The effect of using multimedia on english skills acquisition

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Final Test (Term Paper)

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  • 1. The Contribution of Using Multimedia on English Acquisition (A Case Study at SD, SMK and SMA in Tangerang and Jakarta) Husnul Atiyah Abstract Multimedia has been common nowadays as a tool for teaching and learning process. Its function that brings revolution within teaching and learning process has made it much more powerful than the traditional tools used long years ago. Many programs have been developed to offer easiness for student in leaning the school material. Within English, many programs have been created to improve the student’s acquisition. While theoretically, multimedia may highly contribute to this, this paper seeks to study further this issue. The method used in this paper is qualitative one by interviewing the teachers form four different schools about the using multimedia in their teaching and learning activities. This paper also uses the final scores of the students to validate the information obtained from the interview. This paper found that multimedia devices help the students to understand the material and improve the leaning situation to be more interactive. However, the devices alone do not positively correlate to the students’ language acquisition since this acquisition is affected by several factors such as the context, the goal of learning and individual differences. 1
  • 2. I. Introduction Multimedia has been considered as an effective media for enhancing teaching and learning process. This new tool, with its various forms, is now common to find in many schools, from elementary to university. The word of “multimedia” is a relatively new and can be defined as the combination of different media (Cutting, 2011: 4) such as text, sound, image and video to convey information. To be more précised, Marshall (1999) states that multimedia is “the field concerned with the computer-controlled integration of text, graphics, drawings, still and moving images (video), animation, audio, and any other media where every type of information can be represented, stored, transmitted and processed digitally.” The common use of multimedia is due to its functionality that brought the fundamental change for people in sending and receiving and interpreting information. Pea (1991: 2-3) states that multimedia functions to help students for several reasons, among them are: first, it s much better that written text so that student can understand the material well. Second, it provides the context for the abstract word or explanation such as different emotion on human face. Third, it may overcome the individual needs and preference so that students can learn the material accordingly. Therefore, Teoh and Neo (2007: 28) state that multimedia offers an alternative way of instruction to the current or traditional learning process (28). The new function of multimedia has led the programmer to develop new software for teaching and learning process. Within language learning, such as in the Computer- Assisted Language Learning (Hartoyo, 2012: 45-65), many programs for improving speaking, vocabulary, grammar, and writing skills are easily found within internet. A lot of resources can be accessed to get these materials; the most common is the IELTS or TOEFL practices which can be obtained from, for example, British council website. Furthermore, a more interactive program such as story, animation and games has grown enormously in the last decade. 2
  • 3. A study by Joshi (2012) and informs that the using of multimedia in the classrooms helped the students to improve their language acquisition. The technology provided within multimedia device will make the class activity to be more interactive; therefore will improve the quality of teaching and learning process. Sivakuraman et.al (2012) points out that some teachers may not able to maximize the benefit of multimedia devices but he shares the similar notion with Joshi where the use of multimedia in the classrooms make the students more engaged and excited to learn. While, theoretically, the function of multimedia is obviously known, whether it highly contributes to language acquisition (i.e English) of the students is still in need to be studied further. It is common that English is not the first language for non- English world countries such as Indonesia. This would be the first