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Cisco.Press.Metro.Ethernet.E Book Kb

  1. 1. • Table of Contents• IndexMetro EthernetBySam Halabi Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  2. 2. • Table of Contents• IndexMetro EthernetBySam Halabi Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240 CopyrightThe definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. About the Author About the Technical Reviewers Acknowledgments Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and Icons they This do whatUsed in can Bookfor your organization Introduction Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to Goals and Methods understand Read concepts Who Should the This Book? How This Book Is Organized Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Part I: Ethernet: From Internet Routing Architectures Halabi, author of the LAN to the MAN Chapter 1. Introduction to Data in the MetroMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and will The Metro NetworkrepresentEthernet in the Metro how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers. a major shift inThe metro has alwaysEtherneta challenging environment for delivering data services because it has The Early Metro been Moversbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have to The U.S. Incumbent Landscapego through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demanded The International Landscapeby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperationalData View of the Metro A and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro to Metro Servicesoffer enhanced data services. Ethernet Access and Frame Relay ComparisonMetro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holistic Conclusionview. It Chapter 2. Metro Technologies describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services. Ethernet over SONET/SDH Resilient Packet RingMetro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriers Ethernet Transportto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks Conclusion(VPN), virtual private Ethernet Services Chapter 3. Metro local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS). L2 Switching Basics Metro Ethernet Services Concepts Example of an L2 Metro Ethernet Service Challenges with All-Ethernet Metro Networks Conclusion
  3. 3. Chapter 4. Hybrid L2 and L3 IP/MPLS Networks Understanding VPN Components Delivering L3VPNs over IP L2 Ethernet Services over an IP/MPLS Network Conclusion Part II: MPLS: Controlling Traffic over Your Optical Metro Chapter 5. MPLS Traffic Engineering• Table of Contents Advantages of Traffic Engineering• Index Pre-MPLS Traffic Engineering TechniquesMetro Ethernet MPLS and Traffic EngineeringBySam Halabi Conclusion Chapter 6. RSVP for Traffic Engineering and Fast Reroute Publisher: Cisco Press Understanding RSVP-TE Pub Date: October 01, 2003 Understanding MPLS Fast Reroute ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Conclusion Pages: 240 Chapter 7. MPLS Controlling Optical Switches Understanding GMPLS Establishing the Need for GMPLS Signaling Models Label Switching in a Nonpacket WorldThe definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Conclusion Chapter 8. GMPLS Architecture Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and GMPLS Interfaces what they canof RoutingyourSignaling Modification do for and organization Inclusion of Technology-Specific Parameters Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to Link Management Protocol understand the concepts GMPLS Protection and Restoration Mechanisms GainSummary of Differences Between MPLS and innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam from the experience of industry GMPLS Halabi, author of Internet Routing Architectures Conclusion Appendix A. SONET/SDH Basic Framing and ConcatenationMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and will SONET/SDH Frame Formatsrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers. SONET/SDH ArchitectureThe metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it has SONET/SDH Concatenationbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demanded Conclusionby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in the Glossaryoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro to Aoffer enhanced data services. B CMetro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. ItDdescribes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers E and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services. FMetro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriers Gto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the book Ithen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks L(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), traffic Mengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS). N O P Q R
  4. 4. S T U V W Index• Table of Contents• IndexMetro EthernetBySam Halabi Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  5. 5. CopyrightCopyright© 2003 Cisco SystemsPublished by:• Table of ContentsCisco Press• Index800 East 96th Street, 3rd FloorMetro EthernetIndianapolis, IN 46240 USABySam HalabiAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information Publisher: Cisco Pressstorage andOctober 01, 2003 Pub Date: retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for theinclusion of 1-58705-096-X ISBN: brief quotations in a review. Pages: 240Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Number: 2002103527First Printing September 2003The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications.Warning and Disclaimer Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organizationThis book is designed to provide information about Metro Ethernet. Every effort has been madeto make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the conceptsThe information is provided on an "as is" basis. The author, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems,Inc., shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any lossor damages arising experience of industry innovatorin this book or from thePress author, Sam Gain from the from the information contained and best-selling Cisco use of the discs orprograms that may accompany Routing Architectures Halabi, author of Internet it.Metro networks will emerge as book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of CiscoThe opinions expressed in this the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent Inc.Systems, a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have toTrademark Acknowledgmentsgo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro toAll terms mentioned services.offer enhanced data in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have beenappropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of thisinformation. Use of aCisco Press looks at the deployment of metro affecting the validity of anyMetro Ethernet from term in this book should not be regarded as data services from a holistictrademark or service mark. metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses theview. It describes the currentdrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Feedback InformationMetro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current andto create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and networksAt Cisco Press, our goal is emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private value.(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual rigorousLAN services (VPLS), traffic theEach book is crafted with care and precision, undergoing private development that involvesengineering, and of members from the professional technical community.unique expertise MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).Readers feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments regardinghow we could improve the quality of this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs,you can contact us through e-mail at feedback@ciscopress.com. Please make sure to include thebook title and ISBN in your message.
