʌbstəns] n.废物o waterfowl [ˈwɔ:təˌfaʊl] n.水鸟o waterproof [ˈwɔ:təpru:f] adj.防水的o watershed [ˈwɔ:təʃed] n.流域o water-soluble [ˈwɔ:tə-ˌsɔljubl] n.可溶于水的o wattle [ˈwɔtl] n.柳栅:用嫩枝、芦苇或枝条编成的构架,用以筑墙、篱 笆和屋顶o wave motion [weiv-ˈməuʃən] n.波动o wax [wæks] n.石蜡; 蜡o wax-coated [wæks-ˈkəutid] adj.涂蜡的o waxing [ˈwæksiŋ] adj.(月亮)渐盈的o weather [ˈweðə] n.天气o weather forecast [ˈweðə-ˈfɔ:kɑ:st] n.天气预报o weathering [ˈweðəriŋ] n.侵蚀o wedge [wedʒ] v.楔入o wedge-shaped [ˈwedʒ-ʃeipt] adj.楔形的o weed [wi:d] n.杂草o weft [weft] n.织物上横的方向的纱或线o well-defined [ˌweln-diˈfaind] adj.明确的o well-seasoned [wel-ˈsiːznd] adj.完全风干的o whale [hweil] n.鲸o whisk [hwisk] n.搅拌器 266
  265. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破o whistle [ˈhwisl] n.口哨o whitewash [ˈ(h)waitwɔʃ] v.用石灰水粉刷o widespread [ˈwaidspred] adj.普遍的o wildfowl [ˈwaildfaul] n.野禽o wind [wind] v. 绕 缠,o wind instrument [wind-ˈinstrumənt] n.管乐器o winding [ˈwaindiŋ] adj.弯曲的o windpipe [ˈwindpaip] n.气管o wine [wain] n.葡萄酒o withdrawal [wiðˈdrɔ:əl] n. & v.提取 ,收回o withstand [wiðˈstænd] v.经受, 承受o woody material [wudi-məˈtiəriəl] n.木质材料o woodwind [ˈwudwind] n.木管乐器o woodworking [ˈwudˌwə:kiŋ] n.木工艺,木工行业; adj.木工的o work surface [wə:k-ˈsə:fəs] n.工作台o World Meteorological Organization [wə:ld-ˌmi:tiərəˈlɔdʒikəl-ˌɔ:ɡənaiˈzeiʃən] n.世界气象组织o worldwide belt [ˈwə:ldwaid-belt] n.世界范围分布o worn [wɔ:n] adj.用旧了的 ,磨破了的o wrap [ræp] v.缠绕o wraparound [ˈræpəˌraund] adj. 裹身的o writing implement [ˈraitiŋ-ˈimplimənt] n. 书写用具o wrongdoer [ˈrɔ:ŋˌdu:əˌˈrɔŋ-] n.做坏事的人-X-o X ray [eks-rei] n.X光o xylophone [ˈzailəfəun] n.木琴-Y-o yard [jɑ:d] n.庭院o yarn thread [jɑːn-θred] n.纺线丝o yearn [jə:n] v. 向往o yellow poplar [ˈjeləu-ˈpɔplə] n.北美鹅掌揪 (poplar,相当于中国人说的“杨树”)o yield [ji:ld] n.产量; v. 生出 出产 , ;产生 267
  266. -Z-o zither [ˈziðə] n.齐特琴(与中国的“筝”相似)o zone [zəun] n.地带 268
  267. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破附录一: 托福专题分类(TOEFL Topic Categories)BASIC CATEGORYArtsLife SciencePhysical ScienceSocial ScienceArtsArchitectureIndustrial design/artCity planningCrafts: weaving, knitting, fabrics, furniture, carving, mosaics, ceramics, etc; folk and tribal artCave/rock artMusic and music historyPhotographyLiterature and authorsBooks, newspapers, magazines, journalsLife scienceExtinction of or conservation efforts for animals and plantsFish and other aquatic organismsBacteria and other one-celled organismsVirusesMedical techniquesPublic healthPhysiology of sensory organsBiochemistryAnimal behavior, e.g., migration, food foraging, defensive behaviorHabitats and the adaptation of animals and plants to themNutrition and its impact on the bodyAnimal communicationPhysical scienceWeather and atmosphereOceanographyGlaciers, glacial landforms, ice ages 269