challenge, not only for the student but also the teachers. The grammar rule, which is very much different from that of Bahasa, for example can be the main obstacle for students in mastering their English skills. Nowadays, in general, the schools, particularly located in the city, have adopted new devices of multimedia as part of their teaching and learning system. It is believed that using these media will enhance the students’ skills and acquisition due to its functionality as Pea (1991) argued earlier. This enhancement of the skills does not only depend on the students and multimedia, but also the teachers. They are central due to the fact that, at some point, they will decide whether they will use the multimedia devices or not in their teaching and learning process and whether they consider multimedia devices play important role in helping students to enhance their language acquisition. This research paper will discuss this issue and will be divided into five parts. The first will introduce this topic and propose the issue that will be answered by this paper. The second part will outline the method used in this research. Following this is the results of the data collection and analysis before coming to the discussion of the data revealed earlier. The last part will be the conclusion. II. Method 3
  • 4. This research is a qualitative research. The reason to choose this type of research is due to the function of this research that is, one among others, to reveal and interpret the “opinions, experiences, feelings” of people that produce subjective data (Hancock, 2002: 2). The data collected in this paper mainly from an interview with four teachers from different schools to get information about their experience using multimedia in their teaching learning process. The writer also collects data from several resources from journal articles and books that discuss the issue of multimedia in teaching and learning process. The data collected in this paper will be analyzed based on the type of the data and then be interpreted. The subjects of this research who are four teachers from different schools are chosen randomly. However, the writer considers the different level of education from elementary to high school to see how differs or not the effect of using multimedia in students’ language acquisition. In companion to this, the writer will also look at the students’ scores of to validate the claims made by the teachers in the context whether the usage of multimedia contribute to the English acquisition that can be seen from one, among others, their English final scores in. The writer recognizes that there is a limitation within this study which is mainly focus on the teachers. The reason for this is the fact that while this research is conducted during June 2013, most of students of schools have their holidays after having the examination. Another reason is due to the limited time for doing this research. However, this does not necessarily mean that this research will be lack n terms of its quality but it opens new issue to be discussed further in the next research. III. Results III.1 Interiew AS, 26 years old, teacher at SMA 2X AS has some experiences in teaching and learning English. He has been an English teacher in an elementary school since 2007. Also, he has been teaching English in a senior high school since 2011. In teaching English in both schools, he is always trying to use multimedia as much as he can. Several multimedia tools are available in his schools such as in 4
  • 5. focus, laptop, active speaker, a wifi network and also an interactive whiteboard. He claims that his skills and in using the media is very helpful and made the teaching learning process easier not only for him but also the student. Furthermore, the way he chose multimedia in teaching and learning process made him got a positive response from the students in which the student got more enthusiastic, actively engaged and more interested in the learning process. AS does not have any problem or obstacle in using multimedia available at his schools. He is very welcome with the development of multimedia. RA, 22 years old, teacher at SMK, Tangerang RA has been teaching in this school since 2009. Laptop and in focus are main devices available in the school. He always uses these two main deices in teaching English. He states that he got advantages y using multimedia, not only for the students but also himself. For the students, for instance, using