  6. 6. We greatly appreciate your assistance.Publisher John WaitEditor-in-Chief John KaneCisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden• Table of Contents•Cisco Press Program Manager Index Sonia Torres ChavezMetro Ethernet Manager, Marketing Communications, Cisco SystemsBySam Halabi Scott MillerCisco Marketing Program Manager Edie Quiroz Publisher: Cisco PressProduction October 01, 2003 Pub Date: Manager Patrick Kanouse ISBN: 1-58705-096-XDevelopment Editor Dayna Isley Pages: 240Copy Editor Bill McManusTechnical Editors Mike Bernico, Mark Gallo, Giles Heron, Irwin Lazar Team Coordinator Tammi RossThe definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications.Cover Designer Louisa AdairComposition the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and Discover Interactive Composition Corporation what they can do for your organizationProofreader Gayle Johnson Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels toIndexer understand the concepts Larry Sweazy Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.Corporatehas always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasThe metro HeadquartersCisco built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have tobeen Systems, Inc.170 West Tasman Drive shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedgo through fundamentalSan Jose, CA 95134-1706by enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theUSAoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro towww.cisco.com data services.offer enhancedTel: 408 526-4000 800 553-NETS (6387)Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticFax: 408 526-4100view. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.European HeadquartersCisco Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersMetro Systems International BVHaarlerbergparkto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookHaarlerbergweg 13-19then examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks1101 CH Amsterdam(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficThe Netherlandsengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).www-europe.cisco.comTel: 31 0 20 357 1000Fax: 31 0 20 357 1100Americas Headquarters
  7. 7. Cisco Systems, Inc.170 West Tasman DriveSan Jose, CA 95134-1706USAwww.cisco.comTel: 408 526-7660Fax:408 527-0883• Table of ContentsAsia Pacific Headquarters• IndexCisco Systems, Inc.Metro EthernetCapital TowerBySam Halabi168 Robinson Road#22-01 to #29-01Singapore 068912 Publisher: Cisco Presswww.cisco.com 01, 2003 Pub Date: OctoberTel: +65 6317 7777 ISBN: 1-58705-096-XFax: +65 6317 7799 Pages: 240Cisco Systems has more than 200 offices in the following countries and regions. Addresses,phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed on the Cisco.com Web site atwww.cisco.com/go/offices.Argentina • Australia • Austria • and Carrier Metro Ethernet Canada • Chile • China PRC •The definitive guide to EnterpriseBelgium • Brazil • Bulgaria •applications.Colombia • Costa Rica • Croatia • Czech Republic • Denmark • Dubai, UAE • Finland • France •Germany • Greece • Hong Kong SAR • Hungary • India • Indonesia • Ireland • Israel • Italy •Japan • Korea the latest developments in•metro networking, Ethernet, New MPLS services and • Discover • Luxembourg • Malaysia Mexico • The Netherlands • and Zealand • NorwayPeru • Philippines • Polandyour organization Rico • Romania • Russia • Saudi Arabia • what they can do for • Portugal • PuertoScotland • Singapore • Slovakia • Slovenia • South Africa • Spain • Sweden • Switzerland •Taiwan • Thailand • Turkey • Ukraine • United enables networking professionals of all•levels to • Learn from the easy-to-read format that Kingdom • United States • Venezuela Vietnam understand the conceptsZimbabweCopyright © 2003 Cisco Systems,industry rights reserved. CCIP, CCSP, the Press author, Samthe Gain from the experience of Inc. All innovator and best-selling Cisco Cisco Arrow logo,CiscoHalabi, author of Internet Routing Systems Verified logo, Cisco Unity, Follow Me Browsing, Powered Network mark, the Cisco ArchitecturesFormShare, iQ Net Readiness Scorecard, Networking Academy, and ScriptShare are trademarksMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for Play, and Learn,industry and Way toof Cisco Systems, Inc.; Changing the Way We Work, Live, the networking The Fastest willrepresentYour Internet Quotient, and iQuick Study are service marks of Cisco Systems, Inc.; andIncrease a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for CCNP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified it hasAironet, ASIST, BPX, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCNA, delivering data services becausebeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for Cisco Systems, will have toInternetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, the Cisco IOS logo, Cisco Press, voice. Carriers Ciscogo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedSystems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Empowering the Internet Generation,by enterprise customers and consumers. This is not Step,a technology shift, but also a shift in theEnterprise/Solver, EtherChannel, EtherSwitch, Fast only GigaStack, Internet Quotient, IOS,operational and business model that will allow MGX, MICA, thecarriers to transform the metro toIP/TV, iQ Expertise, the iQ logo, LightStream, the incumbent Networkers logo, Networkoffer enhanced data services.Registrar,Packet, PIX, Post-Routing, Pre-Routing, RateMUX, Registrar, SlideCast, SMARTnet,StrataView Plus, Stratm, SwitchProbe, TeleRouter, TransPath, and VCO are registeredMetro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holistictrademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and certain other countries.view. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will this document or Web site are the address data services.All other trademarks mentioned in face in transforming the metro to property of their respectiveowners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between CiscoMetro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersand any other company. (0303R)to the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networksPrinted in the USA(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).DedicationsI dedicate this book to my wonderful family, who spent many nights and weekends alone to helpme finish the manuscript. To my lovely wife, Roula, I promised you after the IRA book that I
  8. 8. wouldnt write another book. Sorry I lied. Thank you for supporting me. To my sons, Joe andJason, I love you both for the sacrifices you had to make during the last year for me to finish thisbook.• Table of Contents• IndexMetro EthernetBySam Halabi Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  9. 9. About the AuthorMr. Halabi is a seasoned executive and an industry veteran with more than 18 years ofexperience marketing and selling to the worldwide Enterprise and Carrier networking markets.While at Cisco, heof Contents first Cisco Internet routing book, Internet Routing Architectures, a• Table wrote thebest-seller inIndex U.S. and international markets. He has held multiple executive management• thepositions in the field of marketing, sales, and business development and has been instrumentalMetro Ethernetin evolving fast-growing businesses for the Enterprise and Carrier Ethernet markets.BySam Halabi Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  10. 