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The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan3-2-4 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0013, JapanCopyright © ...
PREFACE-i-PrefaceThis book is a translation of the major portion of the Technical Standards and Commentaries of Portand Ha...
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-ii-
CONTENTS-iii-CONTENTSPrefacePart I GeneralChapter 1 General Rules............................................................
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-iv-[1] General ................................
CONTENTS-v-Chapter 11 Subsoil................................................................................................
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-vi-1.2 Safety of Structural Elements...........
CONTENTS-vii-7.4 Grouting Materials .........................................................................................
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-viii-5.3 Design External Forces................
CONTENTS-ix-5.3 Consolidation Settlement ....................................................................................
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-x-Part VI Navigation Channels and BasinsChap...
CONTENTS-xi-2.8.4 Caisson Type Breakwater Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks.........................3722.9 Det...
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-xii-Part VIII Mooring FacilitiesChapter 1 Ge...
CONTENTS-xiii-6.7 Examination of Stability as Gravity Type Wall .............................................................
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  1. 1. The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan3-2-4 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0013, JapanCopyright © 2002 by The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of JapanPrinted by Daikousha Printing Co., Ltd.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval systems,transmitted in any form or by any means, electric, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,without the prior written permission of the publisher.Original Japanese language edition published by the Japan Ports and Harbours Association.Printed in Japan
  2. 2. PREFACE-i-PrefaceThis book is a translation of the major portion of the Technical Standards and Commentaries of Portand Harbour Facilities in Japan (1999 edition) published by the Japan Port and Harbour Association,stipulated by the Ordinance of the Minister of Transport, which was issued in April 1999. The translationcovers about two thirds of the Japanese edition.Japanese islands have a long extension of coastline, measuring about 34,000 km, for the total land areaof some 380,000 square kilometers. Throughout her history, Japan has depended on the ports and harborson daily living and prosperity of people there. Japan did not develop extensive inland canal systems asfound in the European Continent because of its mountainous geography, but rather produced many harborsand havens along its coastline in the past. Today, the number of officially designated commercial ports andharbors amounts to about 1,100 and the number of fishing ports exceeds 3,000.After 220 years of isolation from the world civilization from the 17th to 19th centuries, Japan began tomodernize its society and civilization rapidly after the Meiji revolution in 1868. Modern technology of portand harbor engineering has been introduced by distinguished engineers from abroad and learned by manyambitious and capable young engineers in Japan. Ports of Yokohama, Kobe, and others began toaccommodate large ocean-going vessels in the late 19th century as the Japanese economy had shown arapid growth.Japanese engineers had drafted an engineering manual on design and construction of port and harborfacilities as early as in 1943. The manual was revised in 1959 with inclusion of new technology such asthose of coastal engineering and geotechnical engineering, which were developed during the SecondWorld War or just before it. The Japanese economy that was utterly destroyed by the war had begun torebuild itself rapidly after the 1950s. There were so many demands for the expansion of port and harborfacilities throughout Japan. Engineers were urged to design and construct facilities after facilities. Japanhas built the breakwaters and the quays with the rate of about 20,000 meters each per year throughout the1960s, 1970s, and 1980s.Such a feat of port development was made possible with provision of sound engineering manuals. TheMinistry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (formerly the Ministry of Transport up to January 2001)which was responsible for port development and operation, revised the basic law on ports and harbors in1974 so as to take responsibility for provision of technical standards for design, construction, andmaintenance of port and harbor facilities. The first official technical standards and commentaries for portand harbor facilities were issued in 1979, and published by the Japan Port and Harbour Association forgeneral use. The technical standards were prepared by a technical committee composed of governmentengineers within the former Ministry of Transport, including members of the Port and Harbour ResearchInstitute and several District Port Construction Bureaus that were responsible for design and constructionin the field. Its English version was published by the Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute in1980, but it introduced only the skeleton of the Japanese version without giving the details.The Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbor Facilities in Japan have been revisedin 1988 and 1999, each time incorporating new technological developments. The present Englishtranslation endeavors to introduce the newest edition of 1999 to the port and harbor engineers overseas. Itis a direct translation of essential parts of Japanese edition. Many phrases and expressions reflect thecustomary, regulatory writings in Japanese, which are often awkward in English. Some sentences aftertranslation may not be fluent enough and give troubles for decipher. The editors in charge of translationrequest the readers for patience and generosity in their efforts for understanding Japanese technology inport and harbor engineering.With the globalization in every aspect of human activities, indigenous practices and customs are forcedto comply with the world standards. Technology by definition is supposed to be universal. Nevertheless,each country has developed its own specialty to suit its local conditions. The overseas readers may findsome of Japanese technical standards strange and difficult for adoption for their usage. Such conflicts intechnology are the starting points for mutual understanding and further developments in the future. Theeditors wish wholeheartedly this English version of Japanese technical standards be welcomed by theoverseas colleagues and serve for the advancement of port and harbor technology in the world.January 2002Y. Goda, T. Tabata and S. YamamotoEditors for translation version
  3. 3. TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-ii-
  4. 4. CONTENTS-iii-CONTENTSPrefacePart I GeneralChapter 1 General Rules.................................................................................................................................................11.1 Scope of Application .............................................................................................................................11.2 Definitions ...............................................................................................................................................21.3 Usage of SI Units...................................................................................................................................2Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work.........................................................................................................4Chapter 3 Maintenance....................................................................................................................................................5Part II Design ConditionsChapter 1 General .............................................................................................................................................................7Chapter 2 Vessels..............................................................................................................................................................92.1 Dimensions of Target Vessel...............................................................................................................92.2 External Forces Generated by Vessels ...........................................................................................162.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................162.2.2 Berthing.....................................................................................................................................16[1] Berthing Energy..................................................................................................................16[2] Berthing Velocity ................................................................................................................17[3] Eccentricity Factor..............................................................................................................20[4] Virtual Mass Factor ............................................................................................................212.2.3 Moored Vessels .......................................................................................................................22[1] Motions of Moored Vessel..................................................................................................22[2] Waves Acting on Vessel.....................................................................................................22[3] Wind Load Acting on Vessel ..............................................................................................23[4] Current Forces Acting on Vessel........................................................................................24[5] Load-Deflection Characteristics of Mooring System ..........................................................252.2.4 Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Post and Bollard..................................................................25Chapter 3 Wind and Wind Pressure ..........................................................................................................................283.1 General..................................................................................................................................................283.2 Wind.......................................................................................................................................................293.3 Wind Pressure......................................................................................................................................30Chapter 4 Waves..............................................................................................................................................................324.1 General..................................................................................................................................................324.1.1 Procedure for Determining the Waves Used in Design.............................................................324.1.2 Waves to Be Used in Design ....................................................................................................324.1.3 Properties of Waves..................................................................................................................33[1] Fundamental Properties of Waves.....................................................................................33[2] Statistical Properties of Waves...........................................................................................37[3] Wave Spectrum..................................................................................................................384.2 Method of Determining Wave Conditions to Be Used in Design .................................................404.2.