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Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication
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Basic Of Lubricants and Lubrication

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  • 1. The Basics of Lubricants and lubrication Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 2. Meaning of lubrication
    • Friction - is created when there is relative motion between two surfaces
    • Resistance to motion is defined as friction
    • Lubrication is use of a material between surfaces to reduce friction
    • Any material used is called a lubricant
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 3. Methods of lubrication
    • Two main methods
      • Hydrodynamic lubrication
      • Boundary lubrication
    • Hydrodynamic lubrication
      • Also called complete or full flow
      • Occurs when two surfaces are completed separated by a fluid film
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 4. Methods of lubrication cont..
    • Two main methods
      • Hydrodynamic lubrication
      • Boundary lubrication
    • Boundary lubrication
      • Occurs when Hydrodynamic lubrication fails.
      • By adsorption or chemical reaction
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 5. Types of Lubricant - Physical
    • Liquid
    • Solid
    • Semi solid
    • Gases
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 6. Types of Lubricant - Physical
    • Liquid
      • Typical lubricants are liquid/fluids
      • Mineral oil or synthetic oils
    • Solid
      • Graphite, MoS 2
    • Semi solid
      • Greases
    • Gases
      • Atomised 2 stroke oils
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 7. Typical lubricants - Application
    • Engine oils
    • Gear Oils
    • Turbine Oils
    • Hydraulic Oils
    • Metal working oils
      • Cutting oils
      • Forming Oils
    • Rust preventives
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 8. Typical lubricants - Application
    • Heat Transfer Oils
    • Heat Treatment Oils
      • Quenching Oils
      • Tempering Oils
    • Refrigeration Oils
    • Rubber Process Oils
    • Ink process Oils
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 9. Lubricant - Components
    • Base Oils
      • Mineral by-products of crude oil refining process.
      • Base oils are polymerized or synthesized further and called synthetic
    • Additives
      • Natural
      • Synthetic
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 10. Function of a lubricant
    • Lubricate - Reduce friction
    • Cooling - Heat transfer
    • Cleaning - Detergency
    • Noise pollution - dampening
    • Sealing – prevent leakage
    • Protection – prevent wear
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 11. Lubricate – reduce friction
    • The effects of friction
      • Metal to metal contact
      • Leads to wear and tear
      • Generates heat
      • Results in Power loss
    • Lubricant reduces friction by forming a film
      • Reduces ill effect of friction
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 12. Cooling
    • When fuel is burnt in an engine
      • 33% is useful power
      • 33% removed by cooling water
      • 33% by lube oil and radiation
    • Lube oil removes heat from all areas and brings it to the engine sump.
    • Improper cooling can lead to over heating, lead to wear, distortion and failure.
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 13. Cleaning
    • Cleans carbon and varnish deposits
    • Flushes the entire system removing
      • Soot
      • Deposits
      • Acids
      • Wear products
      • Moisture
    • Removes external contaminants dust, moisture (external)
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 14. Noise reduction
    • Reduce noise
      • By preventing metal to metal contact
    • Dampens noise
      • As between camshaft and tappet
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 15. Sealing
    • Oil film
      • Between piston ring and liner
      • Helps in creating a gas tight seal
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 16. Protection
    • Protection against acids and moisture
    • Very important to increase life of component and equipment
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 17. Properties of lubricants
    • Kinematic viscosity
    • Viscosity index
    • Pour Point
    • Flash Point
    • Total Base Number (TBN)
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 18. Properties of lubricants
    • Kinematic viscosity
      • Measure of internal resistance to flow
      • “ Thickness” of fluid (in laymen terms)
      • Decreases with increase in temperature
      • Important in lubricant selection
      • Increase in used oil indicates oxidation
      • Specified at 40˚C and 100˚C
      • Measured in Centi Stokes (CSt)
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 19. Kinematic Viscosity - Recommendations
    • Low Viscosity oils used
      • High speeds
      • Low pressure
      • Low temperature
    • High Viscosity oils used
      • Low speeds
      • High pressure
      • High temperature
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 20. Properties of lubricants
    • Viscosity index
      • Measure of fluids change of viscosity with temperature.
      • Empirical number
      • Higher the VI lower will be the change of viscosity with temperature
      • Indicator of temperature range of operations
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 21. Properties of lubricants
    • Pour Point
      • Lowest temperature at which the fluid will flow
      • Indicates lowest operating temperature
      • Measured in ˚C
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 22. Properties of lubricants
    • Flash Point
      • Lowest temperature at which the vapor above the liquid will ignite under flame
      • Indicated safe maximum temperature of operation.