10. About the Technical ReviewersMike Bernico is a senior networking engineer at the Illinois Century Network. In this position,he focuses primarily on network design and integrating advanced network services such as QoS,IP Multicast, IPv6, and MPLS into the network. He has also authored open-source software• Table of Contentsrelated to his interests in new networking technologies. He enjoys reading and spending time in• Indexthe lab increasing his knowledge of the networking industry. He lives in Illinois with his wifeMetro EthernetJayme. He can be contacted at mike@bernico.net.BySam HalabiMark Gallo is a technical manager with America Online. His network certifications include CiscoCCNP and Cisco CCDP. He has led several engineering groups responsible for designing and Publisher: Cisco Pressimplementing enterprise LANs and international IP networks. He has a BS in electricalengineeringOctober the2003 Pub Date: from 01, University of Pittsburgh. He resides in northern Virginia with his wife, ISBN: son, Paul.Betsy, and 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240Giles Heron is the principal network architect for PacketExchange, a next-generation carrierproviding Ethernet services on a global basis. He designed PacketExchanges MPLS network andhas been instrumental in the development of its service portfolio. A cofounder ofPacketExchange, he previously worked in the Network Architecture group at Level(3)Communications. Heto Enterpriseof the draft-martiniEthernet applications.The definitive guide is coauthor and Carrier Metro specification for transport of Layer 2protocols over IP and MPLS networks and the draft-lasserre-vkompella specification foremulation of multipoint Ethernet LAN segments over MPLS, as well as various other Internetdrafts. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organizationIrwin Lazar is practice manager for Burton Group in its Networks and Telecom group,managing afrom the consultants who advise large end-user organizations on topics including Learn team of easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels tonetwork architecture concepts understand the and emerging network technologies. He administers The MPLS ResourceCenter (http://www.mplsrc.com) and is the conference director for the MPLScon Conference andExhibition.from the experience of industry innovator and relating to data networking and Sam Gain He has published numerous articles on topics best-selling Cisco Press author, theInternet and author of Internet Routing Architectures Halabi, is a frequent speaker on networking-related topics at many industry conferences.He holds a bachelors degree in management information systems from Radford University andMetro networks will emerge as the next He is of growth for the networkingSystems Securityan MBA from George Mason University. area also a Certified Information industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.Professional (CISSP).The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  11. 11. AcknowledgmentsI would like to acknowledge many individuals who made this book possible. Many thanks to GilesHeron from PacketExchange for his thorough review of the material and to his manycontributions to the Contents• Table of Metro Ethernet space. I would like to thank Irwin Lazar, Mike Bernico, MarkGallo, and Saaed Sardar for their contributions and for keeping me honest. Thanks to Andrew• IndexMalis Ethernetinitial work on this project. I also would like to thank many of the authors of theMetro for hisIETF RFCs and IETF drafts whose information has been used for some of the concepts andBySam Halabidefinitions in this book. This includes the following people: Luca Martini, Nasser El-Aawar, EricRosen, and Giles Heron for their work on the encapsulation of Ethernet frames over IP/MPLSnetworks. V. Kompella, Mark Lasserre, Nick Tingle, Sunil Khandekar, Ali Sajassi, Tom Soon, Publisher: Cisco PressYetik Serbest, Eric01, 2003 Vasile Radaoca, Rob Nath, Andrew Smith, Juha Heinanen, Nick Pub Date: October Puetz,Slabakov, J. Achirica, L. Andersson, Giles Heron, S. Khandekar, P. Lin, P. Menezes, A. ISBN: 1-58705-096-XMoranganti, H. Ould-Brahim, and S. Yeong-il for their work on the VPLS draft specification. K. Pages: 240Kompella for his original work on the DTLS draft specification. Special thanks to Daniel O.Awduche for his many contributions to traffic engineering requirements and his phenomenalwork in driving multiprotocol lambda switching and GMPLS. Thanks to J. Malcolm, J. Agogbua,M. ODell, and J. McManus for their contributions to TE requirements. Many thanks to the CCAMPgroup and its many contributors to GMPLS, including Peter Ashwood Smith, Eric Mannie, ThomasThe definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications.D. Nadeau, Ayan Banerjee, Lyndon Ong, Debashis Basak, Dimitri Papadimitriou, Lou Berger,Dimitrios Pendarakis, Greg Bernstein, Bala Rajagopalan, Sudheer Dharanikota, Yakov Rekhter,John Discover the latest developments in Hal Sandick, Don Fedyk, Vishal Sharma,services and Drake, Debanjan Saha, Yanhe Fan, metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS Gert Grammel,George Swallow, Dan Guo,your organization Jennifer Yates, Alan Kullberg, George R. Young, what they can do for Kireeti Kompella,Jonathan P. Lang, John Yu, Fong Liaw, and Alex Zinin. I would also like to thank the MetroEthernet Forum and the MPLS Forum for manyenables networking professionals of allMPLS and Learn from the easy-to-read format that of their informative references about levels toVPLS. I am sure Ithe concepts many of the names of talented people who contributed indirectly understand have missedto the concepts in this book, many thanks for your efforts. Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, SamLast but not least, many thanksRouting Architectures the Cisco Press team, John Kane, Dayna Halabi, author of Internet to Cisco Systems andIsley, and others for supporting this project.Metro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  12. 12. Icons Used in This BookThroughout this book, you see the following icons:• Table of Contents• IndexMetro EthernetBySam Halabi Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  13. 13. IntroductionMetro Ethernet—opposites attract. Ethernet is a technology that has had major success in theLAN, displacing other once-promising technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI, and ATM.Ethernets simplicityContents• Table of and price/performance advantages have made it the ultimate winner,extending from the enterprise workgroup closet all the way to the enterprise backbone and data• Indexcenters. The metro is the last portion of the network standing between subscribers or businessesMetro Ethernetand the vast amount of information that is available on the Internet. The metro is entrenchedBySam Halabiwith legacy time-division multiplexing (TDM) and SONET/SDH technology that is designed fortraditional voice and leased-line services. These legacy technologies are inadequate for handlingthe Publisher: Ciscodemands of emerging data applications. bandwidth Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003Ethernet in 1-58705-096-X ISBN: the metro can be deployed as an access interface to replace traditional T1/E1 TDMinterfaces. Many data services are being deployed in the metro, including point-to-point Ethernet Pages: 240Line Services and multipoint-to-multipoint Ethernet LAN services or Virtual Private LAN services(VPLS) that extend the enterprise campus across geographically dispersed backbones. Ethernetcan run over many metro transport technologies, including SONET/SDH, next-generationSONET/SDH, Resilient Packet Ring (RPR), and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), as wellas over pure Ethernet transport.The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications.Ethernet, however, was