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design ...........................................404.2.2 Procedure for Obtaining the Parameters of Design Waves ......................................................414.3 Wave Hindcasting................................................................................................................................424.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................424.3.2 Wave Hindcasting in Generating Area......................................................................................424.3.3 Swell Hindcasting......................................................................................................................464.4 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data.............................................474.5 Transformations of Waves .................................................................................................................494.5.1 General .....................................................................................................................................494.5.2 Wave Refraction........................................................................................................................494.5.3 Wave Diffraction........................................................................................................................52[1] Diffraction ...........................................................................................................................52[2] Combination of Diffraction and Refraction..........................................................................694.5.4 Wave Reflection........................................................................................................................70
  5. 5. TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-iv-[1] General .............................................................................................................................. 70[2] Reflection Coefficient......................................................................................................... 71[3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners, near the Heads of Breakwaters,and around Detached Breakwaters ................................................................................... 724.5.5 Wave Shoaling.......................................................................................................................... 744.5.6 Wave Breaking ......................................................................................................................... 754.6 Wave Runup, Overtopping, and Transmission............................................................................... 804.6.1 Wave Runup............................................................................................................................. 804.6.2 Wave Overtopping .................................................................................................................... 844.6.3 Wave Transmission .................................................................................................................. 904.7 Wave Setup and Surf Beat................................................................................................................ 914.7.1 Wave Setup .............................................................................................................................. 914.7.2 Surf Beat................................................................................................................................... 924.8 Long-Period Waves and Seiche ....................................................................................................... 934.9 Waves inside Harbors ........................................................................................................................ 944.9.1 Calmness and Disturbances..................................................................................................... 944.9.2 Evaluation of Harbor Calmness ................................................................................................ 944.10 Ship Waves .......................................................................................................................................... 94Chapter 5 Wave Force................................................................................................................................................. 1005.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................1005.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall ...............................................................................................1005.2.1 General Considerations..........................................................................................................1005.2.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves .....................................................................101[1] Wave Force under Wave Crest........................................................................................101[2] Wave Force under Wave Trough..................................................................................... 1055.2.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves ..........................................................................1065.2.4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks.....................1095.2.5 Effect of Alignment of Breakwater on Wave Force ................................................................. 1105.2.6 Effect of Abrupt Change in Water Depth on Wave Force ....................................................... 1105.2.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore........................................................111[1] Wave Force at the Seaward Side of Shoreline .................................................................111[2] Wave Force at the Landward Side of Shoreline ...............................................................1115.2.8 Wave Force on Upright Wave-Absorbing Caisson ..................................................................1115.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks................................................................................ 1125.3.1 Armor Units on Slope.............................................................................................................. 1125.3.2 Armor Units on Foundation Mound of Composite Breakwater ............................................... 1175.4 Wave Forces Acting on Cylindrical Members and Large Isolated Structures ......................... 1195.4.1 Wave Force on Cylindrical Members...................................................................................... 1195.4.2 Wave Force on Large Isolated Structure ................................................................................1215.5 Wave Force Acting on Structure Located near the Still Water Level........................................ 1225.5.1 Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate near the Still Water Level ....................................................122Chapter 6 Tides and Abnormal Water Levels.......................................................................................................1276.1 Design Water Level...........................................................................................................................1276.2 Astronomical Tide .............................................................................................................................1286.3 Storm Surge.......................................................................................................................................1286.4 Tsunami ..............................................................................................................................................1306.5 Seiche ................................................................................................................................................. 1336.6 Groundwater Level and Permeation ..............................................................................................135Chapter 7 Currents and Current Force...................................................................................................................1387.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................1387.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures ..............................................1387.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks against Currents .................................................140Chapter 8 External Forces Acting on Floating Body and Its Motions ...........................................................1428.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................1428.2 External Forces Acting on Floating Body ......................................................................................1438.3 Motions of Floating Body and Mooring Force............................................................................... 145Chapter 9 Estuarine Hydraulics ................................................................................................................................1489.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................148Chapter 10 Littoral Drift ..................................................................................................................................................15410.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................15410.2 Scouring around Structures.............................................................................................................16110.3 Prediction of Beach Deformation....................................................................................................163