      • Indicator of volatility
      • Test method - COC and PMCC
      • Measured in ˚C
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 23. Properties of lubricants
    • Total Base Number (TBN)
      • Measured the acid neutralizing reserve in oil.
      • Important for deciding discard of oil
      • Decreases due to
        • Oxidation of oil
        • Water contamination
        • Fuel contamination
      • Measured in Mg KOH/gm of oil
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 24. Lab Tests - for lubricants
    • ASTM D 445
    • ASTM D 2250
    • ASTM D 97
    • ASTM D 92 (COC)
    • ASTM D 93 (PMCC)
    • ASTM D 664
    Hussam Adeni [email_address] Kinematic viscosity Viscosity index Pour Point Flash Point Total Base Number (TBN)
  • 25. What are additives
    • Lubricant additives
      • classified on their functional capability
      • Enhance existing property
      • Suppress undesirable property
      • Impart new property
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 26. What are additives – What they do in Engine Oils
    • Protect metal surfaces
      • - (rings, bearings, gears, etc.)
      • Extend the range of lubricant applicability
      • Extend lubricant life
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 27. Surface Protective additives
    • Anti wear and EP Agent
      • Corrosion & Rust inhibitor
      • Detergent
      • Dispersant
      • Friction modifier
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 28. Surface Protective additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Anti wear & EP Agent
    • Reduce friction & wear.
    • Prevent scoring & seizure
    • ZDDP, Organic Phosphates, acid phosphates, organic sulfur and chlorine compounds etc.
    • Chemical reaction with metal surface and forms a film.
    • Prevents metal-to-metal contact
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 29. Surface Protective additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Corrosion and Rust Inhibitor
    • Prevent corrosion and rusting of the metallic parts in contact with lubricant
    • ZDDP, Metal phenolates, Basic Metal sulphonates, fatty acid & Amines.
    • Preferential adsorbtion of polar constituent on metal surface.
    • Provide protective film
    • Neutralize corrosive acids
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 30. Surface Protective additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Detergents
    • Keep surface free of deposits
    • Metallo organic compounds of Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium phenolates
    • Phosphonates and sulphonates
    • Chemical reaction with sludge and varnish percursors to neutralize them and keep them soluble
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 31. Surface Protective additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Dispersant
    • Keep insoluble contaminants dispersed in the lubricant
    • Alkylsuccinimides, alkylsuccinic esters and mannich reaction products
    • Contaminants are bonded by polar attraction to dispersant molecules.
    • Prevented from agglomerating
    • Kept in suspension due to solubility of dispersant
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 32. Surface Protective additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Friction modifier
    • Alters coefficient of friction
    • Organic fatty acids and amides.
    • Lard Oil, high molecular weight organic phosphorus.
    • Phosphoric acid esters
    • Preferential adsorbtion of surface active materials
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 33. Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Pour Point Depressant
    • Enable lubricant to flow at lo temperature
    • Alkylated naphthalene
    • Phenolic polymers, Ploymethacrylates
    • Maleate/fumerate copolymer esters
    • Modify wax crystal formation to reduce interlocking
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 34. Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Seal swell Agent
    • Swell elastomeric seals, gaskets
    • Organic phosphates
    • Aromatic hydro carbons
    • Chemical reaction with with elastomer to cause slight swell.
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 35. Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Viscosity modifier
    • Reduce the rate of viscosity change with temperature
    • Polymers and copolymers of olefins, methacrylates, dienes
    • Alkylated styrenes.
    • Polymers expand with increasing temperatures
    • This counteract oil thinning
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 36. Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Antifoamant
    • Prevent lubricant from forming a persistent foam
    • Silicone polymers
    • Organic copolymers
    • Reduce Surface tension to speed collapse of foam
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 37. Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Antioxidant
    • Retard oxidative decomposition
    • ZDDP,
    • Hindered phenols, Aromatic Amines, sulfurized phenols
    • Decompose peroxides
    • Terminates free-radical reactions
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 38. Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
    • Additive type
    • Purpose
    • Typical
    • compounds
    • Function
    • Metal deactivator
    • Reduce catalytic effect of metals on oxidation rate
    • Organic complexes containing nitrogen or sulfur
    • Amines, sulphides and Phosphates
    • Forms inactive film on metal surfaces by complexing with metallic ions
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 39. Lubricant - Nomenclature and Specifications
    • Nomenclature
        • Crankcase oils - SAE numbers
        • Viscosity classification – ISO 3448
        • Grease – NLGI Numbers
    • Performance
        • Crankcase oils - Performance levels
        • Crankcase oils – OEM Specifications
        • US Military – US-MIL-2104
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 40.
