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    E learning&engineering education -h. anis- session 7 E learning&engineering education -h. anis- session 7 Presentation Transcript

    • E-Learning in Engineering Education – General Challenges And the Egyptian Experience Hussein Anis [email_address] Cairo University
      • IEEE (Nov. 2009): Of the 14 “Engineering Grand Challenges” in the future, the following two are related to e-learning:
      • “ Enhance virtual reality”
      • “ Advance personalized learning”
      • Types of E-Learning-Based
      • Engineering Education
      • Formal (degree-bound) education
      • Continuing professional education:
        • Short courses
        • In-house training
      • Categories of students
          • Resident student
          • Distance learning student
      • Challenges of E-learning in
      • Engineering Education
      • Identifying the skills required by admitted students.
      • Evaluating the progress of students.
      • Identifying the appropriate teaching strategy.
      • Choosing to use electronic means in laboratory work &
      • the resource required for sharing remote labs.
      • Accrediting e-learning-based engineering programs.
      • Setting regulations for credit transfer in engineering
      • especially with campus-based institutions.
      • Targeting interactions with international engineering
      • education bodies .
      • Challenges of E-learning in
      • Engineering Education – Cont.
      • Estimating the cost of resources serving online
      • engineering education.
      • Facing inevitable new changes in teaching loads and the
      • trade-offs in teachers' time between online and on-
      • campus teaching.
      • Estimating required human and technical infrastructure.
      • Assessing student and staff satisfaction.
      • Facing changes in student advising protocols.
      • Assessing class software requirements.
    • Engineering Laboratories in E-Learning ABET’s engineering criteria state that: “ All engineering programs must demonstrate that their graduates have ability to:- design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data; design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs; and use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice."
      • ABET’s Objectives for Engineering Class Laboratory
      • Apply appropriate sensors, instrumentation, and/or software tools.
      • Identify the strengths and limitations of theoretical models as predictors of real world behaviors
      • Devise an experimental approach.
      • Demonstrate the ability to collect, analyze, and interpret data.
      • Design, build, or assemble a part, product, or system.
      • Recognize unsuccessful outcomes due to faulty equipment, parts, code, construction, process, or design.
      • Demonstrate creativity in real-world problem solving.
      • Psychomotor: Demonstrate competence in selection, modification, and operation of engineering tools.
      • Safety: Recognize health, safety, and environmental issues.
      • Communication: Communicate effectively about laboratory work with a specific audience.
      • Teamwork: Work effectively in teams
      • Ethics in the Lab: Behave with highest ethical standards, including re­porting information objectively and interacting with integrity.
      • Sensory Awareness: Use the human senses to gather information and to make engineering judgments.
      • Laboratories in e-learning- engineering education
      • Laboratory Simulations , experiments are simulated on computers.
      • Examples :
      • National Instruments DAQ (data acquisition), Field Point, Measurement Studio, LabVIEW……..
      • 2) Remotely controlled physical laboratories , physical laboratory equipment are located away from where students perform experiments.
      • Examples :
      • MIT (weblab.mit.edu),
      • Johns Hopkins U. (www.jhu.edu/~virtlab/virtlab.html),
      • U. of Texas (www.robotics.utexas.edu/simulations/),
      • Lab-on-Web (www.lab-on-web.com),
      • Linkoping U. (www.ida.liu.se/~her/npp/demo.html ),..............
      • Egyptian Data
      • Population = nearly 87 million,
      • 19 public universities, 17 private universities.
      • Total university student body = 2 million.
      • Public universities enroll 97% of students.
      • 500,000 students enroll in higher institutes.
      • Students enrolled in university engineering programs
      • is 158,000 (31% females),
      • 93.2% of engineering students attend public
      • universities.
      • 100,000 students study engineering/technology in
      • higher institutes.
      • Motivation of E-learning in University
      • Engineering Education in Egypt
      • The desire to improve the quality of instruction in
      • engineering education to keep pace with international
      • development:
      • Developing technology skills.
      • Accommodating the diverse needs of engineering
      • students.
      • Facilitating efficient cooperation and team-oriented
      • collaborations among students.
      • Catering to the industry’s request of emphasis on skills
      • and deep understanding.
      • Sharing information with other universities and
      • corporations.
      • Facilitate combining work and study.
    • Increase access. (Current Participation Ratio of about 29%; Government aspires for a 40% ratio within 10 years). Help engineering education – a traditionally "urban" discipline- reach remote areas. Access to all sources of technical knowledge and information. Combat the present crowding in public higher education institutions, Ease the current large average students-to-teachers ratio. Egypt is targeted to be the hub of e-Learning in Arab Region. The aspiration for being able to export e-learning technology to the outside world, especially Africa, Middle East and Arab countries. Reducing education cost (buildings, teachers' salaries, classroom costs, transportation cost, ..,……..
      • E-learning Technologies in Egypt
      • Open Learning Centers:
      • courseware material on video tapes and CDs.
      • Further support through TV (VHF, UHF, and
      • Satellite) broadcast.
      • Web-based courseware [strictly asynchronous]:
      • added advantage: off-line interactive tools as
      • blogs, Wikis, collaborative software, e-Portfolios,
      • discussion boards, and email.