  6. 6. CONTENTS-v-Chapter 11 Subsoil...........................................................................................................................................................16711.1 Method of Determining Geotechnical Conditions.........................................................................16711.1.1 Principles.................................................................................................................................16711.1.2 Selection of Soil Investigation Methods ..................................................................................16811.1.3 Standard Penetration Test ......................................................................................................16811.2 Physical Properties of Soils .............................................................................................................16811.2.1 Unit Weight of Soil...................................................................................................................16811.2.2 Classification of Soils ..............................................................................................................16911.2.3 Coefficient of Permeability of Soil ...........................................................................................16911.3 Mechanical Properties of Soils........................................................................................................17011.3.1 Elastic Constants ....................................................................................................................17011.3.2 Consolidation Properties.........................................................................................................17011.3.3 Shear Properties .....................................................................................................................17311.4 Angle of Internal Friction by N-value ..............................................................................................17511.5 Application of Soundings Other Than SPT....................................................................................17611.6 Dynamic Properties of Soils.............................................................................................................17811.6.1 Dynamic Modulus of Deformation...........................................................................................17811.6.2 Dynamic Strength Properties ..................................................................................................180Chapter 12 Earthquakes and Seismic Force...........................................................................................................18212.1 General................................................................................................................................................18212.2 Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities in Design................................................18212.3 Seismic Coefficient Method .............................................................................................................18412.4 Design Seismic Coefficient ..............................................................................................................18412.5 Seismic Response Analysis.............................................................................................................19012.6 Seismic Deformation Method ..........................................................................................................192Chapter 13 Liquefaction .................................................................................................................................................19513.1 General................................................................................................................................................19513.2 Prediction of Liquefaction.................................................................................................................19513.3 Countermeasures against Liquefaction .........................................................................................199Chapter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure ...................................................................................................20014.1 Earth Pressure ...................................................................................................................................20014.2 Earth Pressure under Ordinary Conditions ...................................................................................20014.2.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil under Ordinary Conditions.......................................................20014.2.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil under Ordinary Conditions ..................................................20114.3 Earth Pressure during Earthquake .................................................................................................20214.3.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil during Earthquake....................................................................20214.3.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil during Earthquake...............................................................20414.3.3 Apparent Seismic Coefficient..................................................................................................20414.4 Water Pressure..................................................................................................................................20514.4.1 Residual Water Pressure ........................................................................................................20514.4.2 Dynamic Water Pressure during Earthquake..........................................................................205Chapter 15 Loads.............................................................................................................................................................20715.1 General................................................................................................................................................20715.2 Deadweight and Surcharge .............................................................................................................20715.3 Static Load..........................................................................................................................................20715.3.1 Static Load under Ordinary Conditions ...................................................................................20715.3.2 Static Load during Earthquake................................................................................................20815.3.3 Unevenly Distributed Load......................................................................................................20815.3.4 Snow Load ..............................................................................................................................20815.4 Live Load ............................................................................................................................................20915.4.1 Train Load...............................................................................................................................20915.4.2 Vehicle Load ...........................................................................................................................20915.4.3 Cargo Handling Equipment Load............................................................................................20915.4.4 Sidewalk Live Load .................................................................................................................209Chapter 16 Coefficient of Friction................................................................................................................................21016.1 General................................................................................................................................................210Part III MaterialsChapter 1 General .........................................................................................................................................................2111.1 Selection of Materials........................................................................................................................211
  7. 7. TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-vi-1.2 Safety of Structural Elements.......................................................................................................... 211Chapter 2 Steel...............................................................................................................................................................2122.1 Materials .............................................................................................................................................2122.2 Steel Meterial Constants Used in Design Calculation.................................................................2122.3 Allowable Stresses............................................................................................................................ 2122.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2122.3.2 Structural Steel .......................................................................................................................2122.3.3 Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles ...................................................................................2132.3.4 Steel Sheet Piles ....................................................................................................................2142.3.5 Cast Steel and Forged Steel...................................................................................................2142.3.6 Allowable Stresses for Steel at Welded Zones and Spliced Sections ....................................2142.3.7 Increase of Allowable Stresses...............................................................................................2152.4 Corrosion Control ..............................................................................................................................2162.4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2162.4.2 Corrosion Rates of Steel Materials .........................................................................................2162.4.3 Corrosion Control Methods.....................................................................................................2172.4.4 Cathodic Protection Method ...................................................................................................217[1] Range of Application........................................................................................................217[2] Protective Potential..........................................................................................................218[3] Protective Current Density...............................................................................................2192.4.5 Coating Method ...................................................................................................................... 220[1] Extent of Application ........................................................................................................220[2] Applicable Methods..........................................................................................................220[3] Selection of Method .........................................................................................................220Chapter 3 Concrete....................................................................................................................................................... 2213.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................2213.2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method.......................................................2213.3 Design Based on Allowable Stress Method..................................................................................2233.4 Concrete Materials............................................................................................................................ 2243.5 Concrete Quality and Performance................................................................................................ 2253.6 Underwater Concrete .......................................................................................................................227Chapter 4 Bituminous Materials................................................................................................................................2284.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................2284.2 Asphalt Mat ........................................................................................................................................2284.2.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2284.2.2 Materials ................................................................................................................................. 2284.2.3 Mix Proportioning....................................................................................................................2294.3 Paving Materials................................................................................................................................2294.4 Sand Mastic Asphalt.........................................................................................................................2294.4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2294.4.2 Materials ................................................................................................................................. 