Ch6 suppy demand & gov't policy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Ch6 suppy demand & gov't policy

on

  • 670 views

gov't intervention through price controls and taxes

gov't intervention through price controls and taxes

Statistics

Views

Total Views
670
Views on SlideShare
670
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
10
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Ch6 suppy demand & gov't policy Ch6 suppy demand & gov't policy Presentation Transcript

  • PART I: REVIEW
  • Economics is a SOCIAL SCIENCE so it seeks to explain something about SOCIETY Fundamental Economic Problem: SCARCITY
    • Daily activities
    • Possessions you enjoy
    • The surroundings in w/c you live
    Many of the activities we enjoy require TIME as well as MONEY .
  • Economics is the study of how individuals allocate their scarce resources efficiently in order to satisfy their unlimited needs and wants. Ultimate goal of a: consumer maximize utility producer maximize profit
  • Basic Limitations:
    • scarce time
    • scarce spending power
    Because of the scarcities of TIME & SPENDING POWER, each of us is forced to make CHOICES ECONOMICS IS THE STUDY OF CHOICE AND SCARCITY.
  • SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES small big is the study of how people make decisions and how these decisions interact. is the study of the nation’s economy as a whole. ECONOMICS MICROECONOMICS MACROECONOMICS
  • SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES MICROECONOMICS MACROECONOMICS 1. Should I go to college or get a job? 1.How many people are employed in the economy as a whole this year? 2. What determines the salary that Citibank offers to a new college graduate? 2.What determines the overall salary levels paid to workers in a given year? 3. What determines the cost to a college of offering a new course? 3.What determines the overall level of prices in the economy as a whole? 4. What government policies should be adopted to make it easier for low- income students to afford college? 4. What government policies should be adopted to promote employment and growth in the economy as a whole? 5. What determines the number of iPhones exported to France? 5. What determines the overall trade in goods, services, and financial assets between the United States and the rest of the world?
  • Supply and Demand Together Equilibrium : P has reached the level where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded 0 P Q D S
  • Equilibrium price: the price that equates quantity supplied with quantity demanded 0 D S P Q P Q D Q S $0 24 0 1 21 5 2 18 10 3 15 15 4 12 20 5 9 25 6 6 30
  • Equilibrium quantity: the quantity supplied and quantity demanded at the equilibrium price 0 D S P Q P Q D Q S $0 24 0 1 21 5 2 18 10 3 15 15 4 12 20 5 9 25 6 6 30
  • Surplus (a.k.a. excess supply): when quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded Surplus Example: If P = $5, then Q D = 9 lattes and Q S = 25 lattes resulting in a surplus of 16 lattes 0 P Q D S
  • Surplus (a.k.a. excess supply): when quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded Facing a surplus, sellers try to increase sales by cutting price. This causes Q D to rise … which reduces the surplus. and Q S to fall… 0 P Q D S Surplus
  • Surplus (a.k.a. excess supply): when quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded Facing a surplus, sellers try to increase sales by cutting price. This causes Q D to rise and Q S to fall. Surplus Prices continue to fall until market reaches equilibrium. 0 P Q D S
  • Shortage (a.k.a. excess demand): when quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied Example: If P = $1, then Q D = 21 lattes and Q S = 5 lattes resulting in a shortage of 16 lattes Shortage 0 P Q D S
  • Shortage (a.k.a. excess demand): when quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied Facing a shortage, sellers raise the price, causing Q D to fall … which reduces the shortage. and Q S to rise, 0 P Q D S Shortage
  • Shortage (a.k.a. excess demand): when quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied Facing a shortage, sellers raise the price, causing Q D to fall and Q S to rise. Shortage Prices continue to rise until market reaches equilibrium. 0 P Q D S
  • Three Steps to Analyzing Changes in Eq’m
    • To determine the effects of any event,
      • 1. Decide whether event shifts S curve, D curve, or both.
      • 2. Decide in which direction curve shifts.
      • 3. Use supply-demand diagram to see how the shift changes eq’m P and Q .
    THE MARKET FORCES OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND
  • SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES
  • Supply, Demand, and Government Policies 6 E conomics P R I N C I P L E S O F N. Gregory Mankiw Premium PowerPoint Slides by Ron Cronovich