  268. Deserts and other extreme environmentsPollution, alternative energy, environmental policyOther planets’ atmospheresAstronomy and cosmologyProperties of light, opticsProperties of soundElectromagnetic radiationParticle physicsTechnology of TV, radio, radarMathChemistry of inorganic thingsComputer scienceSeismology (plate structure, earthquakes, tectonics, continental drift,structure of volcanoes)Social scienceAnthropology of non-industrialized civilizationsEarly writing systemsHistorical linguisticsBusiness, managementTV/radio as mass communicationSocial behavior of groups, community dynamics, communal behaviorChild developmentEducationModern history (including the history of urbanization and industrializationand their economic and social effects) 270
  269. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 附录二 常见元音的拼法/æ/[a] add, average, can, stand/ɑ:/ /ɑ:r/[a] answer, ask, chance[al] calm, half, calf, psalm[ar] arch, archive, dark, yard/ʌ/[u] ugly, us, but, fund[o] become, above, dozen, shove[ou] country, touch, encourage/e/[e] education, every, never, second[ea] bread, measure, ready, realm/i:/[e] economic, evil, immediate, previous, scene[ea] eagle, appeal, reveal, flea, tea[ie] achieve, priest, yield[ei] counterfeit, perceive, seize[ee] agree, guarantee, knee/I/[y] any, country[e] coyote, simile, psyche, recipe[i] chilli, semi, fungi, modus operandi[ie] cookie, movie, prairie[ey] jorney, money, turkey[ea] guinea[ee] coffee, jubilee[ois] chamois[ae] larvae[is] precis/i/ (旧版音标)[i] if, index, big, build, until[y] analytic, cynical, symptom, bicycle, pyjamas[e] economy, ensure, extreme, predict, wallet, women[a] average, damage, village/ə:r/[ear] early, earnest, rehearse, yearn[ur] urban, urge, hurt, furniture[er] alert, commercial, defer, transfer[ir] dirt, confirm 271
  270. [our] courteous, journey[or] word, worthy/ə/ /ər/[a] about, company, poera, arena[o] obey, original, million, political, actor, major[i] family, policy[e] children, similan[ah] hookah, purdah/ɔ:/[or] orchestra, organize, abortion, divorce[al] almost, although, bald, fall, call[au] auction, autumn, fault, pause, onslaught[aw] bawl, lawyer, spawn, law, raw[ou] bought, sought[our] course, resource[oar] aboard, hoard[or] for, metaphor[ore] adore, score[ar] award, quarter[aur] theaurus/ɔ/[o] obvious, opposition, body, possible[en] enfant, entrepreneur * 法语词汇[a] equality, squad, swap, warrant[au] because, bureaucracy/u:/[oo] oodles, ooze, mood, cartoon[ou] acoustic, soup, boutique, boutquet[o] lose, prove, tomb[u] crucial, rule, truth[ui] fruit, recruit[ew] blew, shrew, Hebrew/u/[oo] foot, mushroom[u] bull, guru, Buddhist[o] wolf, woman, bosom/ju:/[u] use, unique, future, produce[eu] euphemism, feudal, neutrail[ew] lewd, pewter, few, nephew, stew[ue] argue, statue, tissue/ju:r/[ure] endure, pure, secure 272
  271. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破/ai/[i] ice, ivy, guide, private, plight, tight, fungi, nuclei, stimuli[y] analyze, rhyme, tyrant, rely, supply[ei] Fahrenheit, neither, seismic[ie] belie, tie, vie, science[ia] alliance, biased[ya] cyanide, hyacinth[ire/ier/yer/yre] admire, satire; amplifier, qualifier; flyer, dryer; byre, pyre/ei/[a] able, atheist, alias, aviator, ancient...[ai] aid, aim, ailment...[ay] bay, mayor, say[ei] eight, beige, rein, obey, survey, veil.../ɔi/[oi] oil, exploit, poison[oy] annoying, royal, alloy, toy/ɑu/[ou] ouch, about, proud[ow] brown, crowd, towel, cow, sow/əu/[o] open, opaque, control, local, ago, jumbo[oɑ] oak, coax, goat, throat[ou] mould, shoulder, soul, though[ow] arrow, mellow, narrow[oe] toe, woe[eau] bureau, plateau/eər/[air] air, dairy, prairie, affair, stair[are] various, wary, careful, share, scare[aire] bilionaire, doctrinaire[ear] bear, wear[ere] premiere, there, where/iər/[ear] ear, appear, rear, year[er] arterial, hero, material, serious[eer] beer, peer, volunteer[ere] adhere, mere, sphere[ier] frontier, cahier/uər/[ur] assurance, jury, rural[our] gourmet, tour, velour[ure] assure, sure[oor] moor, poor 273
  272. 附录三 常见辅音的拼法/b/[b] back, debate, rob[bb] bubble, rabbit, ribbon/p/[p] party, recipe, cup[pp] apper, apple, snippet/d/[d] day, adult, food, need, trade, side[dd] add, shudder, reddish, wedding/t/[t] take, still, political, pant, support[tt] attack, letter, witty, putt, watt[tte] cassette, diskette/g/[g] go, legal, sugar, dog, rug, zigzag[gg] struggle, aggravate, egg[gu] guess, guitar[gh] ghost, ghoulish[x] /gz/ auxiliary, example, exorbitant[gue] vogue, fatigue, ialogue, prologue]/k/[c] can, cup, credit, act, vehicle, misic, traffic[cc] acclaim, occurrence, tobacco, vaccine[k] key, kite, bike, market, desk, fork[ch] chaos, chord, ache, scheme, stomach, psych[ck] pocket, cuckoo, nickel, sick, attack[que] antique, critique, unique[qu] quite, queen, quote, conquer, mosquito[x] fix, axis, toxic/v/[v] value, several, university[vv] navvy, savvy/f/[f] face, professor, beef, wolf[ff] affair, suffer, traffic, cliff, sniff[ph] phone, phrase, cipher, prophet, triumph[gh] cough, tough/ð/[th] than, this, further, together, smooth 274
  273. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破[the] bathe, loathe, soothe/θ/[th] think, three, author, nothing, both, wreath/z/[z] zoo, zip, zero, wizard, zigzag[zz] blizzard, puzzle[s] easy, prison, visit, arise, pause, lens, news/s/[s] set, state, industry, gas, epidermis[ss] assail, assist, assume, press[c] cell, cent, cyclone, ceremony, facet, specify, notice[sc] scenario, scent, discern[ps] psyche, psalm/ʤ/[j] joke, job, jeopardy, pajamas, trajetory, subject, injure[g] gender, gene, gym, surgery, strategic, age, urge[dg] budget, gadget, judge, ridge[du] educate, individual, arduous/ʃ/[sh] she, shoulder, worship, publish[ch] chauvinist, chef, cliche[sch] schwa, schmooze[s] sugar, sure[ti] confidential, potential, nation, position, direction, section, infectious, initiate[ci] artificial, special, magician, physician, spacious, conscious, ancient[si] apprehension, tension[ssi] admission, passion, recession[ss] assure, issue[che] niche, moustache/ʧ/[ch] chair, chief, achieve, voucher, reach, torch[tch] itchy, kitchen, batch, switch, wretch[tu] actual, sanctuary, perpetuate, situate, statue, virtue, fatuous, impetuous, future, venture/l/[l] last, only, particular[ll] caterpillar, dull, bill/m/[m] most, number, home, arm, seem[mm] ammo, immune, hammer, mammal 275
  274. [gm/lm/mb/mn] paradigm, palm, bomb, column/n/[n] nation, any, won, down[nn] antenna, tennis, dinner[gn/kn] gnomic, knite, know, align, sovereign/ŋ/[n] concrete, congress, monkey[ng] sing, young/h/[h] hard, herb, ahead, perhaps[wh] who, whole/r/[r] radio, run, different, serious[rr] arrange, irritate, warrior, carry[rh] rhyme, rhythm, rhetoric[wr] write, wrong/ʒ/[g] genre, regime, garage, beige[j] courgette, bijou[su] casual, pleasure[si] dicision, occasion/w/[w] way, work, world, twin, towards[wh] what, whim[u] quality, require, anguish, language, persuade/j/[y] yellow, yolk, beyond, lawyer[u/eu] uniform, use, euphemism, document[i] behavior, junior, opinion 276