      • Tiers of E-courseware Contents
        • Contain only the course structure and assignments.
        • Add text material.
        • Add references and links (in hypertext) to
        • supplementary reading.
        • Add illustrations.
        • Add audio/video clips.
        • Add simulations and animations.
        • Include interactive virtual reality .
    • Hierarchy of e-learning technologies versus educational functions
      • E-Learning Criteria
      • ( The Five pillars of E-learning )
      • Learning effectiveness,
      • Student satisfaction,
      • Faculty satisfaction,
      • Access,
      • Cost effectiveness
    • Accreditation of E-Learning-based Engineering Education (1) Traditional Institutional Accreditation , assesses Students, Quality of Delivery, Staff and Staff Development, Support Services, Administrative Services, Physical Resources. (2) Program (Professional, Discipline..) Accreditation. Additional Criteria with E-Learning : (3) E-learning-specific Institutional & Program Accreditation (4) Courseware certification
      • Courseware Certification
      • efficiency of interface,
      • course compatibility,
      • production quality,
      • appropriateness of instructional design
      • Relevant Egyptian Efforts
      • 1] The Egypteducation Site : ( http://www.egypteducation.org/moodle/ )
      • Based on Moodle
      • Hosted on Virtual Private Server (VPS) in US.
      • Over 80 instructors & about 16,000 registered
      • users.
      • 2] YouTube Site : ( www.youtube.com/sfateen )
      • Instruction in local Arabic with English technical
      • terms.
    •  
      • 3] Using Learning Management Systems :
      • LMS " Moodl e " is used in some courses: functions:
      • online exams,
      • announcements,
      • links to other universities
      • online submission of   assignments and
      • projects ( not very successful ).
      • 4] Egypt’s National E-Learning Center (NELC)
      • To create e-learning sub-centers in all universities.
      • To build adequate e-learning infrastructure.
      • To support the development of e-courses.
      • To provide e-course development standards.
      • To certify e-courses to be used by universities.
      • To monitor the use of e-courses.
      • To coordinate e-learning development at the
      • national level.
      • To provide necessary information, training and
      • support.
      • Alternative Sources of E-Courses
      • Free courseware:
        • Open Course Ware (example MIT).
        • Open Learning Initiative
        • Connexions (Wikipedia style)
      • Purchased courseware
      • Developed courseware
      • NELC’s Achievements
      • E-learning sub-centers established in all 19 public
      • universities.
      • Sub-centers partially staffed.
      • Hardware and software provided.
      • Only 10 universities developed online courses.
        • Training programs to faculty and staff.
      • Only 7 Engineering courses out of a total of 292
      • courses (2.4%) .
        • Funding Virtual Laboratories in chemistry,
        • physics, biology, anatomy, physiology, and
        • accounting & economics.
      • E-course Content Hierarchy
      • Data = Raw Media Elements.
      • Information Object (IO) = set of data
      • elements.
      • Reusable Learning Object (LO) =
      • combination of IOs (concepts, facts,
      • processes……,).
      • Course (lesson) = combination of LOs.
      • Module = collection of courses.
      • NELC now supports development of LO's
      • for engineering courses
      • LO Development :
      • Simpler / easier to manage / requires less time /
      • requires less cost.
      • 850 LO’s (serving 70 e-courses) developed.
      • Share of e-courses increased from 5.46% in
      • 2007/2008 to 20.09% in 2009/2010.
      • E-courses are used by 73,000 students.
      • Impediments to Engineering Education Based on E-Learning
      • Academic factors:
      • Lack of academic and administrative readiness.
      • Shortage in on-line courseware.
      • Social/cultural resistance.
      • Complex legal consequences (IPRs).
      • Absence of formal clear procedures and criteria for nationally accrediting online programs.
      • Increase in teaching load at the expense of other functions.
        • Technical factors
      • Availability of suitable infrastructure. Although it was markedly improved over the past five years.
      • Accessibility of computers and Internet services to students.
      • Difficulty in choosing media and technologies .
      • Economical factors
      • 1 ) Initial high capital cost of e-learning.
      • 2) High cost items are:
      • Cost of producing / purchasing courseware . (Cost of developing a 3-credits e-course in Egypt ranges from $ 2000.- to 10,000.-) .
      • Cost of instruction online (preparation, training,…)
      • Cost of providing network services.
      • Cost of acquiring LMS, SIS, assessment,...
      • Cost of technical and educational infrastructure.
      • 3) Determining the economical break-even number of students & courseware lifetime.
      • C O N C L U S I O N S
      • Strategic Issues to be Addressed
      • Identify skills of new generation of students.
      • Assess skills of faculty.
      • Increase awareness of e-learning benefits in
      • engineering.
      • Evaluate potential authors & technologies.
      • Seek proper technical infrastructure.
      • Build new organizational structures.
      • Set suitable accreditation and certification
      • criteria.
      • Find ways to lower e-course development costs.
      • Prioritize [Certificate programs / Graduate /
      • Under-graduate] .
      • Implement soft laboratories and then remote
      • laboratories.
    • Thank you
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