Energy and Life<br />Without the ability to obtain and use energy, life would cease to exist.<br />
Chemical Energy & ATP<br />Energy comes in many forms:<br />Light<br />Heat<br />Electricity<br />
When a candle burns, what is happening?<br />
ATP<br />The principal chemical compound used for energy.<br />
What is ATP?<br />It contains the following:<br />Adenine<br />5 – Carbon Sugar (Ribose)<br />3 Phosphate Groups<br />Anal...
What is ADP?<br />A battery that needs charged!!!<br />It is just like ATP, but is missing a phosphate group.  <br />To st...
How Do Cells Use the Energy of ATP?<br />Active Transport – Pumps Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cells to maintain io...
Why Do Cells Contain Only a Small Amount of DNA?<br />Cells only have enough ATP to fuel the cells for a few seconds.<br /...
Photosynthesis<br />Plants use the sun’s energy to convert CO2 & H2O.<br />
Van Helmont’s Experiment<br />1600’s<br />He planted a seedling in a measured amount of soil.  After 5 years, he had a sma...
Priestley’s Experiment<br />He put a glass jar over a candle.  What happened?<br />Then he put a sprig of mint with the ca...
Jan Ingenhousz<br />Experiment<br />He found that Priestly’s results were only valid if sunlight was present.<br />The wor...
Light and Pigments of Photosynthesis<br />Pigment – light absorbing molecules found in autotrophs (absorb the energy with ...
Structure of a Chloroplast<br />Thylakoids – sac – like photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts<br />Grana – stacks...
Light Dependent Reactions<br />Occurs only with sunlight.<br />Makes ATP & NADPH<br />Occurs in the Thylakoid Membrane <b...
Light Independent Reactions<br />Calvin Cycle<br />Don’t need sunlight<br />Makes the sugars (glucose)<br />Occurs in the ...
Electron Carrieres<br />Light “excites” electrons in chlorophyll.  Theses excited elections are then carried from chloroph...
The Light Dependent<br />REactions<br />
First Step<br />Photosystem II Pigments absorb sunlight.  That energy is absorbed by two electrons and passed to the ELECT...
Second Step<br />These excited electrons are moved to PhotosystemI (with their energy).  The energy is used to transport H...
Third step<br />In Photosystem I, its pigments absorb more light and reenergize the electrons.  <br />NADP+ picks up the e...
Fourth step<br />As the electrons are passed from chlorophyll to NADP+, H+ ions are pumped across the membrane.  This make...
Fifth step<br />ATP Synthase in thylakoid membrane to allow H+ to pass and adds a phosphate to ADP to make ATP.<br />
The Calvin Cycle<br />ATP and NADPH will only remain stable for a few minutes.  The Calvin Cycle uses the ATP and NADPH fr...
Step 1<br />3 CO2 molecules enter the cycle from the air and combine with 3, 5 carbon molecules (RuBP) .<br />The result i...
Step 2<br />The 6, 3-carbon PGA molecules are converted then to higher energy forms by adding a phosphate group.  (energy ...
Step 3<br />1 of the 6, 3 carbon molecules (G3P) are removed to make sugar, lipids, and other compounds.  Another 3 carbon...
Step 4<br />The 5 remaining 3 carbon molecules are converted into 5, 5 carbon molecules to be reused in step 1.  ADP and N...
What Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis?<br />
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Energy and photosynthesis

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Energy and photosynthesis

  1. 1. Energy and Life<br />Without the ability to obtain and use energy, life would cease to exist.<br />
  2. 2. Chemical Energy & ATP<br />Energy comes in many forms:<br />Light<br />Heat<br />Electricity<br />
  3. 3. When a candle burns, what is happening?<br />
  4. 4. ATP<br />The principal chemical compound used for energy.<br />
  5. 5. What is ATP?<br />It contains the following:<br />Adenine<br />5 – Carbon Sugar (Ribose)<br />3 Phosphate Groups<br />Analogy: ATP is like a ……<br />The three phosphate groups are key to storing and releasing the energy of ATP.<br />http://www.biologyinmotion.com/atp/index.html<br />
  6. 6. What is ADP?<br />A battery that needs charged!!!<br />It is just like ATP, but is missing a phosphate group. <br />To store energy the third phosphate group is added to make ATP.<br />How does ATP release its energy?<br />
  7. 7. How Do Cells Use the Energy of ATP?<br />Active Transport – Pumps Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cells to maintain ion balances.<br />http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_the_sodium_potassium_pump_works.html<br />MotorProteins – ATP gives these proteins the energy they need to move organelles around the cell. <br />Blinkof aFirefly – ATP powers the enzymes that allow fireflies to blink<br />ProteinSynthesis – Helps to bond amino acids together to make proteins..<br />
  8. 8. Why Do Cells Contain Only a Small Amount of DNA?<br />Cells only have enough ATP to fuel the cells for a few seconds.<br />ATP is great at transferring energy, but not at storing it.<br />Glucose stores 90x more energy the ATP!!<br />
  9. 9. Photosynthesis<br />Plants use the sun’s energy to convert CO2 & H2O.<br />
  10. 10. Van Helmont’s Experiment<br />1600’s<br />He planted a seedling in a measured amount of soil. After 5 years, he had a small tree, but the mass of the soil was unchanged.<br />What did he conclude? <br />He only added one thing to the seedling….<br />
  11. 11. Priestley’s Experiment<br />He put a glass jar over a candle. What happened?<br />Then he put a sprig of mint with the candle under the glass jar. What happened to the candle this time?<br />
  12. 12. Jan Ingenhousz<br />Experiment<br />He found that Priestly’s results were only valid if sunlight was present.<br />The work of the three men led to what we know about photosynthesis today……it requires light, and can turn CO2 and H2O into sugars while giving off oxygen.<br />Once the glucose is made, it can be converted into complex starches.<br />
  13. 13. Light and Pigments of Photosynthesis<br />Pigment – light absorbing molecules found in autotrophs (absorb the energy with the light)<br />Chlorophyll – plants principal pigment (chlorophyll a & b) – reflects green wavelengths of light<br />
  14. 14. Structure of a Chloroplast<br />Thylakoids – sac – like photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts<br />Grana – stacks of thylakoids<br />Photosystems – clusters of pigments and proteins that absorb light energy in thylakoids<br />Stroma – outside the thylakoid membrane where Calvin Cycle occurs<br />
  15. 15. Light Dependent Reactions<br />Occurs only with sunlight.<br />Makes ATP & NADPH<br />Occurs in the Thylakoid Membrane <br />
  16. 16. Light Independent Reactions<br />Calvin Cycle<br />Don’t need sunlight<br />Makes the sugars (glucose)<br />Occurs in the Stroma<br />
  17. 17. Electron Carrieres<br />Light “excites” electrons in chlorophyll. Theses excited elections are then carried from chlorophyll to OTHER MOLECULES.<br />CarrierMolecule – A compound that can accept a pair of high energy electrons and transfer the electron and their energy to another molecule.<br />Ex. NADP+ - A carrier Molecule<br />It becomes NADPH when it accepts electrons and their energy. <br />This energy is then used to build energy rich molecules.<br />
  18. 18. The Light Dependent<br />REactions<br />
  19. 19. First Step<br />Photosystem II Pigments absorb sunlight. That energy is absorbed by two electrons and passed to the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN. (the carriers)<br />
  20. 20. Second Step<br />These excited electrons are moved to PhotosystemI (with their energy). The energy is used to transport H+ ions from the stroma to the thylakoid space.<br />
  21. 21. Third step<br />In Photosystem I, its pigments absorb more light and reenergize the electrons. <br />NADP+ picks up the electrons and H+ ions on the surface of the thylakoid membrane and becomes NADPH.<br />
  22. 22. Fourth step<br />As the electrons are passed from chlorophyll to NADP+, H+ ions are pumped across the membrane. This makes inside the thylakoid + and the outside -. This charge difference produces energy to make ATP.<br />
  23. 23. Fifth step<br />ATP Synthase in thylakoid membrane to allow H+ to pass and adds a phosphate to ADP to make ATP.<br />
  24. 24. The Calvin Cycle<br />ATP and NADPH will only remain stable for a few minutes. The Calvin Cycle uses the ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars. <br />
  25. 25. Step 1<br />3 CO2 molecules enter the cycle from the air and combine with 3, 5 carbon molecules (RuBP) .<br />The result is 6,3 carbon molecules (PGA).<br />
  26. 26. Step 2<br />The 6, 3-carbon PGA molecules are converted then to higher energy forms by adding a phosphate group. (energy comes from 6 ATPs and high energy electrons form NADPH)<br />
  27. 27. Step 3<br />1 of the 6, 3 carbon molecules (G3P) are removed to make sugar, lipids, and other compounds. Another 3 carbon G3P molecule is need to make sugar. Hence, a repeat of the cycle.<br />
  28. 28. Step 4<br />The 5 remaining 3 carbon molecules are converted into 5, 5 carbon molecules to be reused in step 1. ADP and NADP+ will be reenergized in light reactions.<br />http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/metabolism/photosynthesis.swf<br />
  29. 29. What Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis?<br />
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