  275. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 附录四 TOEFL常见熟词辟义列表Aaddress [əˈdres] v.应付,处理(问题等)aging [ˈeidʒiŋ] n.陈酿appropriate [əˈprəupriit] v.擅用,挪用,占用,盗用article [ˈɑ:tikl] n.物品;制品,商品arrested [əˈrestid] adj.不良的,滞留的.( arrested development发育不良 )articulate [ɑ:ˈtikjulit] adj.有关节的;有节的; articulate structure n.节体动物assume [əˈsju:m] v.承担,担任.假装,装作……的样子,采取(……态度)Bbark [bɑ:k] n.树皮; 三桅帆船bill [bil] n.账单;清; 议案,法案;.(水禽等细长而扁平的)嘴(猛禽的钩状嘴通常叫 beak )blind [blaind] n.百叶窗book [buk] vt.预定,定(戏位、车位等);托运(行李等)build [bild] n.骨格,体格,成形Ccatch [kætʃ] n.陷阱,圈套,诡计;料不到的困难champion [ˈtʃæmpjən] vt.维护,拥护,主张;为……而奋斗.champion a cause 维护一项事业.chest [tʃest] n.箱,函,柜,匣; 银箱;金库,公款,资金close [kləuz] adj.闷气的,闷热的complex [ˈkɔmpleks] n.络合物,复合物,综合体concern [kənˈsə:n] n.商行,公司;财团;康采恩;事业,业务consume [kənˈsju:m] vi.枯萎;憔悴 The flowers consumed away.花枯萎了.be consumed [away] with (envy, fever, ambition, grief)count [kaunt] n.起诉理由,罪状.critical [ˈkritikəl] adj.危急的;决定性的,重大的coat [kəut] v.涂上一层(例如油漆)cure [kjuə] v.(鱼等用腌、熏、晒、烤等的)加工保藏(法).cut [kʌt] vt.生,长,出(牙齿)Ddate [deit] n.海枣deal [di:l] n.(松等的)木板;木材,木料;adj.松木的dear [diə] adj.昂贵的,高价的deed [di:d] v.立契转让default [diˈfɔ:lt] n.&v.不履行;违约;拖欠dock [dɔk] n.草本植物 vt.剥夺,扣去……的应得工资down [daun] n.(美国)沙丘; (蒲公英等的)冠毛; 鸭绒,绒毛;(鸟的)绒羽;柔毛. 277
  276. 汗毛,软毛,毳毛draw [drɔ:] vt.提取(钱款); 使打成平局drill [dril] vt.(用钢钻)钻(孔);在……上(用钢钻)钻孔drive [draiv] n.冲力,动力;干劲;努力;魄力;精力Eeat [i:t] vt.蛀;腐蚀;消磨exploit [iksˈplɔit] n.功绩,功劳,勋绩exponent [eksˈpəunənt] n.典型,样品Ffactor [ˈfæktə] n.因子,因数; 倍;乘数;商fair [fɛə] n.(英国)定期集市,庙会.商品展览会,展销会,商品交易会fashion [ˈfæʃən] vt.形成,铸成,造,作 (into; to)fault [fɔ:lt] n.(地质)断层felt [felt] n.毛毡;毛布;毡制品;油毛毡.figure [ˈfiɡə] n.人影,人形;人物fine [fain] n.罚款;adj.细小,精致fly [flai] n.(男裤的)拉链functional [ˈfʌŋkʃənl] adj.从使用的观点设计[构成]的Ggame [ɡeim]n.&adj.(集合词)猎物,野味;(鹄等的)群;野外游戏 [游猎、鹰狩等]give [ɡiv] n.弹性Hhide [haid] n.兽皮hit [hit] vt.偶然碰见,遭遇hold [həuld] n.(货船)船舱humor [ˈhju:mə] n.(眼球的)玻璃状液体;(旧时生理学所说动物的)体液;(植物的)汁液.Iimport [ˈimpɔ:t] n.意义,含义inviting [inˈvaitiŋ] adj.引人注目的,吸引人的involved [inˈvɔlvd] adj.复杂的,难缠的issue [ˈisju:] n.&v.流出,(血、水等的)涌出; [法律]子孙,子女Jjar [dʒɑ:] vi.(1)给人烦躁[痛苦]的感觉,刺激 (on) (2)(发出刺耳声地)撞击 (onupon against) (3)震动,震荡(不和谐地)反响,回荡.(4)(意见、行动等)不一致,冲突,激烈争吵(with). jar on sb.给某人不快之感. 278