not designed for metro applications and lacks the scalability andreliability required for mass deployments. Deploying Ethernet in the metro requires thescalability and the latest developments in metro networking,Multiprotocol Label Switching and Discover robustness features that exist only in IP and Ethernet, and MPLS services (MPLS) what they can do for your organizationcontrol planes. As such, hybrid Layer 2 (L2) and Layer 3 (L3) IP and MPLS networks haveemerged as a solution that marries Ethernets simplicity and cost effectiveness with the scale of Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels toIP and MPLS networks. With many transport technologies deployed in the metro, Ethernet understand the conceptsservices have to be provisioned and monitored over a mix of data switches and optical switches.It becomes essential to find a control plane that can spanbest-sellingand optical networks. MPLS Gain from the experience of industry innovator and both data Cisco Press author, Samhas been extended to do this task via the use of the Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) control plane, Halabi, author of Internet Routing Architectureswhich controls both data and optical switches. Understanding these topics and more will helpyou master the metro space as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willMetro networks will emerge and its many intricacies.represent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  14. 14. Goals and MethodsThe goal of this book is to make you familiar with the topic of metro Ethernet—what it is, how itstarted, and how it has evolved. One thing is for certain: after you read this book, you will neverbe intimidated by the metro Ethernet topic again. You will be familiar with the different• Table of Contentstechnologies, such as Ethernet switching, RPR, next-generation SONET/SDH, MPLS, and so on, in• Indexthe context of metro deployments.Metro EthernetThe industry today is divided among different pools of expertise—LAN switching, IP routing, andBySam Halabitransport. These are three different worlds that require their own special knowledge base. LANswitching expertise is specific to individuals who come from the enterprise space, IP routing Publisher: Cisco Pressexpertise is more specific to individuals who deal with public and private IP routed backbones,andPub Date: October 01, 2003 specific to individuals who deal with TDM and optical networks. The transport expertise ismetro ISBN: 1-58705-096-Xareas of expertise. This book attempts to bridge the gap between blends all theseenterprise LAN, IP/MPLS, and transport knowledge in the same way metro bridges the gap Pages: 240between enterprise networks and IP routed backbones over a blend of transport technologies.The style of this book is narrative. It goes from simple to more challenging within each chapterand across chapters. The big picture is always presented first to give you a better view of what isbeing described in the chapter, and then the text goes into more details. It is possible to skip theThe definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications.more detailed sections of the book and still have a complete picture of the topic. I call thedifferent levels within a chapter or across chapters "warps." Different readers will find comfort indifferent warps. The main thing is to learn something new and challenging every services and Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS time you entera new warp. what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  15. 15. Who Should Read This Book?The book is targeted at a wide audience, ranging from nontechnical, business-orientedindividuals to very technical individuals. The different people who have interest in the subjectinclude network operators, engineers, consultants, managers, CEOs, and venture capitalists.•Enterprise directors Contents Table of of technology and CIOs will read the book to assess how they can build• Indexscalable virtual enterprise networks. Telecom operators will find in the book a way to move intoMetro Ethernetselling next-generation data services. Engineers will augment their knowledge base in the areasof EthernetBySam Halabi switching, IP/MPLS, and optical networks. Salespeople will gain expertise in selling ina fast-growing metro Ethernet market. Last but not least, businesspeople will understand thetopic to theCisco Press Publisher: level where they can make wise investments in the metro Ethernet space. Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  16. 16. How This Book Is OrganizedThis book is organized into two main parts:• Part I—Ethernet: From the LAN to the MAN Table of Contents• IndexMetro This part Ethernet of the book—Chapters 1 through 4—starts by describing the different drivers that motivated the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how they have evolved in the UnitedBySam Halabi States versus internationally. You will see how Ethernet has moved from the LAN into the MAN and how it is complementing existing and emerging metro technologies such as Publisher: Cisco Press SONET/SDH, next-generation SONET, RPR, and WDM. You will then learn about the different Ethernet services, such as point-to-point Ethernet Line Services and multipoint-to- Pub Date: October 01, 2003 multipoint Ethernet LAN services as represented by the concept of Virtual Private LAN ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Service (VPLS). This part of the book explains the challenges of deploying Ethernet Pages: 240 networks and how hybrid Ethernet and IP MPLS networks have emerged as a scalable solution for deploying L2 Ethernet VPN services. Part II—MPLS Controlling Traffic over Your Optical MetroThe definitivean important technologyCarrier Metro Ethernet applications. MPLS is guide to Enterprise and for scaling metro deployments. Whereas the first part of the book discusses MPLS in the context of building Layer 2 metro Ethernet VPNs, Part II—Chapters 5 through 8—explores the use of MPLS to control the traffic trajectory in the Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and optical metro. The metro is built with data-switching, SONET/SDH, and optical-switching what they can do for your organization systems. The act of provisioning different systems and controlling traffic across packet and opticalfrom the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to Learn systems is difficult and consitutes a major operational expense. GMPLS has extended the use of MPLS as a universal control plane for both packet/cell and optical understand the concepts systems. GMPLS is one of those "warp 7" subjects. Part II first familiarizes you with the subject of the experience of and how the RSVP-TE best-selling Cisco is used to control Gain from traffic engineeringindustry innovator and signaling protocol Press author, Sam traffic trajectory Internet Routing Architectures Halabi, author ofand reroute traffic in the case of failure. This makes the transition into the topic of GMPLS go smoother, with many of the basic traffic engineering in packet/cell networks already defined.Metro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.Chapters 1has alwaysand the challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasThe metro through 8 been a appendix cover the following topics:been built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demanded Chapter 1, "Introduction to Data in the Metro"— The metro has always been aby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in the challenging environment for delivering data services, because it was built to handle theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro to stringent reliability and availability needs of voice communications. The metro is evolvingoffer enhanced data services. differently in different regions of the world, depending on many factors. For example,Metrometro Ethernet Cisco Press slowlyat the deployment ofof legacy TDM deployments and stiff Ethernet from is evolving looks in the U.S. because metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses and regulations, but it is evolving quickly in other parts of the world, especially in Asiathedrivers and challenges carriers willmany in transforming the metro and are not data services. Japan, which do not have as face legacy TDM deployments to address as heavily regulated.