multimedia makes it confident for the student to perform in the front of the class. As for him, y using multimedia in teaching and learning process makes him able to use the technology and keep him updated with the development of technology. Another important thing is utilizing multimedia helps him to minimize his weakness in writing because his writing hand is not very good. NL, 24 year old, teacher at SMK, Pasar Rebo NL informs that there are several multimedia available at the school where he teaches English there such as in focus, laptop and other devices in the language laboratory. These devices are used based on the need or whether they are required. The school provides these tools as a response to the development of technology. However, the maintenance is sometimes neglected and the schools seem careless in this issue. The advantage he got from using multimedia deices is that these tools are capable to create a fun atmosphere in the class and they are also helpful to increase significantly the students vocabulary. ASL, 30 year old, teacher at SD, Jakarta Barat 5
  • 6. ASL teaches in this school since four years ago. There several multimedia deices at his school such as laptop, in focus and active speaker. He almost uses these devices when he teaches his students. According to him, using multimedia can motivate the students to increase their language acquisition. The school is supported in developing technical skill in operating the technology. He also felt that the student’s vocabulary increases significantly. Table II. 1: information about multimedia devices, its frequent use and its advantages and disadvantages 6 Teacher Schools Multimedia Devices The Frequent Use Advantages Disadvantages AS SMA 2X In focus, laptop, active speaker, wifi network, interactive whiteboard Often Interactive class, positive response, enthusiasm None RA SMK Tangerang Laptop, in focus Often Increasing student’s confident None NL SMK Pasar Rebo Laptop, in focus, device at language laboratory Based on the need Increasing vocabulary Lack of maintanence ASL SD Jakarta Barat Laptop, in focus, active speaker Often Increasing vocabulary None
  • 7. III.2. Student’s Score III.2.1 The student’s score from SMA 2X N o Name Final Score 1 AFRIZAL CHANDRA 70.60 2 AKBAR MAKMUN 75.13 3 AKHMAD YASSIR FIRDAUS 70.25 4 ANNISA PUTRI PRADITA 70.04 5 ARDISON 68.56 6 ASTRID NOVIA 72.65 7 CHATRINE 71.29 8 CHOIRIZA ANASTASIA 73.04 9 DEBI YUNITA DEWI 76.63 10 DINDA MELADYA 79.33 11 DION HEGAN 73.40 12 ERNI ARYANI 69.48 13 ERWIN FEBRIANTO 70.69 14 FERA ROSITA DEWI 71.85 15 FIKRI YUHENRA 72.73 16 FINA MEIRISKA 72.08 17 FITRI ALVIYANTI 71.29 18 INTAN AYU LESTARI 71.31 19 ISTIQOMAH 68.48 20 JAMAL ALI UMA TERNATE 74.35 21 KEVIN RIZKY DARMAWAN 64.35 22 KURNIA SEPTIANI 56.21 23 M ARIF WIYANTO 61.90 24 M SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH 63.71 25 MAHENDRA CAESHA 75.85 26 MARISSA RATU MAHENDRA 68.06 27 NATAL ROBERTO 68.08 28 NAWAF KUSUMA BAHRI 65.23 7
  • 8. 29 NINDA WIDYARTI 59.35 30 PUTRI WIDIANINGRUM 66.08 31 RATIH ANDINI 70.48 32 RIZKY MIFTAHUL AKBAR 68.98 33 RONI MULYADO 70.02 34 SIGIT DESWANTO 61.73 35 SYIFA FAUZIAH RACHMANNINGSIH 64.04 36 VIVI LUTVIAH 71.06 37 WICAKSONO JULYANTO 74.27 38 YANTI PUSPITASARI 70.63 Average Score 69.56 III.2.2 The student’s score from SMK, Tangerang 8
  • 9. 9 No Name Final Score 1 ALNAVIA DWI SEKAR P. 80 2 ANDRI 90 3 ANTO SALIM 89 4 BOBBY KRISNADI 89 5 DEHLIA KURNIA WIRAYANTI 91 6 DENI CHANDRA 87 7 FRANKY SETIAWAN 87 8 GRYSELLA 93 9 HANS 51 10 INDAH A. GINTING 86 11 INDRIANA WIJAYA 90 12 INEZIA SUGIANTY 76 13 KATHLEEN DESTHISYA 87 14 KIKI 80 15 MARCELLINE SUHARLIE 93 16 MARGARETHA 89 17 NEILY CHANDRA 91 18 PUTRI NOVIA FADILANI 94 19 ROBBY KRISNADI 90 20 SAPTA ANDYKA PUTRA 96 21 SELVIANA 94 22 SELVIANA 94 23 TEDDY 96 24 TIO SUBANDI 96 25 TOMMY CANGGAR 96 26 VIVI 96 27 WILLIAW DARKIE FUKRIE 93 Average Score 88.67
  • 10. III.2.3 The Students’ score from SMK, Pasar Rebo No. Name Final Score 1 A. HASYIM AKBAR 80 2 ABDUS SHOHEHUDDIN 84 AFIF HADI SUTRISNO 90 10
  • 11. 3 4 AGRADITYA PUTRA 89 5 AHMAD HILWAN 86 7 ARIQ HABIBI 85 6 ARIJAL CHAIRUL RAHMAN 84 8 AZIZAH MAULIYAH 80 9 DANANG WAHYU JATI 80 1 0 DIAH MASMAULIDIA 85 1 1 DWI LARAS ANDRASWARI 83 1 2 ELLY RATNASARI 83 1 3 EPRY SHAER NICHA WATIK 84 14 FAHMI ARDIYAN 80 1 5 FAIDIL ACHMAD KOSIM 80 1 6 FIRDA RASYIDA 84 1 7 GUSTI RENO NOUFAL PRAYITNO 81 1 8 HEDI ZAKIA 86 1 9 HOIRUL AMALIYA 81 2 0 JATILIO PURNAMA 85 2 1 JIHAN MUCHSIN 83 2 2 MUHAMAD MALIK SUKMA 84 11