2304.4.3 Mix Proportioning....................................................................................................................230Chapter 5 Stone ............................................................................................................................................................. 2315.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................2315.2 Rubble for Foundation...................................................................................................................... 2315.3 Backfilling Materials ..........................................................................................................................2315.4 Base Course Materials of Pavement .............................................................................................232Chapter 6 Timber ...........................................................................................................................................................2336.1 Quality of Timber...............................................................................................................................2336.1.1 Structural Timber ....................................................................................................................2336.1.2 Timber Piles............................................................................................................................ 2336.2 Allowable Stresses of Timber..........................................................................................................2336.2.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2336.2.2 Allowable Stresses of Structural Timber.................................................................................2336.3 Quality of Glued Laminated Timber ...............................................................................................2336.3.1 Allowable Stress for Glued Laminated Timber .......................................................................2336.4 Joining of Timber...............................................................................................................................2336.5 Maintenance of Timber.....................................................................................................................233Chapter 7 Other Materials...........................................................................................................................................2347.1 Metals Other Than Steel ..................................................................................................................2347.2 Plastics and Rubbers........................................................................................................................2347.3 Coating Materials ..............................................................................................................................236
  8. 8. CONTENTS-vii-7.4 Grouting Materials .............................................................................................................................2377.4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2377.4.2 Properties of Grouting Materials .............................................................................................237Chapter 8 Recyclable Resources .............................................................................................................................2388.1 General................................................................................................................................................2388.2 Slag......................................................................................................................................................2388.3 Coal Ash..............................................................................................................................................2398.4 Crashed Concrete .............................................................................................................................240Part IV Precast Concrete UnitsChapter 1 Caissons.......................................................................................................................................................2411.1 General................................................................................................................................................2411.2 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................2421.3 Floating Stability ................................................................................................................................2421.4 Design External Forces ....................................................................................................................2431.4.1 Combination of Loads and Load Factors ................................................................................2431.4.2 External Forces during Fabrication .........................................................................................2491.4.3 External Forces during Launching and Floating......................................................................2491.4.4 External Forces during Installation..........................................................................................2501.4.5 External Forces after Construction..........................................................................................250[1] Outer Walls.......................................................................................................................250[2] Bottom Slab......................................................................................................................251[3] Partition Walls and Others................................................................................................2531.5 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................2541.5.1 Outer Wall ...............................................................................................................................2541.5.2 Partition Wall...........................................................................................................................2541.5.3 Bottom Slab.............................................................................................................................2541.5.4 Others .....................................................................................................................................2551.6 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane ...................................................................................255Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks........................................................................................................................................2562.1 General................................................................................................................................................2562.2 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................2562.3 Loads Acting on Members ...............................................................................................................2572.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2572.3.2 Earth Pressure ........................................................................................................................2582.3.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation.................................................................................2582.4 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................2592.4.1 Front Wall................................................................................................................................2592.4.2 Footing ....................................................................................................................................2592.4.3 Bottom Slab.............................................................................................................................2592.4.4 Buttress...................................................................................................................................2602.5 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane ...................................................................................260Chapter 3 Cellular Blocks............................................................................................................................................2613.1 General................................................................................................................................................2613.2 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................2613.2.1 Shape of Cellular Blocks.........................................................................................................2613.2.2 Determination of Dimensions..................................................................................................2613.3 Loads Acting on Cellular Blocks......................................................................................................2623.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2623.3.2 Earth Pressure of Filling and Residual Water Pressure..........................................................2623.3.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation.................................................................................2643.4 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................2643.4.1 Rectangular Cellular Blocks....................................................................................................2643.4.2 Other Types of Cellular Blocks................................................................................................265Chapter 4 Upright Wave-Absorbing Caissons......................................................................................................2674.1 General................................................................................................................................................2674.2 External Forces Acting on Members ..............................................................................................2674.3 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................269Chapter 5 Hybrid Caissons.........................................................................................................................................2705.1 General................................................................................................................................................2705.2 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................270