    • Viscosity Grade Classification Systems
      • ISO – Industrial Oils
        • cSt @ 40°C
      • AGMA – Industrial Gear Oils
        • cSt @ 40°C
      • SAE – Engine Oils
        • cSt @100°C, cP @150°C
        • cP @ -10°C to -40°C
      • SAE – Gear Oils
        • cSt @100°C
        • cP @ -12°C to -55°C
  • 41. Lubricant - Specifications
    • Crankcase oils - SAE numbers
    • Crankcase oils - Performance levels
    • Crankcase oils – OEM Specifications
    • Viscosity classification
    • Grease specification
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 42. Major specifying organizations
    • SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers (USA)
    • API - American Petroleum Institute
    • US Military Specs – US - MIL – 2104 -
    • CCMC – European Specification
    • ISO – International Standard Organization – ISO 3348
    • NLGI – National Lubricating Grease Institute
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 43. SAE viscosity grades for engine oils
    • Designated
        • With corresponding viscosity
        • For high temperature application
        • Warmer areas/regions
          • SAE 20
          • SAE 30
          • SAE 40
          • SAE 10
          • SAE 50
          • SAE 60
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 44. SAE viscosity grades for engine oils
    • Designated
        • With corresponding viscosity
        • For low temperature application
        • Colder areas/regions
          • SAE 0 W
          • SAE 5 W
          • SAE 10 W
          • SAE 15 W
          • SAE 20 W
          • SAE 25 W
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 45. SAE viscosity grades for Mono grades - Engine Oils
    • Mono grades are designated with single SAE number
      • SAE 10, 20, 30, 40, 50
          • SAE 5W,10W, 15W,20W,25W
          • Can be used either in summer season or in winter seasons.
          • Gradual shift to multi grades.
          • Shift also due to lower oil consumption by multi grades
          • Available as Engine oil and Gear Oils
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 46. SAE viscosity grades for Multi grades - Engine Oils
    • Multi grades are designated with two SAE number
    • Widely in use today
          • SAE 10w/30, 15w/30, 25w/50
          • SAE 5W/30, 20W/40
          • Suitable for use in winter and summer months or seasons
          • Available in Engine oils & Gear oil
    Hussam Adeni [email_address]
  • 47. SAE Crankcase Oil - Viscosity classification – Winter Service Hussam Adeni [email_address] Low temp viscosities High temp viscosities SAE Viscosity Grade Engine cranking Max. cPs at Temp (˚C) Max. Temp for pumping viscosity of 60,000 cP(˚C) Vis. at 100˚C, cSt High shear (cP) 150˚C & 10 6 S-¹ Min Min Max Winter Service 0W 6200@ -35 -40 3.8 - -- 5W 6200@ -30 -35 3.8 - 10W 7000@ -25 -30 4.1 - 15W 7000@ -20 -25 5.6 - 20W 9500@ -15 -20 5.6 - 25W 13000@ -10 -15 9.3
  • 48. SAE Crankcase Oil - Viscosity classification – Summer Service Hussam Adeni [email_address] Low temp viscosities High temp viscosities SAE Viscosity Grade Engine cranking Max. cPs at Temp (˚C) Max. Temp for pumping viscosity of 60,000 cP(˚C) Vis. at 100˚C, cSt High shear (cP) 150˚C & 10 6 S-¹ Min Min Max Summer Service 20 -- - 5.6 <9.3 2.6 30 -- - 9.3 <12.5 2.9 40 -- - 12.5 <16.3 3.5 40 -- - 12.5 <16.3 3.7 50 -- - 16.3 <21.9 3.7 60 -- - 21.9 <26.1 3.7
  • 49. API Automotive Gasoline Engine Service Categories – “SA, SB,…” Hussam Adeni [email_address] Category Related Ind Definitions Engine Test Requirements SA Straight Min None SB Inhibited only CRC L-4 Sequence IIA Sequence IIIA SC 1964 Models CRC L-38 Sequence IV Sequence IIA Sequence V Sequence IIIA Fuel -1% S SD 1968 Models CRC L-38 Sequence IV Caterpillar L-1 Sequence IIB Sequence VB Caterpillar IH Sequence IIIB Falcon Rust SE 1972 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence IIID Sequence IIB Sequence VC Sequence IIIC Sequence VD SF 1980 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence IIIE Sequence IID Sequence VD Sequence IIID
  • 50. API Automotive Gasoline Engine Service Categories – “SA, SB,…” Hussam Adeni [email_address] Category Related Ind Definitions Engine Test Requirements SG 1989 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence VE Sequence IID Caterpillar IH2 Sequence IIIE SH 1994 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence VE Sequence IID Sequence IIIE Category SA, SB, SC, SD, SE,SF,SG,SH have been declared as obsolete. SJ 1997 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence VE Sequence IID Sequence IIIE SL 2001 Models Sequence IIIF Sequence VIII Sequence IVA Sequence VG SM 2004 Models Sequence IIIG Sequence VIII Sequence IVA Sequence VG Category SJ, SL, SM, are currently valid.