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery 2, "Metro Technologies"— Metro Ethernet services do not necessitatethe book Chapter of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, an all-then examinesLayer 2 network; rather, they can be deployed the role of virtual private networks Ethernet current and emerging trends, and delves into over different technologies such as(VPN), virtual private SONET/SDH and IP/MPLS networks.private LAN services (VPLS), traffic next-generation local area networks (VLAN), virtual This chapter goes into more detailsengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLSthe metro. about the different technologies used in (GMPLS). Chapter 3, "Metro Ethernet Services"— Ethernet over SONET, Resilient Packet Ring, and Ethernet transport are all viable methods to deploy a metro Ethernet service. However, functionality needs to be offered on top of metro equipment to deliver revenue-generating services such as Internet connectivity or VPN services. Chapter 3 starts by discussing the basics of Layer 2 Ethernet switching to familiarize you with Ethernet switching concepts.
  17. 17. Youll then learn about the different metro Ethernet services concepts as introduced by the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF). Defining the right traffic and performance parameters, class of service, and service frame delivery ensures that buyers and users of the service understand what they are paying for and also helps service providers communicate their capabilities. Chapter 4, "Hybrid L2 and L3 IP/MPLS Networks"— Chapter 4 focuses first on describing a pure Layer 3 VPN implementation and its applicability to metro Ethernet. This• Table of Contents gives you enough information to compare Layer 3 VPNs and Layer 2 VPNs relative to metro• Index Ethernet applications. The chapter then delves into the topic of deploying L2 EthernetMetro Ethernet services over a hybrid L2 Ethernet and an L3 IP/MPLS network. Some of the basicBySamscalability issues that are considered include restrictions on the number of customers Halabi because of the VLAN-ID limitations, scaling the Layer 2 backbone with spanning tree, service provisioning and monitoring, and carrying VLAN information within the network. Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 Chapter 5, "MPLS Traffic Engineering"— Previous chapters discussed how metro ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Ethernet Layer 2 services can be deployed over an MPLS network. Those chapters also Pages: 240 covered the concept of pseudowires and LSP tunnels. In Chapter 5, youll learn about the different parameters used for traffic engineering. Traffic engineering is an important MPLS function that allows the network operator to have more control over how traffic traverses its network. This chapter details the concept of traffic engineering and its use.The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet Reroute"— MPLS plays a big role Chapter 6, "RSVP for Traffic Engineering and Fast applications. in delivering and scaling services in the metro, so you need to understand how it can be used to achieve traffic engineering and protection via the use of Resource Reservation Discover traffic engineering (RSVP-TE). In this chapter, Ethernet, and MPLS through the use Protocol the latest developments in metro networking, you see how MPLS, services and what they can do for your organization of RSVP-TE, can be used to establish backup paths in the case of failure. This chapter discusses the basics of RSVP-TE and how it can be applied to establish LSPs, bandwidth Learn fromand fast-reroute techniques. Youll getnetworkingexplanation of of all levels to allocation, the easy-to-read format that enables a detailed professionals the RSVP-TE understand the concepts give you a better understanding of this complex protocol. messages and objects to Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco upon which MPLS Chapter 7, "MPLS Controlling Optical Switches"— The principles Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing Architecturesto multiple layers of the transport network. technology is based are generic and applicable As such, MPLS-based control of other network layers, such as the TDM and optical layers, isMetro networks will Chapter 7 discusses why Generalized MPLS networking industryto also possible. emerge as the next area of growth for the (GMPLS) is needed and willrepresent a majorprovision optical networks.are offered to businesses and residential customers. dynamically shift in how data services Youll learn about the benefits and drawbacks ofThe metro static centralized and dynamic decentralized for deliveringmodels. Chapter 7 also it has both has always been a challenging environment provisioning data services becausebeen introduces you the stringent reliability and availability needs forand augmented) and to to built to handle to the different signaling models (overlay, peer, voice. Carriers will havego through fundamental shifts to equip the metro circuits for TDM and data services demanded how GMPLS uses labels to cross-connect the for next-generation WDM networks.by enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to attempts to address to Chapter 8, "GMPLS Architecture"— Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) transform the metrooffer some of the challenges that exist in optical networks by building on MPLS and extending its enhanced data services. control parameters to handle the scalability and manageability aspects of optical networks.MetroThis chapter explains Press looks at the deployment of architecture, such asfromextensions Ethernet from Cisco the characteristics of the GMPLS metro data services the a holisticview.to routing and signaling and thewhich is based on TDM technology, and discusses the be It describes the current metro, technology parameters that GMPLS adds to MPLS todrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services. able to control optical networks.MetroAppendix, "SONET/SDH Basic Framing Ethernet services and how that has led carriers Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro and Concatenation"— This appendix presentsto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies,adapted via the basics of SONET/SDH framing and how the SONET/SDH technology is being the bookthen examines current and emergingconcatenation to meet the challenging needs of emerging the use of standard and virtual trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), traffic data over SONET/SDH networks in the metro. The emergence of L2 metro services willengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS). challenge the legacy SONET/SDH network deployments and will drive the emergence of multiservice provisioning platforms that will efficiently transport Ethernet, Frame Relay, ATM, and other data services over SONET/SDH.