  9. 9. TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-viii-5.3 Design External Forces....................................................................................................................2715.4 Design of Members...........................................................................................................................2715.4.1 Section Force..........................................................................................................................2715.4.2 Design of Composite Slabs ....................................................................................................2715.4.3 Design of SRC Members ........................................................................................................2715.4.4 Design of Partitions................................................................................................................. 2715.4.5 Design of Corners and Joints .................................................................................................2715.4.6 Safety against Fatigue Failure................................................................................................ 2725.5 Corrosion Control ..............................................................................................................................272Part V FoundationsChapter 1 General .........................................................................................................................................................273Chapter 2 Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations ........................................................................................2742.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................2742.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground.....................................................................2742.3 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground.................................................................... 2752.4 Bearing Capacity of Multilayered Ground ..................................................................................... 2762.5 Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads.....................................................................277Chapter 3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations .............................................................................................2803.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................2803.2 Vertical Bearing Capacity................................................................................................................. 2803.3 Lateral Bearing Capacity..................................................................................................................281Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Pile Foundations ................................................................................................ 2844.1 Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity of Piles..................................................................................... 2844.1.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2844.1.2 Standard Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity............................................................................2844.1.3 Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity of Single Piles......................................................................2854.1.4 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Loading Tests ...........................................2854.1.5 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas ............ 2864.1.6 Examination of Compressive Stress of Pile Materials ............................................................2884.1.7 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Joints ..........................................................................2884.1.8 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Slenderness Ratio ......................................................2884.1.9 Bearing Capacity of Pile Group ..............................................................................................2884.1.10 Examination of Negative Skin Friction ....................................................................................2904.1.11 Examination of Settlement of Piles .........................................................................................2914.2 Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles ............................................................................................2914.2.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2914.2.2 Standard Allowable Pulling Resistance ..................................................................................2924.2.3 Maximum Pulling Resistance of Single Pile............................................................................2924.2.4 Examination of Tensile Stress of Pile Materials......................................................................2934.2.5 Matters to Be Considered for Obtaining Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles......................2934.3 Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles .................................................................................2934.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................2934.3.2 Estimation of Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles .....................................................2954.3.3 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Loading Tests ...................................................................2954.3.4 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Analytical Methods ...........................................................2954.3.5 Consideration of Pile Group Action.........................................................................................3014.3.6 Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles .............................................................................3014.4 Pile Design in General...................................................................................................................... 3044.4.1 Load Sharing ..........................................................................................................................3044.4.2 Load Distribution.....................................................................................................................3054.4.3 Distance between Centers of Piles.........................................................................................3054.4.4 Allowable Stresses for Pile Materials......................................................................................3054.5 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 3064.5.1 Examination of Loads during Construction .............................................................................3064.5.2 Design of Joints between Piles and Structure ........................................................................3074.5.3 Joints of Piles..........................................................................................................................3084.5.4 Change of Plate Thickness or Materials of Steel Pipe Piles................................................... 3084.5.5 Other Points for Caution in Design .........................................................................................308Chapter 5 Settlement of Foundations .....................................................................................................................3105.1 Stress in Soil Mass ...........................................................................................................................3105.2 Immediate Settlement.......................................................................................................................310
  10. 10. CONTENTS-ix-5.3 Consolidation Settlement .................................................................................................................3105.4 Lateral Displacement ........................................................................................................................3125.5 Differential Settlements ....................................................................................................................312Chapter 6 Stability of Slopes......................................................................................................................................3146.1 General................................................................................................................................................3146.2 Stability Analysis................................................................................................................................3156.2.1 Stability Analysis Using Circular Slip Surface Method ............................................................3156.2.2 Stability Analysis Assuming Slip Surfaces Other Than Circular Arc Slip Surface...................316Chapter 7 Soil Improvement Methods.....................................................................................................................3187.1 General................................................................................................................................................3187.2 Replacement Method........................................................................................................................3187.3 Vertical Drain Method .......................................................................................................................3187.3.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................3187.3.2 Determination of Height and Width of Fill................................................................................319[1] Height and Width of Fill Required for Soil Improvement ..................................................319[2] Height and Width of Fill Required for Stability of Fill Embankment..................................3197.3.3 Design of Drain Piles...............................................................................................................319[1] Drain Piles and Sand Mat.................................................................................................319[2] Interval of Drain Piles .......................................................................................................3207.4 Deep Mixing Method .........................................................................................................................3227.4.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................322[1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................322[2] Basic Concept ..................................................................................................................3237.4.2 Assumptions for Dimensions of Stabilized Body.....................................................................323[1] Mixture Design of Stabilized Soil......................................................................................323[2] Allowable Stress of Stabilized Body.................................................................................3247.4.3 Calculation of External Forces ................................................................................................3257.5 Lightweight Treated Soil Method ....................................................................................................3267.5.1 Outline of Lightweight Treated Soil Method ............................................................................3267.5.2 Basic Design Concept.............................................................................................................3267.5.3 Mixture Design of Treated Soil................................................................................................3277.5.4 Examination of Area to Be Treated.........................................................................................3287.5.5 Workability Verification Tests..................................................................................................3287.6 Replacement Method with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag........................................................3287.6.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................3287.6.2 Physical Properties of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ...........................................................3287.7 Premixing Method..............................................................................................................................3297.7.