Solar power generation JICA Trainer Hussain Naik

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Solar power generation JICA Trainer Hussain Naik

  1. 1. •TRAINING March 2, 2014 PROGRAM ON PLANNERS TO THE PROMOTION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER GENERATION IN JAPAN FROM13 AUG-13 SEP 2013 NPDCL Training was conducted by Japan international cooperation Agency(JICA) under Technical co operation  To understand the policies, technical conditions for promoting PV technology.  1
  2. 2. • • • • About JICA Knowledge Management Japan government policies Basics of PV System PDM(Electrification of Rural areas off-grid(SHS) with PV technologies NPDCL • March 2, 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2
  3. 3. March 2, 2014 JICA(JAPAN INTERNATIONAL CO OPERATION AGENCY) Its main aim it to reduction poverty, improving governance, Achieving human security.  Now JICA can comprehensively provide major 3 schemes of assistance (grant Aid, yen loan and Technical Assistance) to meet the requirements of developing countries.  JICA grant Aid(yen102.4 billion),yen loan( yen 677.7 billion) and Technical Assistance( yen 168.8 billion) for 2010 fiscal year.(1Rs=1.63yen)  NPDCL 3
  4. 4.  Tacit Knowledge Subjective and experimental knowledge that can not be expressed in words, sentences or numbers Needs to improve  March 2, 2014 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE, TWO TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE Explicit Knowledge Objective and rational Knowledge that can be expressed in words, sentences or numbers Needs to improve 4
  5. 5. Solar Power Generation System Training Course in JICA Kansai Knowledge Management Perspective “Iceberg” Tacit Knowledge Source: N, Konno,1999,"Chishikikeieiin Japanese). NPDCL Explicit Knowledge March 2, 2014 1. Introduction
  6. 6. Solar Power Generation System Training Course in JICA Kansai Conclusion March 2, 2014 ① Overview & Implications of Knowledge Management “Iceberg” Report NPDCL Explicit Knowledge Know-how Tacit Knowledge Belief, Experiences・・・ ©2013 Y. NIIZEKI 6 no susume", Chikumashobo,(in Japanese). 42
  7. 7. NPDCL 7 March 2, 2014 POLICIES
  8. 8. DATA Annual average irradiation 6.0KWh/sq m/day  Total area3287590km  Total population1.21b  Total Budget U$309b  Total installed capacity 210GW  Total PV installed capacity 1.4GW  NPDCL Annual average irradiation 3.24.0Kwh/sq m/day  Total area 377835km  Total population127.7m  Total Budget US$672b  Total installed capacity 208GW  Total PV installed capacity6.6GW  INDIA March 2, 2014 JAPAN 8
  9. 9. 10 Councils SubCommittees and Work Groups Agency for Natural Resources and Energy: 465 staff members 10 Independent Administrative Agencies NPDCL Advisory Committee for Natural Resources and Energy Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry: 8161 staff members, 2013 annual budget 895 billion Yen (0.94 % of total national budget) “http://www.meti.go.jp/englis h/index.html” March 2, 2014 Country Report of Japan (1) Organizational Framework of Energy Sector: Policy Formulation, Implementation, and Monitoring and Evaluation (a) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), (b) New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) Many other energy related institutions 10
  10. 10. JAPAN GOVT POLICES TO PROMOTE PV SYSTEM March 2, 2014 Sunshine project ( 1974) : Develop photovoltaic system with high performance and affordable price by around 1990 NEDO: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (1980)  Buy back system ( 1994) Excess power purchase  FIT ( July 2012)  Total installed capacity of Japan 208 GW (March,2012)  The PV installed capacity is 6.63 GW as on March 2012  NPDCL 10