  18. 18. Part I: Ethernet: From the LAN to the MAN Chapter 1 Introduction to Data in the Metro Chapter 2 Metro Technologies• Table of Contents• Chapter 3 Metro Ethernet Services IndexMetro Ethernet Chapter 4 Hybrid L2 and L3 IP/MPLS NetworksBySam Halabi Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  19. 19. Chapter 1. Introduction to Data in theMetro•This chapter Table of Contents covers the following topics:• IndexMetro Ethernet The Metro NetworkBySam Halabi Ethernet in the Metro Publisher: Cisco Press The Early Metro Ethernet Pub Date: October 01, 2003 Movers ISBN: 1-58705-096-X The U.S. Incumbent Landscape Pages: 240 The International Landscape A Data View of the Metro Metro ServicesThe definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Ethernet Access and Frame Relay Comparison Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services andThe metro,they first do forof the organization connects subscribers and businesses to the WAN, what the can span your network thathas always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it has been builtto handle the stringent reliability and availability needs of voice communications. The levels to Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all metro isevolving differently in different regions of the world depending on many factors, including the understand the conceptsfollowing: Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing Architectures Type of service provider— Metro deployments vary with respect to the type of serviceMetro networksthat are building them. While of growth for operating companies (RBOCs) are providers will emerge as the next area regional Bell the networking industry and will inclined to build traditional SONET/SDH metro networks, greenfield operators have therepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has to buildbeen arevolutionary rather than evolutionary networks. tendency always more challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro deployments in Europe, Asia Pacific, Japan, and Geography— U.S. deployments differ from for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only ain the U.S. are SONET also a shift in the so on. For example, while many metro deployments technology shift, but centric, Chinaoperational and are not tied down to will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the Ethernet and Korea business model that legacy deployments and therefore could adopt an metro tooffer network faster. services. enhanced dataMetroRegulations— Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro service providers. Europe, for Ethernet from Regulations tie to geography and the type of data services from a holistic example, has less regulation than the U.S. as far as defining the boundary between a dataview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses the network and a Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) network; hence, the adoption ofdrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services. Ethernet over SDH deployments could move faster in Europe than in the U.S.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  20. 20. The Metro NetworkThe metro is simply the first span of the network that connects subscribers and businesses to theWAN. The different entities serviced by the metro include residential and business customers,examples of which are large enterprises (LEs), small office/home office (SOHO), small and• Table of Contentsmedium-sized businesses (SMBs), multitenant units (MTUs), and multidwelling units (MDUs)• Index(seeFigure 1-1).Metro EthernetBySam Halabi Figure 1-1. The Metro Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. indicate the last toThe portion of the metro that touches the customer is called the last mile to Carriers will havego through fundamental shiftsIn a world where the paying customer isdata services demandedspan of the carriers network. to equip the metro for next-generation at the center of theby enterprise industry also calls this spanThis first mile toaacknowledge that the customer comesuniverse, the customers and consumers. the is not only technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that willbe "thethe incumbent because to transform thethefirst. An adequate term would probably allow final frontier" carriers the last span of metro tooffer enhanced data the most challenging and the most expensive to build and is the final barriernetwork is normally services.for accelerating the transformation of the metro into a high-speed data-centric network.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes consists primarily of time-division multiplexing (TDM) technology, which isThe legacy metro the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will services. A typical metro metro to consists of TDM equipmentvery optimized for delivering voice face in transforming the network address data services.placed in the basement of customer buildings and incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC)Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carrierscentral offices. The TDM equipment consists of digital multiplexers, digital access cross-connectsto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the book(DACs, often referred to as digital cross-connects), SONET/SDH add/drop multiplexers (ADMs),then examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networksSONET/SDH cross-connects, and so on.(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).Figure 1-2 shows a TDM view of a legacy metro deployment. This scenario shows connectivity tobusiness customers for on-net and off-net networks. An on-net network is a network in whichfiber reaches the building and the carrier installs an ADM in the basement of the building andoffers T1 or DS3/OCn circuits to different customers in the building. In this case, digitalmultiplexers such as M13s multiplex multiple T1s to a DS3 or multiple DS3s to an OCn circuitthat is carried over the SONET/SDH fiber ring to the central office (CO). In an off-net network, in
  21. 21. which fiber does not reach the building, connectivity is done via copper T1 or DS3 circuits thatare aggregated in the CO using DACS. The aggregated circuits are cross-connected in the CO toother core COs, where the circuits are terminated or transported across the WAN depending onthe service that is being offered. Figure 1-2. A TDM View of the Metro• Table of Contents• IndexMetro EthernetBySam Halabi Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications.The operation and installation of a pure TDM network is very tedious and extremely expensive todeploy, because TDM itself is a very rigid technology and does not have the flexibility or the Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services andeconomics they canwith the needs of the customer. The cost of deploying metro networks is the what to scale do for your organizationsum of capital expenditure on equipment and operational expenditure. Operational expenditureincludes the cost thenetwork planning, installation, operation and management, of all levels toand Learn from of easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals maintenancetroubleshooting, and concepts understand the so on. What is important to realize is that these operational expenditurescould reach about 70 percent of the carriers total expenditure, which could weigh heavily on thecarriers decision regarding which industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Gain from the experience of products and technologies to install in the network. Halabi, author of Internet Routing ArchitecturesThe cost of bringing up service to a customer has a huge effect on the success of delivering thatservice. The less the carrier as the next the