ATP The principal chemical compound used for energy.
What is ATP? It contains the following: Adenine 5 – Carbon Sugar (Ribose) 3 Phosphate Groups Analogy: ATP is like a …… The three phosphate groups are key to storing and releasing the energy of ATP. http://www.biologyinmotion.com/atp/index.html
What is ADP? A battery that needs charged!!! It is just like ATP, but is missing a phosphate group. To store energy the third phosphate group is added to make ATP. How does ATP release its energy?
How Do Cells Use the Energy of ATP? Active Transport – Pumps Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cells to maintain ion balances. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_the_sodium_potassium_pump_works.html MotorProteins – ATP gives these proteins the energy they need to move organelles around the cell. Blinkof aFirefly – ATP powers the enzymes that allow fireflies to blink ProteinSynthesis – Helps to bond amino acids together to make proteins..
Why Do Cells Contain Only a Small Amount of DNA? Cells only have enough ATP to fuel the cells for a few seconds. ATP is great at transferring energy, but not at storing it. Glucose stores 90x more energy the ATP!!
Photosynthesis Plants use the sun’s energy to convert CO2 & H2O.
Van Helmont’s Experiment 1600’s He planted a seedling in a measured amount of soil. After 5 years, he had a small tree, but the mass of the soil was unchanged. What did he conclude? He only added one thing to the seedling….
Priestley’s Experiment He put a glass jar over a candle. What happened? Then he put a sprig of mint with the candle under the glass jar. What happened to the candle this time?
Jan Ingenhousz Experiment He found that Priestly’s results were only valid if sunlight was present. The work of the three men led to what we know about photosynthesis today……it requires light, and can turn CO2 and H2O into sugars while giving off oxygen. Once the glucose is made, it can be converted into complex starches.
Light and Pigments of Photosynthesis Pigment – light absorbing molecules found in autotrophs (absorb the energy with the light) Chlorophyll – plants principal pigment (chlorophyll a & b) – reflects green wavelengths of light
Structure of a Chloroplast Thylakoids – sac – like photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts Grana – stacks of thylakoids Photosystems – clusters of pigments and proteins that absorb light energy in thylakoids Stroma – outside the thylakoid membrane where Calvin Cycle occurs
Light Dependent Reactions Occurs only with sunlight. Makes ATP & NADPH Occurs in the Thylakoid Membrane
Light Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle Don’t need sunlight Makes the sugars (glucose) Occurs in the Stroma
Electron Carrieres Light “excites” electrons in chlorophyll. Theses excited elections are then carried from chlorophyll to OTHER MOLECULES. CarrierMolecule – A compound that can accept a pair of high energy electrons and transfer the electron and their energy to another molecule. Ex. NADP+ - A carrier Molecule It becomes NADPH when it accepts electrons and their energy. This energy is then used to build energy rich molecules.
First Step Photosystem II Pigments absorb sunlight. That energy is absorbed by two electrons and passed to the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN. (the carriers)
Second Step These excited electrons are moved to PhotosystemI (with their energy). The energy is used to transport H+ ions from the stroma to the thylakoid space.
Third step In Photosystem I, its pigments absorb more light and reenergize the electrons. NADP+ picks up the electrons and H+ ions on the surface of the thylakoid membrane and becomes NADPH.
Fourth step As the electrons are passed from chlorophyll to NADP+, H+ ions are pumped across the membrane. This makes inside the thylakoid + and the outside -. This charge difference produces energy to make ATP.
Fifth step ATP Synthase in thylakoid membrane to allow H+ to pass and adds a phosphate to ADP to make ATP.
The Calvin Cycle ATP and NADPH will only remain stable for a few minutes. The Calvin Cycle uses the ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars.
Step 1 3 CO2 molecules enter the cycle from the air and combine with 3, 5 carbon molecules (RuBP) . The result is 6,3 carbon molecules (PGA).
Step 2 The 6, 3-carbon PGA molecules are converted then to higher energy forms by adding a phosphate group. (energy comes from 6 ATPs and high energy electrons form NADPH)
Step 3 1 of the 6, 3 carbon molecules (G3P) are removed to make sugar, lipids, and other compounds. Another 3 carbon G3P molecule is need to make sugar. Hence, a repeat of the cycle.
Step 4 The 5 remaining 3 carbon molecules are converted into 5, 5 carbon molecules to be reused in step 1. ADP and NADP+ will be reenergized in light reactions. http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/metabolism/photosynthesis.swf