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Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Fourth Edition
Saundra K. Ciccare...
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PSYC1101 - Chapter 4, 4th Edition PowerPoint

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  1. 1. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White CHAPTER 4 consciousness psychology fourth edition
  2. 2. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Learning Objectives 4.1 What does it mean to be conscious, and are there different levels of consciousness? 4.2 Why do people need to sleep, and how does sleep work? 4.3 What are the different stages of sleep, including the stage of dreaming and its importance? 4.4 How do sleep disorders interfere with normal sleep? 4.5 Why do people dream, and what do they dream about? 4.6 How does hypnosis affect consciousness? 4.7 What is the difference between a physical dependence and a psychological dependence on a drug? 4.8 How do stimulants and depressants affect consciousness and what are the dangers associated with taking them, particularly alcohol? 4.9 What are some of the effects and dangers of using hallucinogens, including marijuana? 4.10 How can the workings of our consciousness explain “supernatural” visitations?
  3. 3. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Consciousness • Consciousness – a person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment • Waking consciousness – state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and the person feels alert LO 4.1 Consciousness and Levels of Consciousness
  4. 4. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Consciousness • Altered state of consciousness – state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness LO 4.1 Consciousness and Levels of Consciousness
  5. 5. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Necessity of Sleep • Circadian rhythm: a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a twenty-four-hour period – “circa”: about – “diem”: day LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works
  6. 6. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Necessity of Sleep • Hypothalamus: tiny section of the brain that influences the glandular system – suprachiasmatic nucleus  deep within the hypothalamus  the internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep • Hypothalamus tells the pineal gland to secrete melatonin – melatonin makes a person feel sleepy LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works
  7. 7. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Necessity of Sleep • Microsleeps: brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds • Sleep deprivation: any significant loss of sleep – results in irritability and problems with concentration LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works
  8. 8. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 4.1 Sleep Patterns of Infants and Adults
  9. 9. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Necessity of Sleep • Adaptive theory: theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works
  10. 10. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Necessity of Sleep • Restorative theory: theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works
  11. 11. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stages of Sleep • Rapid eye movement (REM): stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream • NREM (non-REM) sleep: any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM LO 4.3 Stages of Sleep and Dreaming
  12. 12. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Brain Wave Patterns • Electroencephalograph (EEG) – allows scientists to see the brain wave activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep the person has entered  alpha waves: brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep  theta waves: brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep  delta waves: long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works
  13. 13. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 4.2 Brain Activity During Sleep
  14. 14. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stages of Sleep • N1 (R&K Stage 1): light sleep – may experience:  hypnagogic images: hallucinations or vivid visual events  hypnic jerk: knees, legs, or whole body jerks • N2 (R&K Stage 2): sleep spindles – sleep spindles: brief bursts of activity only lasting a second or two LO 4.3 Stages of Sleep and Dreaming
  15. 15. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stages of Sleep • N3 (R&K Stages 3 and 4): delta waves pronounced – deepest stage of sleep: 50 percent or more of waves are delta waves – body at lowest level of functioning – time at which growth occurs LO 4.3 Stages of Sleep and Dreaming
  16. 16. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White REM Sleep and Dreaming • REM sleep is paradoxical sleep (high level of brain activity) – If wakened during REM sleep, sleepers almost always report a dream. • REM rebound: increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights LO 4.3 Stages of Sleep and Dreaming
  17. 17. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 4.3 A Typical Night’s Sleep
  18. 18. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Sleep Disorders • Nightmares – bad dreams occurring during REM sleep • REM behavior disorder – mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails – allows the person to thrash around, or even get up and act out nightmares LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep
  19. 19. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stage Four Sleep Disorders • Sleepwalking (somnambulism) – episode of moving around or walking around in one’s sleep – occurs in deep sleep – more common among children than adults LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep
  20. 20. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stage Four Sleep Disorders • Night terrors – the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep – doesn’t wake fully – relatively rare disorder LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep
  21. 21. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Sleep Disorders • Can sleepwalking be a defense against criminal charges? – Kenneth Parks case – Scott Falater case – Brian Thomas case LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep
  22. 22. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Problems during Sleep • Insomnia: the inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep • Sleep apnea: disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more – continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP) LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep
  23. 23. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Problems during Sleep • Narcolepsy: sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning – cataplexy: sudden loss of muscle tone LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep