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................329[1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................329[2] Consideration for Design..................................................................................................3297.7.2 Preliminary Survey..................................................................................................................3297.7.3 Determination of Strength of Treated Soil...............................................................................3307.7.4 Mixture Design of Treated Soil................................................................................................3307.7.5 Examination of Area of Improvement......................................................................................3317.8 Active Earth Pressure of Solidified Geotechnical Materials........................................................3337.8.1 Scope of Application ...............................................................................................................3337.8.2 Active Earth Pressure .............................................................................................................333[1] Outline..............................................................................................................................333[2] Strength Parameters ........................................................................................................334[3] Calculation of Active Earth Pressure................................................................................334[4] Case of Limited Area of Subsoil Improvement.................................................................3357.9 Sand Compaction Pile Method (for Sandy Subsoil).....................................................................3367.9.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................3367.9.2 Sand Volume to Be Supplied ..................................................................................................3367.9.3 Design Based on Trial Execution............................................................................................3387.10 Sand Compaction Pile Method (for Cohesive Subsoil) ...............................................................3397.10.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................339[1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................339[2] Basic Concept ..................................................................................................................3397.10.2 Strength and Permeability of Sand Piles.................................................................................3397.10.3 Shear Strength of Improved Subsoil .......................................................................................3397.10.4 Stability Analysis .....................................................................................................................3407.10.5 Examining Consolidation.........................................................................................................341
  11. 11. TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-x-Part VI Navigation Channels and BasinsChapter 1 General .........................................................................................................................................................345Chapter 2 Navigation Channels ................................................................................................................................3462.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................3462.2 Alignment of Navigation Channel ..................................................................................................3462.3 Width of Navigation Channel........................................................................................................... 3472.4 Depth of Navigation Channel ..........................................................................................................3482.5 Length of Navigation Channel at Harbor Entrance......................................................................3482.6 Calmness of Navigation Channel ...................................................................................................348Chapter 3 Navigation Channels outside Breakwaters .......................................................................................3503.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................3503.2 Width of Navigation Channel........................................................................................................... 3503.3 Depth of Navigation Channel ..........................................................................................................350Chapter 4 Basins............................................................................................................................................................3514.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................3514.2 Location and Area of Basin .............................................................................................................3514.2.1 Location ..................................................................................................................................3514.2.2 Area of Basin Used for Anchorage or Mooring .......................................................................3514.2.3 Area of Basin Used for Ship Maneuvering..............................................................................352[1] Turning Basin...................................................................................................................352[2] Mooring / Unmooring Basin .............................................................................................3534.3 Depth of Basin ...................................................................................................................................3534.4 Calmness of Basin............................................................................................................................ 3534.5 Timber Sorting Pond.........................................................................................................................354Chapter 5 Small Craft Basins.....................................................................................................................................355Chapter 6 Maintenance of Navigation Channels and Basins..........................................................................3556.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................355Part VII Protective Facilities for HarborsChapter 1 General .........................................................................................................................................................3571.1 General Consideration .....................................................................................................................3571.2 Maintenance.......................................................................................................................................357Chapter 2 Breakwaters ................................................................................................................................................3582.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................3582.2 Layout of Breakwaters...................................................................................................................... 3582.3 Design Conditions of Breakwaters .................................................................................................3592.4 Selection of Structural Types ..........................................................................................................3592.5 Determination of Cross Section ......................................................................................................3622.5.1 Upright Breakwater................................................................................................................. 3622.5.2 Composite Breakwater ........................................................................................................... 3632.5.3 Sloping Breakwater................................................................................................................. 3632.5.4 Caisson Type Breakwater Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks ........................3642.6 External Forces for Stability Calculation........................................................................................3642.6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................3642.6.2 Wave Forces...........................................................................................................................3652.6.3 Hydrostatic Pressure ..............................................................................................................3652.6.4 Buoyancy................................................................................................................................3652.6.5 Deadweight.............................................................................................................................3652.6.6 Stability during Earthuakes.....................................................................................................3652.7 Stability Calculation...........................................................................................................................3652.7.1 Stability Calculation of Upright Section...................................................................................3652.7.2 Stability Calculation of Sloping Section ..................................................................................3692.7.3 Stability Calculation of Whole Section ....................................................................................3692.7.4 Stability Calculation for Head and Corner of Breakwater .......................................................3692.8 Details of Structures .........................................................................................................................3702.8.1 Upright Breakwater................................................................................................................. 3702.8.2 Composite Breakwater ........................................................................................................... 3712.8.3 Sloping Breakwater................................................................................................................. 372