  • 51. API Automotive Diesel Engine Service Categories – “CA, CB,…” Hussam Adeni [email_address] Category Related US Mil spec Engine Test Requirements CA MIL-L-2104A CRC L-38 Caterpillar L-1 Fuel – 0.4% S CB MIL-L-2104A Supplement 1 CRC L-38 Caterpillar L-1 Fuel – 0.4% S CC MIL-L-2104B MIL-L-46152B CRC L-38 Sequence IID Caterpillar IH2 CD MIL-L-2104C/D/E, MIL-L-45199B, Series 3 CRC L-38 Caterpillar I G2 CD-II MIL-L-2104D/E 2 stroke Hvy Dty CRC L-38 Caterpillar 1 G2 Detroit Diesel 6V53T CE None CRC L-38 Mack T-6 Caterpillar 1 G2 Mack T-7 Cummins NTC 400 CF None CRC L-38 Caterpillar 1M-PC
  • 52. API Automotive Diesel Engine Service Categories – “CA, CB,…” Hussam Adeni [email_address] Category Related Ind Spec Engine Test Requirements CF-2 None CRC L-38 Detroit Diesel 6V92TA Caterpillar 1M-PC CF-4 None CRC L-38 Mack T-7 Cummins NTC-400 Caterpillar 1K CG-4 None CRC L-38 Mack T-8 Sequence IIIE RFWT Caterpillar 1N CH-4 None Mack T8E RFWT Sequence IIIE Mach T-9 Caterpillar 1P, 1K Cummins M 11 CI-4 None RFWT EOAT Cummins M11 EGR Mack T-8E, T-10 Caterpillar 1R, 1K Sequence IIIF CI-4 Plus None RFWT EOAT Cummins M11 EGR Mack T-8E, T-10,T-11 Caterpillar 1R, 1K Sequence IIIF CA to CE obsolete; CF onwards are currently valid
  • 53. ISO 3448 – Kin Vis - CSt 40˚C vs SUS 100˚F (40˚C) Hussam Adeni [email_address] Midpoint Minimum Maximum SUS 100˚F VG 2 2.2 1.98 2.42 VG 3 3.2 2.88 3.52 VG 5 4.6 4.14 5.06 VG 7 6.8 6.12 7.48 VG 10 10 9 11 60 VG 15 15 13.5 16.5 75 VG 22 22 19.8 24.2 105 VG 32 32 28.8 35.2 150 VG 46 46 41.4 50.6 215
  • 54. ISO 3448 – Kin Vis - CSt 40˚C versus SUS 100˚F (40˚C) Hussam Adeni [email_address] Midpoint Minimum Maximum SUS 100˚F VG 68 68 61.2 74.8 315 VG 100 100 90 110 465 VG 150 150 135 165 700 VG 220 220 198 242 1000 VG 320 320 288 352 1500 VG 460 460 414 506 2150 VG 680 680 612 748 3150 VG 1000 1000 900 1100 4650 VG 1500 1500 1350 1650 7000
  • 55. National Lubricating Grease Institute - NLGI Numbers Hussam Adeni [email_address] NLGI Grade Number ASTM worked penetration 77˚F (25˚C) 000 445 - 475 00 400 - 430 0 355 - 385 1 310 - 340 2 265 - 295 3 220 - 250 4 175 - 205 5 130 - 160 6 85 - 115
  • 56. Thank you Hussam Adeni [email_address]

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