  277. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破Llace [leis] vt.&vi.系牢, 系紧late [leit] adj.已去世的,已故的lay [lei] adj. (1)一般信徒的,俗人的,凡俗的 (opp.clerical). (2.)无经验的,外行(人)的 (opp.professional).lead [led] n.铅leave [li:v] n.(1)许可,同意.(2)告假,休假;假期letter [ˈletə] n.出租人; letters 证书,许可证literature [ˈlitəritʃə] n.文献lot [lɔt] n.土地Mmake [meik] n.构造means [mi:nz] n.财力、资产measure [ˈmeʒə] n.准绳;韵律 a measure of = is determined by; ……的体现:The rate at which a molecule of water passes through the cycle is not randombut is a measure of the relative size of the various reservoirs.meet [mi:t] n.比赛minute [ˈminit] adj.微小的,细小的Nnovel [ˈnɔvəl] adj.新的,新颖的;新奇的,珍奇的,异常的Oobserve [əbˈzə:v]vi. 陈述意见,评述,简评 (on; upon) strange to observe 讲起来虽奇怪.I have very little to observe on what has been said.关于刚才所听到的我没什么话好讲.vt.observe silence 保持沉默. observe a rule 遵守规则.organ [ˈɔ:ɡən] n.[音乐](教堂用的)管风琴(=(美国) pipe organ);(足踏)风琴;手摇风琴;口琴.机构;机关;机关报[杂志];喉舌;报刊.outstanding [ˌautˈstændiŋ] adj.未付的,未清的;未解决的;未完成的Ppartial [ˈpɑ:ʃəl] adj.[植物;植物学]后生的,再生的.pen [pen] n.(1)(家畜等的)围栏,槛.(2)一栏[一圈]家畜.period [ˈpiəriəd] [音乐]乐段pile [pail] n.(1)高大建筑;(2)痔疮 (3)软毛,绒毛;毛茸.(布、绒的)软面.pitch [pitʃ] n.沥青;含有沥青的物质;松脂,树脂pool [pu:l] n.[医学]淤血pound [paund] n.兽栏v.(连续)猛击;乱敲;砰砰砰地乱弹(钢琴等),乱奏(曲子)preserve [priˈzə:v] n.(1) 禁猎区;(2)蜜饯produce [prəˈdju:s] n.物产;产品,农产品;制品,作品project [prəˈdʒekt] v.使突出,使凸出; 伸出. The upper storey projects ove 279
  278. the street 二楼伸出街上.promise [ˈprɔmis] n.(前途有)希望;(有)指望pronounced [prəˈnaunst] adj.决然的,断然的,强硬的;明白的,显著的.provide [prəˈvaid] v.规定providing [prəˈvaidiŋ] conj.[provided] 倘若……只要,在……条件下.Qquality [ˈkwɔliti] adj.(1)优质的,高级的.(2)上流社会的.quarters [ˈkwɔ:təs] n.寓所,住处;[军事]营房,驻地,营盘,宿舍;岗位.Rrate [reit] v.(1) 被估价;被评价 The ship rates as a ship of the line.这条船列入战列舰级.(2) 申斥,斥责,骂rear [riə] v.饲养(家畜等);抚养,教养(孩子);栽培(作物).relief [riˈli:f]n.[雕刻]凸起;浮起,浮雕;浮雕品;[绘画]人物凸现,轮廓鲜明rent [rent] v.1.(rend 的过去分词) 撕碎;n.[地质学;地理学]断口; (意见等的)分裂,分歧;(关系等的)破裂retire [riˈtaiə] vi.就寝,去睡觉run [rʌn] n.丝袜上的洞Ssave [seiv] conj.除了say [sei] n.发言权scale [skeil] n.阶梯,梯子;v.用梯子爬上;爬越,攀登;n.天平;n.鳞;(锅垢、锈)v.剥鳞/垢、锈school [sku:l] n.(鱼、鲸等水族动物的)群;队. a school of dolphins 一群海豚.score [skɔ:] n.[音乐]总谱,乐谱;(电影歌舞等的)配乐scores [skɔ:z] n.许多 scores of fossil remainsscreen [skri:n] n.筛子season [ˈsi:zən] vt.(1)使熟练;使(习)惯.(2)风干;晒干(木材);晾干,对…进行干燥处理;使陈化.(3)使适应(气候等).(4)给……加味[调味].(5)给……增加趣味.(6)缓和,调和.secretary [ˈsekrətəri] n.(1)(上部附有书橱的)写字台.(2)书写体大写铅字.secure [siˈkjuə] vt.搞到;把…… 拿到手;得到;获得serve [sə:v] vi.[网球]开球;发球shower [ˈʃauə] n.(美)(为新娘等举行的)送礼会;(婚前、产后)的聚会shrink [ʃriŋk] n.精神病医师sound [saund] vi.(1)测水深;探测(上层空气).(2)试探(别人的意见);调查(可能性).(3)(鱼或鲸鱼)突然潜入海底.sow [səu] n.大母猪spell [spel] vt.(1)招致,带来; (2)轮班,换班;替班; (3)符咒,咒语.(4)吸引力,诱惑力,魔力,魅力. 280
