Cellular Respiration<br />**Food provides life with the chemical building blocks need to grow and reproduce.**<br />
Calorie<br />The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1oC.<br />On food labels, “Calorie” i...
Glycolysis<br />It is the beginning process of our food “burning” to release energy.<br />Begins process of respiration an...
What is Cellular Respiration?<br />The process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in t...
Equation<br />6 O2 + C6H12O6 			6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP<br />
Glycolysis<br />It is a process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic aci...
ATP & Glycolysis<br />The process releases energy, but needs a boost to get started.<br />It takes 2 ATP’s to start glycol...
NADH Production<br />One of the reactions of glycolysis removes four high energy electrons and passes them to NAD+.<br />N...
Energy Output of Glycolysis<br />The process is so fast, it can produce thousands of ATP in milliseconds.<br />Glycolysis ...
Steps of Glycolysis<br />
Step 1<br />Two phosphates are added to glucose to with an ATP investment of 2 molecules.<br />
Step 2<br />The 2 phosphate sugar molecule is then split to form 2, 3 carbon molecules.<br />
Step 3<br />The two phosphate, 3 carbon molecules are then converted to 2 pyruvate (pyruvic acid).  As this occurs electro...
Result	<br />Two Pyruvates (with a lot of stored energy left)<br />A net of 2 ATP’s<br />
Kreb’s Cycle<br />After glycolysis, 90% of of the chemical energy from glucose is still left.<br />For the Kreb’s Cycle, o...
Step 1 (Citric Acid Production)<br />The pyruvic acid enters the mitochondria and loses a CO2 molecule.<br />The 2 carbons...
Step 1 -cont-<br />The 2 C acetyl CoA then joins with a 4 carbon molecule to make Citric Acid.<br />
Step 2<br />The citric acid is broken down, releasing more CO2.<br />One ATP is produced.   ⌘<br />3 NADH and 1 FADH is co...
The Krebs Cycle must occur 2 times in order to break down both of the pyruvicaicds that were created during glycolysis.<br />
NADH & FADH2<br />Both these molecules are electron carriers that trap most of the energy from the Krebs cycle.<br />
Electron TransportOccurs in inner Membrane of Mitochondria<br />First Step<br />The electrons from the original glucose mo...
Step 1 – cont. – <br />These transfers along the chain release energy.  This energy is used to pump H+ ions into the inner...
Step 2<br />Those H+ ions then rush back out of the membrane through ATP synthases.<br />This energy is used to then to co...
Total ATP’s Produced <br />36  ATP Molecules For 1 Glucose Molecule <br />
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Respiration powerpoint

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration<br />**Food provides life with the chemical building blocks need to grow and reproduce.**<br />
  2. 2. Calorie<br />The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1oC.<br />On food labels, “Calorie” is a kilocalorie of 1000 calories.<br />
  3. 3. Glycolysis<br />It is the beginning process of our food “burning” to release energy.<br />Begins process of respiration and releases a small amount of energy that leads to 2 other processes that release A LOT of energy.<br />
  4. 4. What is Cellular Respiration?<br />The process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.<br />There Are 3 Steps: Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle, Electron Transport<br />
  5. 5. Equation<br />6 O2 + C6H12O6 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP<br />
  6. 6. Glycolysis<br />It is a process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid and a 3 – carbon sugar.<br />
  7. 7. ATP & Glycolysis<br />The process releases energy, but needs a boost to get started.<br />It takes 2 ATP’s to start glycolysis.<br />4 ATP’s are produced at the end.<br />NET ATP after glycolysis = __________<br />
  8. 8. NADH Production<br />One of the reactions of glycolysis removes four high energy electrons and passes them to NAD+.<br />NADH then holds those electrons with their energy.<br />
  9. 9. Energy Output of Glycolysis<br />The process is so fast, it can produce thousands of ATP in milliseconds.<br />Glycolysis doesn’t require oxygen, so it can supply chemical energy to cells when oxygen is not available.<br />PROBLEM: <br />All the NAD+ becomes filled up with electrons and cells run out.<br />
  10. 10. Steps of Glycolysis<br />
  11. 11. Step 1<br />Two phosphates are added to glucose to with an ATP investment of 2 molecules.<br />
  12. 12. Step 2<br />The 2 phosphate sugar molecule is then split to form 2, 3 carbon molecules.<br />
  13. 13. Step 3<br />The two phosphate, 3 carbon molecules are then converted to 2 pyruvate (pyruvic acid). As this occurs electrons are transferred to NAD+ to form NADH. ATP is also formed.<br />
  14. 14. Result <br />Two Pyruvates (with a lot of stored energy left)<br />A net of 2 ATP’s<br />
  15. 15. Kreb’s Cycle<br />After glycolysis, 90% of of the chemical energy from glucose is still left.<br />For the Kreb’s Cycle, oxygen is necessary.<br />The pyruvic acid will be further broken down into CO2 in a series of energy extracting steps.<br />
  16. 16. Step 1 (Citric Acid Production)<br />The pyruvic acid enters the mitochondria and loses a CO2 molecule.<br />The 2 carbons left attach to coenzyme A to from Acetyl CoA.<br />The Acetyl CoA is actually what enters the Krebs Cycle.<br />
  17. 17. Step 1 -cont-<br />The 2 C acetyl CoA then joins with a 4 carbon molecule to make Citric Acid.<br />
  18. 18. Step 2<br />The citric acid is broken down, releasing more CO2.<br />One ATP is produced. ⌘<br />3 NADH and 1 FADH is converted to FADH2<br />There is now a 4 carbon molecule left.<br />
  19. 19. The Krebs Cycle must occur 2 times in order to break down both of the pyruvicaicds that were created during glycolysis.<br />
  20. 20. NADH & FADH2<br />Both these molecules are electron carriers that trap most of the energy from the Krebs cycle.<br />
  21. 21. Electron TransportOccurs in inner Membrane of Mitochondria<br />First Step<br />The electrons from the original glucose molecule are moved to an electron transport chain using NADH.<br />(Electrons move to carriers that they have a stronger attraction for.)<br />
  22. 22. Step 1 – cont. – <br />These transfers along the chain release energy. This energy is used to pump H+ ions into the inner membrane of the mitochondria.<br />The electrons in the chain are “pulled” toward oxygen and once there the oxygen, electrons and hydrogen combine to form water.<br />
  23. 23. Step 2<br />Those H+ ions then rush back out of the membrane through ATP synthases.<br />This energy is used to then to convert ADP to ATP. <br />Up to 36 ATP’s can be made from one glucose molecule. <br />
  24. 24. Total ATP’s Produced <br />36 ATP Molecules For 1 Glucose Molecule <br />

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