  • 12. 2 4 MUTIARA ELANDI PUTRI 82 2 3 MUHAMMAD NABIL 91 2 5 MUTIARA SUDIRMAN 86 2 6 NENG SARAH SORAYA 80 27 NIKI DHIMAS NARISWARA 90 28 QOSRUL ZULFA 81 2 9 RIYAN SAIFUL RIZAL 85 3 0 SITI NUR AI'SAH 81 3 1 SYAHRIAL IDHAM 85 3 2 YUANA SARI PARLINA 84 3 3 YULI PURWATI 80 3 4 ZULFIKAR SYAH 82 Average Score 83.56 III.2.4 The student’s score from SD, Jakarta Barat No Nama siswa Final score 1 AISYA RAFA MAHARANI 100 2 DHAIFAN SALHAN DARARI ARDIANTORO 74 3 FAIQ GIEHAN ULWAN AFIFI 78 12
  • 13. 4 KINTANTI ANATYAARETHA 86 5 M. NADHIF PRANATA FERDIANSYAH 84 6 M. RAFIANSYAH NAUFAL FAUZAN 66 7 MAGHFIRA SYAMILA DASHA 94 8 MUHAMMAD RAFI SHIDDIQ 82 9 NAJMI QORRY 'AINA 100 10 NATAYA NAJWA KIRANA 84 11 RAFILINO FAZZA KUNCORO 84 12 SA'ID RAMADHAN 82 13 SAJIDAH LAYALI ROBBANIYYAH 78 14 SHALINA HANIFAH 92 15 YASMINE HANIFAH 96 Average Score 85.33 IV. Discussion The data outlined above shows different information. The first data (table II.1) informs us about the teachers’ perspective of using multimedia, multimedia devices available in their schools, frequent use, the advantages and disadvantages. On their perspective of using multimedia, all of them share the same idea which is the using of multimedia will help their teaching and learning process. While AS stressed particularly at how multimedia has made the class more interactive and students more 13
  • 14. engaged in the class activities, RA stressed on how it help students more confidents in response to the teachers assignment. Different schools have different facility for teaching and learning process. While all of the schools listed here have their own multimedia device, it seems that school where AS teaches there has more complete device compare to others. It has in focus, laptop, active speaker, a wifi network, and interactive whiteboard. The others only have at least laptop and in focus. In term of usage, most of the teachers often use multimedia in their teaching and learning process. Of exception is NL who states that he only uses multimedia when it is in need or the learning material requires using it. On the issue of advantages and disadvantages, most of the teachers mention that using multimedia will bring more advantages rather disadvantages. AS and RA specifically refers to the psychological factor of using multimedia in their class. Based on AS information, AS’s students become more enthusiastic and engaged to the teaching and learning process and he mentioned also how he got positive response from his students because of multimedia he uses. RA stresses on the issue of how multimedia has increases his students’ confidence when they are asked to respond their teachers’ assignment even if they have to come to in front of the class. Different from the two, NL and ASL states that using multimedia has helped their students to increase their vocabularies. On the issue of disadvantages, only NL that informs how his schools lack of maintenance for their multimedia devices. This may affect in the effectivity of the multimedia used. In general, these information states that multimedia have helped students in their teaching and learning activities either psychologically or significantly increase their skills related to the subject matter. While this information has directly address the problem raised within this paper whether using multimedia will contribute to the language acquisition, their claims are still in need to be validated. One among other ways to validate their claims is by looking at the students final score as it is presented in the chapter III.2. Looking at the students’ scores table, it seems that the advantages of using multimedia correlate with or contribute much to the language acquisition achieved by the students. The only exception is for table III.2.1. In the table III.2.2, III.2.3, III.3.4, 14
  • 15. the average score is more than 80 which, arguably, mean that the students’ understand the material and improve their language skills. As for table III.2.1, the average score is 69.56 which is far below the three mentioned earlier. With this average score, the students’ language acquisition is in need to be improved. This different then poses important problem. Among the three, table III.2.1 which is the score from the AS’s school with the complete equipment of multimedia. If the availability of multimedia devices positively correlates with or contribute much to the language acquisition, it is supposed to be the students of this school that achieve the high