of growth for the networking industry to deliverMetro networks will emerge has to toucharea customer premises and CO equipment and willinitial and incremental in how the services are offered to businesses and residential customers.represent a major shift service, datahigher the carriers return on investment will be for thatcustomer. has always been a refers to the trucks that are dispatched to services because it hasThe metro The term truck rollschallenging environment for delivering datathe customer premisesto activate or modify a particular reliability and availability needs for voice. customer, the morebeen built to handle the stringent service. The more truck rolls required for aCarriers will have tomoney the fundamental shifts to that customer.go through carrier is spending on equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theThe challenge that TDM interfaces have allowoperational and business model that willis that the incumbent carriers todoes not grow linearly bandwidth they offer transform the metro towith enhanced data services.offer customer demands but rather grows in step functions. A T1 interface, for example, offers1.5 Mbps; the next step function is a DS3 interface at 45 Mbps; the next step function is an OC3interface at 155 Mbps; and so on. So at the customers of metro data services from 1.5-MbpsMetro Ethernet from Cisco Press lookswhen a deployment bandwidth needs exceed the a holisticrate, It carrier is forced to offer the customer multiple T1 (nXT1) circuits or discusses DS3view. thedescribes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and move to a thecircuit and challenges carriers portion in transforming the effect to address data services.driversand give the customer a will faceof the DS3. The end metro is that the physical interfacesold to the customer has changed, and the cost of the change has a major impact on both theMetro Ethernet customer. the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carrierscarrier and the discussesto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookMoving from a current and to an nXT1 or DS3/OCn requires the role of virtual private networksthen examines T1 interface emerging trends, and delves intochanges to the customer premisesequipment (CPE) to support the new interface and also requires LAN services (VPLS), traffic(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual privatechanges to the CO equipment toaccommodate the new and Generalized This (GMPLS).engineering, and MPLS deployed circuits.MPLS will occur every time a customer requests abandwidth change for the life of the customer connection. Services such as Channelized DS1,Channelized DS3, and Channelized OCn can offer more flexibility in deploying increments ofbandwidth. However, these services come at a much higher cost for the physical interface androuters and have limited granularity. This is one of the main drivers for the proliferation ofEthernet in the metro as an access interface. A 10/100/1000 Ethernet interface scales much
  22. 22. better from submegabit speeds all the way to gigabit, at a fraction of the cost of a TDM interface.Figure 1-3 shows the difference between the TDM model and Ethernet model for deliveringInternet connectivity. In the TDM model, the metro carrier, such as an ILEC or RBOC, offers thepoint-to-point T1 circuit, while the ISP manages the delivery of Internet services, which includesmanaging the customer IP addresses and the router connectivity in the point of presence (POP).This normally has been the preferred model for ILECs who do not want to get involved in the IPaddressing and in routing the IP traffic. In some cases, the ILECs can outsource the service or• Table of Contentsmanage the whole IP connection if they want to. However, this model keeps a demarcation line• Indexbetween the delivery of IP services and the delivery of connectivity services.Metro EthernetBySam Halabi Figure 1-3. Connectivity: TDM Versus Ethernet Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, SamIn the Ethernet model,Internet Routing Architectures customer side and the ISP side are Halabi, author of both network interfaces on theEthernet interfaces. The ILEC manages the Layer 2 (L2) connection, while the ISP manages theIP services. From anemerge as the next area of growth for the networking ILEC in a and willMetro networks will operational perspective, this arrangement keeps the industry model similarto the T1 private-line service; however, it opens offered opportunity for theresidential customers.represent a major shift in how data services are up the to businesses and ILEC to up-selladditional service on top of the same Ethernet connection without any changes to the CPE andThe metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasthe network. handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have tobeen built togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  23. 23. Ethernet in the MetroEthernet technology has so far been widely accepted in enterprise deployments, and millions ofEthernet ports have already been deployed. The simplicity of this technology enables you toscale the Ethernet interface to high bandwidth while remaining cost effective. The cost of a 100-•Mbps interface forof Contents workgroup L2 LAN switches will be less than $50 in the next few Table enterprise•years. IndexMetro EthernetThese Halabi and performance metrics and Ethernets ease of use are motivating carrier networksBySam coststo use Ethernet as an access technology. In this new model, the customer is given an Ethernetinterface rather than a TDM interface. Publisher: Cisco PressThePub Date: October 01, 2003 following is a summary of the value proposition that an Ethernet access line offers relative toTDM private lines: ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240 Bandwidth scalability— The low cost of an Ethernet access interface on both the CPE device and the carrier access equipment favors the installation of a higher-speed Ethernet interface that can last the life of the customer connection. Just compare the cost of having a single installation of a 100-Mbps Ethernet interface versus the installation of a T1 interfaceThe definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrierservice,Ethernet OC3 (155 Mbps) for 100-Mbps for 1.5-Mbps service, a T3 for 45-Mbps Metro and an applications. service. A TDM interface offering results in many CPE interface changes, many truck rolls deployed thethe customer premises, metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services andthe Discover to latest developments in and equipment that only gets more expensive with speedthey can do for your organization what of the interface. Bandwidththe easy-to-read format thatinterface can be provisioned to deliver tiered to Learn from granularity— An Ethernet enables networking professionals of all levels bandwidth that scales to the maximum interface speed. By comparison, a rigid TDM understand the concepts hierarchy changes in big step functions. It is important to note that bandwidth granularity is not a function specific to Ethernet innovator and best-selling packet interface. Early Gain from the experience of industrybut rather is specific to any Cisco Press author, Sam deployments of metro Ethernet struggled with this function because many enterprise-class Halabi, author of Internet Routing Architectures Ethernet switches did not have the capability to police the traffic and enforce SLAs.Metro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businessesdifferent operational model Fast provisioning— Deploying an Ethernet service results in a and residential customers.The metro haspacket leased a challenging environment forof TDM circuit leased lines. The packet in which always been lines are provisioned instead delivering data services because it hasbeen provisioning model stringent reliability faster than the legacy TDM model because have to built to handle the can be done much and availability needs for voice. Carriers willgo through fundamental done to equip the metro for next-generation data services Packet provisioning can be shifts without changing network equipment and interfaces. demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. changing softwaretechnology shift, but also a shift thethe provisioning is a simple function of This is not only a parameters that would throttle in packets and can increase or decrease bandwidth, establish a connection in minutes, and billoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer for the new service. enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  24. 