  11. 11. March 2, 2014 BUYBACK PROGRAM AUG 2009 DURATION IS 10 YEARS(EXCESS POWER PURCHASE) NPDCL The selling price is double of normal tariff sell 48 yen/KWh By consumer buy 23 Yen / KWh Every year it will be reviewed and revised  Additional cost of on power company is to be shared by Every customer as PV surcharge 0-120 17.87 Yen/KWh 120-300 22.86 Yen/KWh Domestic consumers tariff Above 300 24.13 Yen/Kwh METI has Terminated this program and introduced FIT in july 2012 11 
  12. 12. SUBSIDY FOR RESIDENTIAL PV SYSTEMS March 2, 2014 NPDCL Responsible organizations for subsidy implementation J-PEC JPEA Connected load is below 10KW FY 2012 35000Y/KW(System cost below 475000Y/KW) 30000Y/KW system cost 475000Y to 550000Y Number of application 329836 Number of application got subsidy and installed capacity is 197964 and 911 MW (April to Dec 12)  12
  13. 13. NPDCL Tariff set as follows 42Y/Kwh PV system >10KW period 20 years 34Y/Kwh PV system <10KW period 10 years The tariffs are annual review Under FIT PV installed capacity from July 2012 to 12 August is -------------MW in japan Germany has introduced FIT in year 2010 and promoted PV system 24.7GW 2011 world largest  March 2, 2014 FEED IN TARIFF JULY 2012 13
  14. 14. Outline of FIT (Feed In Tariff) and growth of PV market in Japan ■Price and period (In case of more than 10kW in FY2013) Price (/kWh) ■Growth of PV market after enforcement of FIT JPY36 (tax excluded)、 JPY37.8(tax included) Period 20years from operating date ※Price of FY2012 is JPY40 (tax excluded) 【Account of FIT price】 ・Installation cost: Approx. JPY280,000/kW (excluded land creation) ・Running cost : Approx. JPY10,000/kW ・Annual generating power : Approx.1050kWh/kW ・IRR : 6% (Wind power :8%, Small hydroelectric : 7%) (The first 3years IRR will be increased 1-2%) ※IRR:Internal Rate of Return 21 Total installation capacity of PV system from July 2012 to February 2013 is 12.2GW NISSIN ELECTRIC
  15. 15. Electric Power Companies in Japan March 2, 2014 There are 10 utility companies. JAPAN All companies: - Founded in 1951 - Vertically integrated 50Hz Tohoku 17GW 60Hz Hokuriku 8GW Chugoku 12GW Okinawa 2GW Kyushu 21GW Total: 208GW Chubu Kansai 33GW Shikoku 35GW 7GW NPDCL Hokkaido 7.4GW 550KV/275K V/154KV/77 Tokyo KV/22KV/6.6 66GW KV/200V, 100V Frequency Conversion Stations (3 sites, total 1,000MW) 500 km Interconnection 15 Installed Generating Capacity as of March 31, 2012 Copyright© 2013, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Basic Principle Sun Light Current N- type Silicon P/N junction : : Hole Sun Light Current P- type Silicon Electron When the sunlight enters into P/N junction, electric power is directly generated by semiconductor effect. Manufacturers of PV cell / module are struggling; 1. to reduce the amount of silicon material to be consumed, 2. to increase the conversion efficiency of PV cell / module, and 3. to reduce the production cost.
  17. 17. Off-grid or Grid-connected Charge controller Off-grid PV System Storage battery PV Array Utility Grid Load Power Conditioning System (PCS) WH Grid-Connected PV system WH Load Storage battery (Only for limited use) The output of the PV system is basically unstable because it varies depending on the weather, but connecting with the grid makes it possible to constantly supply power to consumers.