  • In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions:
    • What are price ceilings and price floors? What are some examples of each?
    • How do price ceilings and price floors affect market outcomes?
    • How do taxes affect market outcomes? How do the effects depend on whether the tax is imposed on buyers or sellers?
    • What is the incidence of a tax? What determines the incidence?
  • Government Policies That Alter the Private Market Outcome
    • Price controls
      • Price ceiling : a legal maximum on the price of a good or service Example: rent control
      • Price floor : a legal minimum on the price of a good or service Example: minimum wage
    • Taxes
      • The govt can make buyers or sellers pay a specific amount on each unit bought/sold.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES We will use the supply/demand model to see how each policy affects the market outcome (the price buyers pay, the price sellers receive, and eq’m quantity).
  • EXAMPLE 1: The Market for Apartments
    • Eq’m w/o price controls
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES P Q D S Rental price of apts $800 300 Quantity of apartments
  • How Price Ceilings Affect Market Outcomes
    • A price ceiling above the eq’m price is not binding – has no effect on the market outcome.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES P Q D S $800 300 Price ceiling $1000
  • How Price Ceilings Affect Market Outcomes
    • The eq’m price ($800) is above the ceiling and therefore illegal.
    • The ceiling is a binding constraint on the price, causes a shortage.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES $800 P Q D S Price ceiling $500 250 400 shortage
  • How Price Ceilings Affect Market Outcomes
    • In the long run, supply and demand are more price-elastic.
    • So, the shortage is larger.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES $800 150 450 P Q D S Price ceiling $500 shortage
  • Shortages and Rationing
    • With a shortage, sellers must ration the goods among buyers.
    • Some rationing mechanisms: (1) Long lines (2) Discrimination according to sellers’ biases
    • These mechanisms are often unfair, and inefficient: the goods do not necessarily go to the buyers who value them most highly.
    • In contrast, when prices are not controlled, the rationing mechanism is efficient (the goods go to the buyers that value them most highly) and impersonal (and thus fair).
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES
  • EXAMPLE 2: The Market for Unskilled Labor
    • Eq’m w/o price controls
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES W L D S Wage paid to unskilled workers $4 500 Quantity of unskilled workers
  • How Price Floors Affect Market Outcomes
    • A price floor below the eq’m price is not binding – has no effect on the market outcome.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES W L D S $4 500 Price floor $3
  • How Price Floors Affect Market Outcomes
    • The eq’m wage ($4) is below the floor and therefore illegal.
    • The floor is a binding constraint on the wage, causes a surplus ( i.e., unemployment).
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES W L D S $4 Price floor $5 400 550 labor surplus
    • Min wage laws do not affect highly skilled workers.
    • They do affect teen workers.
    • Studies: A 10% increase in the min wage raises teen unemployment by 1-3%.
    The Minimum Wage SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES W L D S $4 Min. wage $5 400 550 unemp-loyment
  • A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 1 Price controls
    • Determine effects of:
      • A . $90 price ceiling
      • B . $90 price floor
      • C. $120 price floor
    Q P S 0 The market for hotel rooms D
  • Evaluating Price Controls
    • Recall one of the Ten Principles from Chapter 1: Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES
    • Prices are the signals that guide the allocation of society’s resources. This allocation is altered when policymakers restrict prices.
    • Price controls often intended to help the poor, but often hurt more than help.
  • Taxes
    • The govt levies taxes on many goods & services to raise revenue to pay for national defense, public schools, etc.
    • The govt can make buyers or sellers pay the tax.
    • The tax can be a % of the good’s price, or a specific amount for each unit sold.
      • For simplicity, we analyze per-unit taxes only.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES
  • EXAMPLE 3: The Market for Pizza
    • Eq’m w/o tax
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES S 1 P Q D 1 $10.00 500
  • A Tax on Buyers
    • The price buyers pay is now $1.50 higher than the market price P .
    • P would have to fall by $1.50 to make buyers willing to buy same Q as before.