24. The Early Metro Ethernet MoversThe earliest service providers to move into the metro Ethernet space appeared in the 1999–2000timeframe in the midst of the telecom bubble and have adopted variations of the same businessmodel across the world.• Table of Contents• the U.S., the early adopters of metro Ethernet were the greenfield service providers thatIn Indexwanted to provide services to some niche segments, such as SMBs that are underserved by theMetro Ethernetincumbent providers. Other providers have found an opportunity in promoting cheaperBySam Halabibandwidth by selling Ethernet pipes to large enterprises or to other providers such as ISPs orcontent providers. Publisher: Cisco PressThePub Date: October 01, 2003 consist of BLECs and metro operators, which are discussed next. greenfield operators ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The BLECsThe Building Local Exchange Carriers (BLECs) have adopted a retail bandwidth model that offersservices to SMBs which are concentrated in large MTUs. (These are the "tall and shiny buildings"The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metrocity areas.) The BLECs focus on wiring thethat are usually located in concentrated downtown Ethernet applications.inside of the MTUs for broadband by delivering Ethernet connections to individual offices. TheBLECs capitalize on the fact that from the time an SMB places an order, it takes an incumbent Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services andoperator three to six months to deploy a T1 circuit for that SMB. The BLECs can service the what they can do for your organizationcustomers in weeks, days, or even hours rather than months and at much less cost. Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels toAs shown in Figure 1-4, a BLEC installs its equipment in the basement of the MTU, runs Ethernet understand the conceptsin the risers of the building, and installs an Ethernet jack in the customer office. The customercan then get all the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, Sam Gain from of its data services from the Ethernet connection. Halabi, author of Internet Routing Architectures Figure 1-4. The BLEC Network ModelMetro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willrepresent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have togo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model that will allow the incumbent carriers to transform the metro tooffer enhanced data services.Metro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses thedrivers and challenges carriers will face in transforming the metro to address data services.Metro Ethernet discusses the adoption of metro Ethernet services and how that has led carriersto the delivery of metro data services. With a changing mix of transport technologies, the bookthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtual private networks(VPN), virtual private local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), trafficengineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).
  25. 25. The Metro Ethernet CarrierAlthough the BLECs are considered metro operators, they specialize in servicing the MTUcustomers rather than building connectivity within the metro itself. The metro carriers arefocused on building connectivity within the metro and then selling connectivity to BLECs, largeenterprises, or even other service providers, depending on the business model. However, a lot ofconsolidation has occurred because metro operators have acquired BLECs, blurring the•distinction between Contents different providers. Table of the two• IndexWhereas some metro carriers have adopted a retail model, selling bandwidth to largeMetro Ethernetenterprises, other metro carriers have adopted a wholesale model, selling bandwidth to otherBySam Halabiservice providers (see Figure 1-5). Publisher: Cisco Press Figure 1-5. Retail Versus Wholesale Model Pub Date: October 01, 2003 ISBN: 1-58705-096-X Pages: 240The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications. Discover the latest developments in metro networking, Ethernet, and MPLS services and what they can do for your organization Learn from the easy-to-read format that enables networking professionals of all levels to understand the concepts Gain from the experience of industry innovator and best-selling Cisco Press author, SamOtherHalabi, author of Internet Routing Architectures business plans for metro deployments target cities that want to enhance the quality of lifeand attract business by tying the whole city with a fiber network that connects schools,Metro networks will emerge as the next area of growth for the networking industry and willuniversities, businesses, financial districts, and government agencies.represent a major shift in how data services are offered to businesses and residential customers.The metro has always been a challenging environment for delivering data services because it hasbeen built to handle the stringent reliability and availability needs for voice. Carriers will have toThe Greenfield Value Propositiongo through fundamental shifts to equip the metro for next-generation data services demandedby enterprise customers and consumers. This is not only a technology shift, but also a shift in theoperational and business model the value allow the incumbent carriers to transform offermetro toThe following sections describe that will proposition that greenfield operators can the tooffer enhanced data services. incumbents.attract business away from theMetro Ethernet from Cisco Press looks at the deployment of metro data services from a holisticview. It describes the current metro, which is based on TDM technology, and discusses theBringing the ServicecarriersDays Rather Than Monthsmetro to address data services. Up in will face in transforming thedrivers and challengesAs mentioned earlier, one of adoption of metro Ethernet metro greenfield operators is theirMetro Ethernet discusses the the key selling points for theservices and how that has led carriersability to bring service up in services. With to accomplish of transport technologies, the bookto the delivery of metro datadays. However,a changing mixthis, the service has to be almostready to be brought up once the customer requests it. Greenfields spend a lot private networksthen examines current and emerging trends, and delves into the role of virtualof money on idleconnections, waiting local area networks (VLAN), virtual private LAN services (VPLS), traffic(VPN), virtual privatefor a customer to appear.engineering, and MPLS and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).Pay as You Grow ModelWith an Ethernet connection, the customer can purchase an initial amount of bandwidth and SLAand then has the option to change the service in the future by simply calling the provider. The

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