Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
High performance computing
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

High performance computing

114

Published on

A look into what makes supercomputers so fast and a historical comparison between different supercomputer architectures all the way to the K computer.

A look into what makes supercomputers so fast and a historical comparison between different supercomputer architectures all the way to the K computer.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
114
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Its all about the FLOPS
  • 2. • Computationally expensive problems• Simulation • Weather • Nuclear Explosions and Decay • Petroleum Exploration • Chemical Reactions• Cryptographic Analysis
  • 3. • 15,000 operations per second• 9800 vacuum tubes• It cost 2.5 Million Dollars• 16 decimal digits• Clock: 1ms• RA CRT mem: 3600 words• Magnetic tape: 8 units,• 4-track, 510 char/inch, 71,500 char/sec.
  • 4. • williams tube• A CRT tube that can hold 512 to 1024 bits of data• stored 2000 words with 4 bits per 16 decimal digits representation
  • 5. • 1 MegaFLOP• 1 CPU 10 PP (Peripheral Registers)• $8 Million• 60 bit words with 18 bit address • Instructions:• 256k total memory Add, Shift, Multiply• Not Pipelined • Divide, Branch, Incre ment
  • 6. • 64 bit words• 12ns clock time• Speed: 72 MegaFLOPS • Instructions 32 bits with 128 total instruction codes• Memory: 1,048,576 words - 4 words read per cycle• Power: 115 KiloWatts• Cost: $8.8 Million• No wire more than 4 ft long• Freon Refrigeration
  • 7. • Mem: 256 Million x 64 bit words• Instruction: 32 bit address• 128 Instructions total• Clock: 4.1nanosecs• Speed: 1.2 GigaFLOPS• CPU: 8 CPUS• Power: 150 - 200 kW• Cost: $17 Million• Vector Registers
  • 8. • 104 Cabinets, 76 computers, 8 switches, 20 disks• PFS- Parallel File System allow for more than 1GB/S of data on system busses• Mem: 1.2 Terabytes• Speed: 1.3 TeraFLOPS• CPU: 10,000 Intel Pentium Pros at 200 mhz each• Power: 850 kW• Cost: $50 Million
  • 9. • Mem: 1.4 Petabytes• Speed: 10 PetaFLOPS• CPU: 705,024 cores• with SPARC64 2.0 8 cpu cores• Power: 12,659 kW• Cost: $1.25 Billion
  • 10. Speed Comparison1 MegaFLOP Playstation 2 = Or1964 CDC 6600 3 iPhones
  • 11. Speed Comparison (cont...) >2011 IPAD 2 1985 Cray II 1.5 GigaFLOPS 1.2 GigaFLOPS
  • 12. Speed Comparison (final) ≈2011 Intel Knights Corner 1996 Intel ASCI RED50 core processor - x86 1.3 TeraFLOPSUsing MIC (Multi Integrated Core) 1.5 TeraFLOPS
  • 13. • Massively parallel• Hundreds of thousands of nodes• K will have 800,000 nodes
  • 14. • Multithreaded programming by hand is hard.• Peta-scale multithreaded programming by hand is impossible.• OpenMP• OpenMPI
  • 15. • With such a large number of nodes, communication between the nodes is a major aspect of supercomputer design.• Communication Networks • Grid Networks • N-dimensional Torus Networks
  • 16. Commodity hardwarenetworked togetherwith special software.

×