  24. 24. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  25. 25. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Dreams • Freud: dreams as wish fulfillment – manifest content: the dream itself – latent content: the true, hidden meaning of a dream LO 4.5 Why People Dream and What They Dream about
  26. 26. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Dreams • Activation-synthesis hypothesis: dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the brain stem’s activation of cortical cells during REM sleep periods LO 4.5 Why People Dream and What They Dream about
  27. 27. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 4.4 The Brain and Activation-Synthesis Theory According to the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming, the pons in the brainstem sends random signals to the upper part of the brain during REM sleep. These random signals pass through the thalamus, which sends the signals to the proper sensory areas of the cortex. Once in the cortex, the association areas of the cortex respond to the random activation of these cortical cells by synthesizing (making up) a story, or dream, using bits and pieces of life experiences and memories
  28. 28. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Dreams • Activation-information-mode model (AIM) – revised version of the activation-synthesis explanation of dreams – information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams LO 4.5 Why People Dream and What They Dream about
  29. 29. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Hypnosis • Hypnosis: state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion LO 4.6 Hypnosis and How It Works
  30. 30. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Hypnosis • Four elements of hypnosis: 1. hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said 2. person is told to relax and feel tired 3. hypnotist tells the person to “let go” and accept suggestions easily 4. person is told to use vivid imagination • Hypnotic susceptibility: degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject LO 4.6 Hypnosis and How It Works
  31. 31. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  32. 32. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  33. 33. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Theories of Hypnosis • Hypnosis as dissociation: hypnosis works only in a person’s immediate consciousness, while a hidden “observer” remained aware of all that was going on • Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis: people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation LO 4.6 Hypnosis and How It Works
  34. 34. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Psychoactive Drugs • Psychoactive drugs: drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory • Physical dependence – tolerance: more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect – withdrawal: physical symptoms resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems  can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure LO 4.7 Physical and Psychological Dependence on a Drug
  35. 35. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Psychoactive Drugs • Psychological dependence: the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being LO 4.7 Physical and Psychological Dependence on a Drug
  36. 36. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stimulants • Stimulants: drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system – amphetamines: drugs that are synthesized (made in labs) rather than found in nature – cocaine: natural drug; produces euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure – nicotine: active ingredient in tobacco – caffeine: the stimulant found in coffee, tea, most sodas, chocolate, and even many over- the-counter drugs LO 4.8 How Do Stimulants and Depressants Affect Consciousness?
  37. 37. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Nicotine • The harmful effects of nicotine are now well known, but many people continue to smoke or chew tobacco in spite of warnings LO 4.8 How Do Stimulants and Depressants Affect Consciousness?
  38. 38. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Depressants • Depressants: drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system – barbiturates: depressant drugs that have a sedative effect – benzodiazepines: drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress – Rohypnol: the “date rape” drug LO 4.8 How Do Stimulants and Depressants Affect Consciousness?
  39. 39. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Alcohol • Alcohol: the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter – often mistaken for a stimulant, alcohol is actually a CNS depressant LO 4.8 How Do Stimulants and Depressants Affect Consciousness?
  40. 40. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  41. 41. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  42. 42. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Narcotics • Narcotics – opium-related drugs – suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins.  opium: substance made from the opium poppy and from which all narcotic drugs are derived  morphine: narcotic drug derived from opium; used to treat severe pain  heroin: narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive LO 4.9 Dangers of Narcotics, Hallucinogens, and Marijuana
  43. 43. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Hallucinogens • Psychogenic Drugs – drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication  hallucinogens: drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality  LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide): powerful synthetic hallucinogen  PCP: synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects LO 4.9 Dangers of Narcotics, Hallucinogens, and Marijuana
  44. 44. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Hallucinogens • Psychogenic Drugs (cont’d)  MDMA (Ecstasy or X): designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects  Stimulatory hallucinogenics: drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects LO 4.9 Dangers of Narcotics, Hallucinogens, and Marijuana
  45. 45. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Marijuana – marijuana (pot or weed): mild hallucinogen derived from the leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant LO 4.9 Dangers of Narcotics, Hallucinogens, and Marijuana
  46. 46. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  47. 47. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Hallucinations • Hypnogogic hallucination: hallucination that can occur just as a person is entering N1 sleep • Hypnopompic hallucination: hallucination that happens just as a person is in the between-state of being in REM sleep (in which the voluntary muscles are paralyzed) and not yet fully awake LO 4.10 How can the workings of our consciousness explain “supernatural” visitations?
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