  12. 12. CONTENTS-xi-2.8.4 Caisson Type Breakwater Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks.........................3722.9 Detailed Design of Upright Section.................................................................................................3722.10 Breakwaters for Timber-Handling Facilities ..................................................................................3722.10.1 Breakwaters for Timber Storage Ponds and Timber Sorting Ponds .......................................3722.10.2 Fences to Prevent Timber Drifting ..........................................................................................3732.11 Storm Surge Protection Breakwater...............................................................................................3732.12 Tsunami Protection Breakwater......................................................................................................373Chapter 3 Other Types of Breakwaters ..................................................................................................................3763.1 Selection of Structural Type.............................................................................................................3763.2 Gravity Type Special Breakwaters..................................................................................................3773.2.1 General ...................................................................................................................................3773.2.2 Upright Wave-Absorbing Block Breakwater............................................................................378[1] General.............................................................................................................................378[2] Crest Elevation.................................................................................................................378[3] Wave Force......................................................................................................................3793.2.3 Wave-Absorbing Caisson Breakwater ....................................................................................379[1] General.............................................................................................................................379[2] Determination of Target Waves to Be Absorbed..............................................................380[3] Determination of Dimensions for Wave-Absorbing Section .............................................380[4] Wave Force for Examination of Structural Stability..........................................................380[5] Wave Force for Design of Structural Members ................................................................3803.2.4 Sloping-Top Caisson Breakwater............................................................................................380[1] General.............................................................................................................................380[2] Wave Force......................................................................................................................3813.3 Non-Gravity Type Breakwaters .......................................................................................................3823.3.1 Curtain Wall Breakwater .........................................................................................................382[1] General.............................................................................................................................382[2] Wave Force......................................................................................................................384[3] Design of Piles .................................................................................................................3843.3.2 Floating Breakwater ................................................................................................................384[1] General.............................................................................................................................384[2] Selection of Design Conditions ........................................................................................385[3] Design of Mooring System ...............................................................................................385[4] Design of Floating Body Structure....................................................................................386Chapter 4 Locks..............................................................................................................................................................3884.1 Selection of Location.........................................................................................................................3884.2 Size and Layout of Lock ...................................................................................................................3884.3 Selection of Structural Type.............................................................................................................3894.3.1 Gate ........................................................................................................................................3894.3.2 Lock Chamber.........................................................................................................................3894.4 External Forces and Loads Acting on Lock...................................................................................3894.5 Pumping and Drainage System ......................................................................................................3894.6 Auxiliary Facilities..............................................................................................................................389Chapter 5 Facilities to Prevent Shoaling and Siltation.......................................................................................3905.1 General................................................................................................................................................3905.2 Jetty .....................................................................................................................................................3905.2.1 Layout of Jetty.........................................................................................................................3905.2.2 Details of Jetty.........................................................................................................................3915.3 Group of Groins .................................................................................................................................3925.4 Training Jetties...................................................................................................................................3925.4.1 Layout of Training Jetties........................................................................................................3925.4.2 Water Depth at Tip of Training Jetty .......................................................................................3935.4.3 Structure of Training Jetty.......................................................................................................3935.5 Facilities to Trap Littoral Transport and Sediment Flowing out of Rivers.................................3935.6 Countermeasures against Wind-Blown Sand...............................................................................3945.6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................3945.6.2 Selection of Countermeasures................................................................................................394Chapter 6 Revetments..................................................................................................................................................3966.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................3966.2 Design Conditions .............................................................................................................................3966.3 Structural Stability..............................................................................................................................3986.4 Determination of Cross Section ......................................................................................................3986.5 Details..................................................................................................................................................398
  13. 13. TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN-xii-Part VIII Mooring FacilitiesChapter 1 General .........................................................................................................................................................4011.1 General Consideration .....................................................................................................................4011.2 Maintenance of Mooring Facilities..................................................................................................401Chapter 2 Dimensions of Mooring Facilities..........................................................................................................4022.1 Length and Water Depth of Berths.................................................................................................4022.2 Crown Heights of Mooring Facilities...............................................................................................4052.3 Ship Clearance for Mooring Facilities ............................................................................................4052.4 Design Water Depth .........................................................................................................................4052.5 Protection against Scouring.............................................................................................................4062.6 Ancillary Facilities..............................................................................................................................406Chapter 3 Structural Types of Mooring Facilities ................................................................................................ 407Chapter 4 Gravity Type Quaywalls ..........................................................................................................................4084.1 Principle of Design............................................................................................................................ 4084.2 External Forces and Loads Acting on Walls.................................................................................4084.3 Stability Calculations.........................................................................................................................4104.3.1 Items to Be Considered in Stability Calculations .................................................................... 4104.3.2 Examination against Sliding of Wall........................................................................................4104.3.3 Examination Concerning Bearing Capacity of Foundation ..................................................... 4114.3.4 Examination Concerning Overturning of Wall......................................................................... 4114.3.5 Examination on Soft Foundation............................................................................................. 4114.4 Stability Calculations of Cellular Concrete Blocks .......................................................................4124.5 Effects of Backfill...............................................................................................................................4134.6 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 414Chapter 5 Sheet Pile Quaywalls ...............................................................................................................................4155.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................4155.2 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall ...................................................................................4155.2.1 External Forces to Be Considered..........................................................................................4155.3 Design of Sheet Pile Wall ................................................................................................................4175.3.1 Setting Level of Tie Rod .........................................................................................................4175.3.2 Embedded Length of Sheet Piles ...........................................................................................4175.3.3 Bending Moment of Sheet Piles and Reaction at Tie Rod Setting Point ................................4185.3.4 Cross Section of Sheet Piles ..................................................................................................4195.3.5 Consideration of the Effect of Section Rigidity of Sheet Piles ................................................4195.4 Design of Tie Rods ...........................................................................................................................4245.4.1 Tension of Tie Rod ................................................................................................................. 