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  • 1. Biological Molecules Today: amino acids, proteins DNA, RNA April 14, 2009
  • 2. Organic Chemistry
    • Study of carbon containing compounds. Originally encompassed only compounds isolated from biological sources because it was thought that the molecules contained a “life-force”. The definition of organic chemistry now consists of man-made and biological molecules consisting mostly of Carbon and Hydrogen plus Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Sulfur, and Phosphorus.
  • 3. So what makes carbon so special?
  • 4. Here is an organic molecule Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) Construct a model of isopropyl alcohol
  • 5. Here is an organic molecule Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) Carbon skeleton Functional group
  • 6. Does your model look like this?
  • 7. Benzene
  • 8. Our plastic model looks a little different
  • 9.  
  • 10. As opposed to …
  • 11. Amino Acids
  • 12. Standard amino acids
    • 20 amino acids make up all proteins.
    • Our bodies produce all but eight
    • Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine – essential amino acids.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Terms to know
    • Two amino acids joined together is called a dipeptide. Example Ala-Ala
    • Three amino acids joined together is called a . Example Glu-Cys-Gly
    • Many many, many amino acids joined together are called .
  • 15. Terms to know
    • Two amino acids joined together is called a dipeptide. Example Ala-Ala
    • Three amino acids joined together is called a tripeptide . Example Glu-Cys-Gly
    • Many many many amino acids joined together are called protein .
  • 16. Formation of a peptide bond
  • 17. An example of an enzyme
  • 18. Proteins
    • Large organic compound (macromolecules)
    • Composed of amino acids
    • Essential parts of all living organisms
      • Enzymes that catalyze bioreactions
      • Play a role in structural or mechanical functions
      • Cell signaling
  • 19. Sucrose is first digested in the stomach by stomach acid. Any remaining sucrose split into glucose and fructose by sucrase in the walls of the intestines.
  • 20. Protein synthesis
    • Proteins are assembled from amino acids using the information encoded in genes. (one gene contains the information for one entire enzyme)
    • Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein. Each three-nucleotide combination, called a codon, stands for an amino acid.
  • 21. RNA and DNA Thymine T
  • 22. Nitrogenous Bases
  • 23. Hydrogen Bonding 5’ end 3’ end
  • 24. Nucleotide
  • 25. Nucleotide in RNA Sugar (ribose) phosphate Nitrogenous base (A)
  • 26. Protein synthesis RNA polymerase makes this step happen
  • 27. Answer the questions on your handout
    • http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/translation/movie.htm
    • 1. What is transcription?
    • 2. What is the role of RNA polymerase?
    • 3. What is the role of Poly A polymerase?
    • 4. What do ATP and ADP stand for? What does ATP supply?
    • 5. What is splicing?
    • 6. What is the difference between an intron and an exon?
    • 7. What is translation?
    • 8. What are the three processes within translation?
    • 9. What is a codon?
    • 10. What’s the difference between mRNA and tRNA?
  • 28. Structure of proteins
    • Primary Structure: The exact sequence of amino acids
    • Secondary Structure: The arrangement of amino acids that give local segments of a protein a specific shape. Includes structures alpha-helix, beta pleated sheets and random coils.
    • Tertiary Structure: The three dimensional structure of the protein as a whole.
    • Quaternary Structure: The three dimensional structure of protein that are assembled from separate protein chains.
  • 29. Structure of proteins
  • 30. Proteins
    • Examples of proteins
    • α -keratin contains long strands of alpha helix structures. Found in hair, hooves, nails, skin and wool. (fibrous protein)
  • 31. Silk These pleated sheet structures make the material resistant to stretching. The small R groups make the chains compact giving the material a smooth feel. The uniform surface makes it a good reflector of light.
  • 32. Artificial Silk Polymer continues on in each direction
  • 33. Another fibrous protein
    • Collagen most abundant protein in vertebrates, found in bone, cartilage, tendons, teeth and blood vessels. Contain mostly glycine and proline.
  • 34. Globular protein- soluble in water
    • Hemoglobin
    Heme
  • 35. Where do biological molecules come from? USAToday Posted 8/8/2006 This is an artist’s rendition of the cosmic chemistry cycle. Stars eject matter into space. Diffuse gas clouds condense into stars and planets or comets and meteorites.