    • E.g. , if P falls from $10.00 to $8.50, buyers still willing to purchase 500 pizzas.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES Effects of a $1.50 per unit tax on buyers Hence, a tax on buyers shifts the D curve down by the amount of the tax. S 1 D 1 $10.00 500 P Q D 2 $8.50 Tax
  • A Tax on Buyers SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES Effects of a $1.50 per unit tax on buyers New eq’m: Q = 450 Sellers receive P S = $9.50 Buyers pay P B = $11.00 Difference between them = $1.50 = tax S 1 D 1 $10.00 500 P Q D 2 $11.00 P B = $9.50 P S = Tax 450
  • The Incidence of a Tax:
    • how the burden of a tax is shared among market participants
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES In our example, buyers pay $1.00 more, sellers get $0.50 less. 450 S 1 P Q D 1 $10.00 500 D 2 $11.00 P B = $9.50 P S = Tax
  • A Tax on Sellers SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES Effects of a $1.50 per unit tax on sellers The tax effectively raises sellers’ costs by $1.50 per pizza. Sellers will supply 500 pizzas only if P rises to $11.50, to compensate for this cost increase. Hence, a tax on sellers shifts the S curve up by the amount of the tax. S 1 P Q D 1 $10.00 500 S 2 $11.50 Tax
  • A Tax on Sellers SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES Effects of a $1.50 per unit tax on sellers New eq’m: Q = 450 Buyers pay P B = $11.00 Sellers receive P S = $9.50 Difference between them = $1.50 = tax S 1 P Q D 1 $10.00 500 S 2 450 $11.00 P B = $9.50 P S = Tax
  • The Outcome Is the Same in Both Cases !
    • What matters is this:
    • A tax drives a wedge between the price buyers pay and the price sellers receive.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES 450 P B = P S = Tax The effects on P and Q , and the tax incidence are the same whether the tax is imposed on buyers or sellers! S 1 P Q D 1 $10.00 500 $9.50 $11.00
  • A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 2 Effects of a tax Suppose govt imposes a tax on buyers of $30 per room. Find new Q , P B , P S , and incidence of tax. Q P S 0 The market for hotel rooms D
  • Elasticity and Tax Incidence
    • CASE 1: Supply is more elastic than demand
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES It’s easier for sellers than buyers to leave the market. So buyers bear most of the burden of the tax. P Q D S Tax Buyers’ share of tax burden Sellers’ share of tax burden Price if no tax P B P S
  • Elasticity and Tax Incidence
    • CASE 2: Demand is more elastic than supply
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES It’s easier for buyers than sellers to leave the market. Sellers bear most of the burden of the tax. P Q D S Tax Buyers’ share of tax burden Sellers’ share of tax burden Price if no tax P B P S
  • CASE STUDY: Who Pays the Luxury Tax?
    • 1990: Congress adopted a luxury tax on yachts, private airplanes, furs, expensive cars, etc.
    • Goal of the tax: raise revenue from those who could most easily afford to pay – wealthy consumers.
    • But who really pays this tax?
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES
  • CASE STUDY: Who Pays the Luxury Tax?
    • The market for yachts
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES Demand is price-elastic. In the short run, supply is inelastic. Hence, companies that build yachts pay most of the tax. P Q D S Tax Buyers’ share of tax burden Sellers’ share of tax burden P B P S
  • CONCLUSION: Government Policies and the Allocation of Resources
    • Each of the policies in this chapter affects the allocation of society’s resources.
      • Example 1: A tax on pizza reduces eq’m Q .
      • With less production of pizza, resources (workers, ovens, cheese) will become available to other industries.
      • Example 2: A binding minimum wage causes a surplus of workers, a waste of resources.
    • So, it’s important for policymakers to apply such policies very carefully.
    SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES
  • CHAPTER SUMMARY
    • A price ceiling is a legal maximum on the price of a good. An example is rent control. If the price ceiling is below the eq’m price, it is binding and causes a shortage.
    • A price floor is a legal minimum on the price of a good. An example is the minimum wage. If the price floor is above the eq’m price, it is binding and causes a surplus. The labor surplus caused by the minimum wage is unemployment.
  • CHAPTER SUMMARY
    • A tax on a good places a wedge between the price buyers pay and the price sellers receive, and causes the eq’m quantity to fall, whether the tax is imposed on buyers or sellers.
    • The incidence of a tax is the division of the burden of the tax between buyers and sellers, and does not depend on whether the tax is imposed on buyers or sellers.
    • The incidence of the tax depends on the price elasticities of supply and demand.