scores compare to the others, but the result is different. How could it be? In response to this, I tend to argue that there that multimedia alone does not guarantee that the students will obtain a good acquisition in the language learning. This because, as it is argued by Mayer (2008) and Dillan & Jobus (2005) (cited in Yang et.al, 2013: 209), the effectiveness of multimedia need to be mediated by other factors such “the context, the goal of learning and individual differences.” Due to this, there are many things that need to consider furthers, from the teachers and students factor, their environment and also the goal of teaching and learning process. From the teachers and students factor, people may need to consider whether the way the teachers explain the material is clear enough and easy to be understood by the students. From the student’s factor, it is also important to note whether the students of these schools learn English outside of the schools so that they can took another English course to improve their language skills. On the issue of context, it is also important to note whether the multimedia learning is conducted in the laboratories or experimental settings. On this, Rieber (2005, cited in Yang et.al, 2013: 209) argues that since most of multimedia learning conducted in laboratories, it remains uncertain whether the effectiveness of multimedia can be transferred into the class. V. Conclusion This paper has discussed the problem around the using of multimedia whether it will contribute to the students’ language acquisition. Based on the analysis and discussion above, it is found that the using of multimedia in the class activities might 15
  • 16. help students to understand the material and improve the class situation. However, the multimedia devices alone do not guarantee that students will have a good acquisition in their language skills. There are other factors, from students and teachers, the context, and the goal of learning process that are needed to be looked further since they may affect the students’ language acquisition. The finding of this research is based on the interview from the teachers in different schools. Adding to this is the students’ score to validate the information obtained from the teachers. It is hoped that combining and cross checking these two information will help to answer the research problem. It is mentioned earlier that focusing only from to the teachers’ perspective may lead to the limitation of this research, but this could be seen as the first step to develop this research further, for example, by incorporating the students’ perspective on the using multimedia. Finally, the development of technology and information will affect the teaching and learning process. Learning from the development of the multimedia device, it is always important to study this issue further so that the stakeholders of education can maximize in using and getting the benefits of these tools so that the aims of the education processes can be successfully achieved. 16
  • 17. References Anonymous. “Investigating Multimedia Products.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/dida/multimedia/productsrev1.shtml (accessed July 1, 2013) Cutting, Alan. 2011. Using Multimedia in the Classrooms: A Guide for Teachers. Samoa: Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture Hancock, Beverly. 2002. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. Trent Focus Group Hartoyo. 2012. ICT, Information and Communication Technology in Language Learning. Semarang: Pelita Insani Semarang Printing and Publishing. Joshi, Ashvini. 2012. Multimedia: A Technique in Teaching Process in the Classrooms. Current World Environment¸ 7(1), 33-36 Marshal, Dave. 1999. “What is Multimedia?” http://www.cs.cf.ac.uk/Dave/MM/OLD_BSC/node10.html (accessed July 1, 2013) Pea, Roy D. 1991. Learning through Multimedia. III Computer Graphics and Application, 11 (4), 58-66 Sivakuraman, Thillainatarajan, et.al. 2012. Students Perception of Multimedia Technology Integrated in Classroom Learning. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(11), 67-70 Teoh, Belinda Soo-Ping and Teso-Kian Neo. 2007. Interactive Multimedia Learning: Students’ Attitudes and Learning Impact in An Animation Course. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 6(4), 28-37 Yang, Fang-Ying, et.al. 2013. Tracking Learner’s Visual Attention during A Multimedia Presentation in A Real Classroom. Computer & Education, 62, 208-220 17