  18. 18. Classification of PV cells Module’s Type Photo Features conversion efficiency Monocrystal Monocrystal about 200 microns thick is used as the substrate. Crystal The conversion efficiency and reliability are high, but the price is high as well. Up to 20% Polycrystal consisting of relatively small crystals is used as the substrate. Silicon Polycrystal Compared with the monocrystal type, this is easy to manufacture and inexpensive, but the Up to 15% efficiency is low. Thin-film This type is made by forming an amorphous or crystalline silicon film (about 1 micron thick) on a glass substrate. The efficiency is lower than that of the crystalline silicon type. Up to 9% This is a thin-film PV cell made from copper, indium, and selenium. CIS The CIS type features resource saving and mass production, and is expected to have high Up to 12% performance. Compound CdTe This is a thin-film PV cell made from cadmium and tellurium. The CdTe type features resource saving, mass production, and low price. Up to 11% This type is given by applying multiple junctions and condensing technologies to a compound Condenser consisting of group-III and group-V elements. Up to 42% The performance is high but the price is high. Dye sensitizer Organic Organic thin-film Dye adhering to titanium oxide absorbs light and generates power. Up to 11% The dye sensitizer type is in the R&D stage. (Expected) This type is made by coating a film using an organic semiconductor. The organic thin-film is in the R&D stage. (Source: NEDO White Paper on Renewable Energy) Up to 8% 11
  19. 19. Country Report of Japan (5) Regulation of Japanese Power Industry (1) March 2, 2014 (a) Electricity Business Act regulates the power industry, and safety of power facilities and equipment. NPDCL (b) Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy is in charge of this act and regulates the industry through implementation rules and regulations based on the act. (c) Power supply has been deregulated over the past decade, and liberalized up to large customers. (d) East Japan Great Earth Quack and Tsunami on March 11 2011, and the following nuclear disaster of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station I has required significant change in the regulatory framework and method. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has been repealed of authority to regulate nuclear power industry, which is now under Ministry of Environment. August 2013 19 22
  20. 20. Regulation of Japanese Power Industry March 2, 2014 NPDCL (1) In April 2013 the bill for the act for partially revision of Electricity Business Act was approved by the cabinet and was submitted to the diet. The purpose of the bill is to create an independent institution that operates national power system by 2015 in stead of 10 power companies. (2) Further, power supply to general household will be liberalized by 2016. Retail sales of electricity will be completely liberalized. (3) Between 2018 and 2020, unbundling between power generation and transmission is planned. 20 August 2013 28
  21. 21. ROUGH ESTIMATION OF PV GENERATION NPDCL If a 10kW system, for example, is installed in Tokyo with the array having an optimal tilt angle and pointing south, then the annual energy generation is given as follows: 10 (kW) × 3.92 (kWh/m2・day) × 0.7 × 365 (days) = 10,016 (kWh/year)  In case of India 10X6X.7X365=15330(Kwh/year) March 2, 2014 Ep=PAS * HA * K * 365 days Ep = Expected annual energy (kWh/year) PAS = Rated capacity of PV array (kW) HA = Daily irradiation on yearly average (kWh/m2/day) K = Total design factor (0.65 to 0.8 or about 0.7 in average)  21
  22. 22. ROUGH ESTIMATION OF REQUIRED AREA March 2, 2014 NPDCL Sunlight has energy 1KW/ m2 after it reaches the ground through space and atmosphere. If PV cell conversion efficiency 15% 1KWX.15=.15KW because the conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon cell is about 15%.This means that a power of 1KW requires an area about 6.6 m2. The thin film type can conversion efficiency is 8% so that the required area is about 12.5 m2 .In actual installation, a power of 1KW requires 10-15 m2 for maintenance space between PV arrays Conclusion :Area depends upon the conversion efficiency  22
  23. 23. NPDCL Basic components of PV system PV Modules, Battery, charge controller, Inverter(PCs),Load Types of solar PV systems On-grid(Grid-tied system) Roof top 1KW -5KW Centralized grid system Off-grid system stand alone system 20W-1KW Mini grid System 10KW-100KW  March 2, 2014 BASICS OF PV SYSTEMS 23
  24. 24. Basics of Solar PV Systems 1 Basics of Solar PV Systems FeaturesofSolarPVSystem Componentsofsystem TypeofSystem – Off-grid,On-grid SolarEnergy Basics of Solar PV Systems Electricity from Solar Energy PV Module converts Solar energy into Electricity(DC)  LessSolarEnergy LessElectricity  MoreSolarEnergy MoreElectricity Powergeneration changesdaily Solar Energy Input PV Module Electricity Conversion Output DC 2
  25. 25. ACRONYMNS  ANRE-Agency for Natural Resources and Energy  JPEA - Japan Photovoltaic Energy Association  J-PEC Japan Photovoltaic Expansion Centre NPDCL METI - Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry March 2, 2014  25
  26. 26. CONCLUSIONS March 2, 2014 NPDCL Apply for training course( www.persmin.gov.in)  Punctuality, Cleanness ,Security  Improve Explicit Knowledge  Policies are more important to sustainable growth.  Technical knowledge (proper Design, Maintenance, Installation) is Required  PDM  26
  27. 27. March 2, 2014 NPDCL 27
  28. 28. March 2, 2014 NPDCL THANK YOU hussainmaloth@yahoo.com 28

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