4245.4.2 Cross Section of Tie Rod........................................................................................................4245.5 Design of Wale ..................................................................................................................................4255.6 Examination for Circular Slip........................................................................................................... 4255.7 Design of Anchorage Work..............................................................................................................4265.7.1 Selection of Structural Type of Anchorage Work.................................................................... 4265.7.2 Location of Anchorage Work ..................................................................................................4265.7.3 Design of Anchorage Work.....................................................................................................4275.8 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 4285.8.1 Coping ....................................................................................................................................4285.8.2 Fitting of Tie Rods and Wale to Sheet Piles ...........................................................................4295.8.3 Tie Rod ...................................................................................................................................4295.8.4 Fitting of Tie Rods to Anchorage Work...................................................................................4295.9 Special Notes for Design of Sheet Pile Wall on Soft Ground.....................................................429Chapter 6 Sheet Pile Quaywalls with Relieving Platform .................................................................................4316.1 Scope of Application.........................................................................................................................4316.2 Principles of Design ..........................................................................................................................4316.3 Determination of Height and Width of Relieving Platform ..........................................................4316.4 Earth Pressure and Residual Water Pressure Acting on Sheet Piles ......................................4326.5 Design of Sheet Pile Wall ................................................................................................................4326.5.1 Embedded Length of Sheet Piles ...........................................................................................4326.5.2 Cross Section of Sheet Piles ..................................................................................................4336.6 Design of Relieving Platform and Relieving Platform Piles........................................................4336.6.1 External Forces Acting on Relieving Platform ........................................................................4336.6.2 Design of Relieving Platform ..................................................................................................4336.6.3 Design of Piles........................................................................................................................434
  14. 14. CONTENTS-xiii-6.7 Examination of Stability as Gravity Type Wall ..............................................................................4346.8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip................................................................................435Chapter 7 Steel Sheet Pile Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ................................................................................4367.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................4367.2 External Forces Acting on Steel Sheet Pile Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywall ................................4377.3 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ..............................................................4387.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................4387.3.2 Equivalent Width of Wall .........................................................................................................4397.3.3 Calculation of Deformation Moment........................................................................................4397.3.4 Calculation of Resisting Moment.............................................................................................4407.4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole........................................................................4437.4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................4437.4.2 Modulus of Subgrade Reaction...............................................................................................4437.4.3 Calculation of Subgrade Reaction and Wall Displacement.....................................................4437.5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground ..........................................................................4487.6 Examination against Sliding of Wall ...............................................................................................4487.7 Examination of Displacement of Wall Top.....................................................................................4487.8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip................................................................................4497.9 Layout of Cells and Arcs ..................................................................................................................4497.10 Calculation of Hoop Tension............................................................................................................4497.11 Design of T-Shaped Sheet Pile.......................................................................................................4507.11.1 General ...................................................................................................................................4507.11.2 Structure of T-Shaped Sheet Pile ...........................................................................................4507.12 Detailed Design..................................................................................................................................4517.12.1 Design of Pile to Support Coping............................................................................................4517.12.2 Design of Coping.....................................................................................................................451Chapter 8 Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ..........................................................................................4528.1 Scope of Application .........................................................................................................................4528.2 Placement-Type Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls........................................................4528.2.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................4528.2.2 External Forces Acting on Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead .......................................................4538.2.3 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ..........................................................4538.2.4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole...................................................................4548.2.5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground.....................................................................4558.2.6 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip..........................................................................4558.2.7 Determination of Thickness of Steel Plate of Cell Shell..........................................................4558.2.8 Layout of Cells and Arcs .........................................................................................................4568.2.9 Detailed Design.......................................................................................................................4568.3 Embedded-Type Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls........................................................4568.3.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................4568.3.2 External Forces Acting on Embedded-Type Steel Plate Celluler-Bulkhead............................4578.3.3 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ..........................................................4578.3.4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole...................................................................4588.3.5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground.....................................................................4588.3.6 Examination against Sliding of Wall........................................................................................4588.3.7 Examination of Displacement of Wall Top ..............................................................................4588.3.8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip..........................................................................4588.3.9 Layout of Cells and Arcs .........................................................................................................4588.3.10 Determination of Plate Thickness of Cell Shell and Arc Section.............................................4588.3.11 Joints and Stiffeners................................................................................................................4598.3.12 Detailed Design.......................................................................................................................459Chapter 9 Open-Type Wharves on Vertical Piles................................................................................................4609.1 Principle of Design ............................................................................................................................4609.2 Layout and Dimensions....................................................................................................................4629.2.1 Size of Deck Block and Layout of Piles...................................................................................4629.2.2 Dimensions of Superstructure.................................................................................................4629.2.3 Arrangement of Fenders and Bollards ....................................................................................4639.3 External Forces Acting on Open-Type Wharf...............................................................................4639.3.1 Design External Forces...........................................................................................................4639.3.2 Calculation of Fender Reaction Force.....................................................................................4649.4 Assumptions Concerning Sea Bottom Ground.............................................................................4649.4.1 Determination of Slope Inclination ..........................................................................................4649.4.2 Virtual Ground Surface............................................................................................................4659.5 Design of Piles ...................................................................................................................................465

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