  279. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破spoke [spəuk] n.(车轮的)辐条spot [spɔt] vt.认出,发现,定位spring [spriŋ] n.弹簧;泉水v.扭伤(腿)stand [stænd] v.忍受;n.床头柜standard [ˈstændəd] n.直立支柱;灯台;烛台,电杆,垂直的水管(电管).start [stɑ:t] v.(船材、钉等)松动,翘曲,歪,脱落.stem [stem] v.起源于,起因于,(由……)发生,来自 (from out of). Correctdecisions stem from correct judgments.正确的决心来自于正确的判断.still [stil] n.蒸馏锅 v.蒸馏strain [strein] n.血统,家世;族,种;[生物学]品系,系;菌株;变种,小种.subscribe [səbˈskraib] v.同意、赞成stroke [strəuk] n.笔画Ttemper [ˈtempə] n.(黏土的)黏度;(灰泥的)稠度;tender [ˈtendə] v.正式提出; tender ones resignation 提出辞呈till [til] n.[地质学;地理学]冰碛土(物)train [trein] n.schene, trick ; 敲门,绝技Uutter [ˈʌtə] adj.完全的,十足的Vvessel [ˈvesəl] n.船,舰;飞船Wwage [weidʒ] v.实行,进行,发动(战争等) (on against)way [wei] adv.(美口)……得多,远为.与 above, ahead, behind, below, down, off,out, over, up 等副词、介词连用,以加强语气. way back 老早以前. way downupon the river Thames 在老远老远的泰晤士河边. way up 还在上面;好得多.way out of balance 逆差很大很大.weather [ˈweðə] vt.[地质学;地理学](常用被动语态)使风化well [wel] n.井;vt.涌出,喷出(up/out/forth)wind [wind] n.肠气,屁;v.嗅出,察觉,嗅到猎物的气味(winded/winded);v.(winded/wound) 吹(角笛、喇叭等). wind a call 吹哨子(召唤).v.(wound/wound) 卷绕,缠绕;上发条 281
  280. 附记 本书成书过程中,张艺馨、朱莎莎、赵媛、徐薇等老师做了大量的辅助工作,并通过教学实践为本书提出了很多建设性意见。在此,衷心感谢他们的辛勤工作。另外,还有很多学生,如包括(且不仅包括)华盛顿大学的高雅、康奈尔大学的魏天天、耶鲁大学的曲直、布朗大学的张少鹏、斯沃兹茅的钟灵等同学,在此过程中通过自身的学习经历为编者、老师提供了大量合理而又有效的反馈,虽然无法列出所有同学的姓名,但在此也由衷地感谢他们的努力。 还有许多充满善意和热心的读者。正是因为有他们的帮助,才使得很多原本可能无法注意到的、或者不可能想象的各种纰漏剔除。我的个人网站是www.lixiaolai.com;我的电子邮箱是lixiaolai@gmail.com。希望热心的读者在阅读本书的过程中遇到任何可能的纰漏之时,能在我的网站留言,或者直接发送email告知,万分感谢! 这本书的出版过程中,还得到了无数意外的帮助。最令人惊讶也最令人感动的来自胖兔子粥粥的插图。粥粥同学决定突破英语难关,而他的方式颇为独特:每天至少背完一篇文章,并为该文章的文字配上插图。大约从2009年的7月份开始,粥粥言出必行,期间只有几次因为工作原因(比如出差)而间断;至10月底,粥粥同学不仅背完这些单词,还一幅不差地画完了插图——使这本原本几乎注定枯燥的词汇书一下子改头换面,成为同类书籍中的异类。而这原本是我根本不可能奢望的事情。 我感激粥粥,并不仅仅是因为他画了这么多可爱的插图,更是因为他为读者树立了一个榜样。粥粥是专业漫画人,对已经离开学校参加工作几年、原本在高校底子就较差(粥粥自我陈述)的他来说,学英语、背单词的难度可能要比大多数在校学生要大很多。然而,他是个言出必行的人,不仅背完,还要画完,还要作为出版人全程参与本书整个出版过程。粥粥背单词的过程,无疑为读者树立了一个活生生的榜样,而这样的榜样对读者来说,几乎是无价的。谢谢粥粥。 最后,真心希望这本书能够给读者带来更大的进步。 李笑来 二〇一〇年初 于北京 282
  281. 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 新托福iBT词汇分类突破 补充说 虽然这是一本以词汇为主的书,但是要学好英语,还是要听说读写齐头并进的,这也是这本词汇书为啥有大段的文章、还有老外来通篇朗读的原因:只背单词,肯定不是学英语的全部。不仅要背单词,遇到好句子也要背,遇到漂亮文章也要背——死记硬背的另外一个说法是“博闻强识”。 说个做这本书时的趣事:本书里所有文章的音频都是一个老美念的。这老美还是个前雅思考官,文化水平不可谓不高,托福词汇显然他也都认识,但这书里的音频,他真是频频念错,足足搞了6、7个小时,差点没昏过去……(其实这现象也不难解释。你自己找一篇《南方周末》上的报道、或者是挑一篇科学松鼠会的文章,试试能不能不打磕巴、有声有色地念出来?说明啥?听说读写,不是一码事儿!你肯定不能光靠背单词就把英语学好!) 英语学习肯定没有秘诀,速成没有可能。但英语学习肯定也不需要天赋,只需要一些努力罢了。不要着急。静静地等待梦想长大。 英语门外汉胖兔子粥粥 二〇一〇年九月于北京 ps:胖兔子粥粥号称是拯救地球小分队的队长嘛,所以本书的音频就不给你光盘了,环保!大家去李笑来老师博客上下载吧: www.lixiaolai.com。如果你对学习英语有啥疑惑,也欢迎翻看,学习外语的真知灼见都在里面咯。另外贴个小广告:想学好英语的,不要错过笑来老师的新书——《人人都能用英语》!!很快就要上市啦,敬请围观!还有猛烈推荐那本《把时间当作朋友》!还有这些书的插图都是我画的!哇哈哈哈! 283

×