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Copyright ©2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
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PSYC1101 - Chapter 11, 4th Edition PowerPoint

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PSYC1101 - Chapter 11, 4th Edition PowerPoint

  1. 1. psychologypsychology fourth editionfourth edition Copyright ©2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Chapter 11 stress and health
  2. 2. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Learning Objective Menu 11.1 How do psychologists define stress? 11.2 What kinds of external events can cause stress? 11.3 What are some psychological factors in stress? 11.4 How does stress affect the physical functioning of the body and its immune system? 11.5 How do cognitive factors and personality differences affect the experience of stress? 11.6 What social factors influence stress reactions? 11.7 What are some ways in which people cope with stress reactions? 11.8 How is coping with stress affected by culture and religion? 11.9 What are some ways to become a more optimistic thinker?
  3. 3. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress • Stress: physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging • Stressors: events that cause a stress reaction LO 11.1 How Do Psychologists Define Stress?
  4. 4. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress • Distress: the effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors • Eustress: the effect of positive events, or the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being LO 11.1 How Do Psychologists Define Stress?
  5. 5. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Causes of Stress • Catastrophe: an unpredictable, large-scale event that creates a tremendous need to adapt and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat LO 11.2 Kinds of Events that Cause Stress
  6. 6. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Causes of Stress • Major life changes: cause stress by requiring adjustment – Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): measures the amount of stress resulting from major life events in a person’s life over a one- year period – College Undergraduate Stress Scale (CUSS): measures the amount of stress resulting from major life events in a college student’s life over a one-year period LO 11.2 Kinds of Events that Cause Stress
  7. 7. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  8. 8. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Table 11.1 (continued) Sample Items From the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
  9. 9. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Causes of Stress • Hassles: the daily annoyances of everyday life LO 11.2 Kinds of Events that Cause Stress
  10. 10. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Everyday Sources of Stress • Pressure: the psychological experience produced by urgent demands or expectations for a person’s behavior that come from an outside source • Uncontrollability: the degree of control that the person has over a particular event or situation – the less control a person has, the greater the degree of stress LO 11.3 Psychological Factors in Stress
  11. 11. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Everyday Sources of Stress • Frustration: the psychological experience produced by the blocking of a desired goal or fulfillment of a perceived need • Possible reactions to frustration – aggression: actions meant to harm or destroy – displaced aggression: taking out one’s frustrations on some less threatening or more available target  a form of displacement LO 11.3 Psychological Factors in Stress
  12. 12. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Everyday Sources of Stress • Possible reactions to frustrations (cont’d): – escape or withdrawal: leaving the presence of a stressor  either literally or by a psychological withdrawal into fantasy, drug abuse, or apathy LO 11.3 Psychological Factors in Stress
  13. 13. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Conflict • Conflict: psychological experience of being pulled toward or drawn to two or more desires or goals, only one of which may be attained • Approach–approach conflict: a person must choose between two desirable goals LO 11.3 Psychological Factors in Stress
  14. 14. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Conflict • Avoidance–avoidance conflict: a person must choose between two undesirable goals • Approach–avoidance conflict: a person must choose or not choose a goal that has both positive and negative aspects – double approach–avoidance conflict: a person must decide between two goals, each possessing both positive and negative aspects LO 11.3 Psychological Factors in Stress
  15. 15. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Bodily Reactions to Stress • Autonomic nervous system: – sympathetic system: responds to stressful events – parasympathetic system: restores the body to normal functioning after stress has ceased LO 11.4 The Relationship between Stress and the Immune System
  16. 16. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Bodily Reactions to Stress • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): the three stages of the body’s physiological adaptation to stress 1. alarm 2. resistance 3. exhaustion LO 11.4 The Relationship between Stress and the Immune System
  17. 17. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 11.1 General Adaptation Syndrome The diagram at the top shows some of the physical reactions to stress in each of the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome. The graph at the bottom shows the relationship of each of the three stages to the individual’s ability to resist a stressor. In the alarm stage, resistance drops at first as the sympathetic system quickly activates. But resistance then rapidly increases as the body mobilizes its defense systems. In the resistance stage, the body is working at a much increased level of resistance, using resources until the stress ends or the resources run out. In the exhaustion stage, the body is no longer able to resist as resources have been depleted, and at this point disease and even death are possible.
  18. 18. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 11.1 (continued) General Adaptation Syndrome The diagram at the top shows some of the physical reactions to stress in each of the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome. The graph at the bottom shows the relationship of each of the three stages to the individual’s ability to resist a stressor. In the alarm stage, resistance drops at first as the sympathetic system quickly activates. But resistance then rapidly increases as the body mobilizes its defense systems. In the resistance stage, the body is working at a much increased level of resistance, using resources until the stress ends or the resources run out. In the exhaustion stage, the body is no longer able to resist as resources have been depleted, and at this point disease and even death are possible.
  19. 19. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress and the Immune System • Immune system: cells, organs, and chemicals of the body that respond to attacks from diseases, infections, and injuries – negatively affected by stress • Psychoneuroimmunology: the study of the effects of psychological factors on the immune system LO 11.4 The Relationship between Stress and the Immune System
  20. 20. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress and the Immune System • Heart disease: stress puts people at higher risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) • Diabetes: type 2 diabetes is associated with excessive weight gain – occurs when pancreas insulin levels become less efficient as the body size increases • Cancer: stress increases malfunction of natural killer (NK) cell – NK cell: responsible for suppressing viruses and destroying tumor cells LO 11.4 The Relationship between Stress and the Immune System
  21. 21. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 11.2 Stress Duration and Illness In this graph, the risk of getting a cold virus increases greatly as the months of exposure to a stressor increase. Although a stress reaction can be useful in its early phase, prolonged stress has a negative impact on the immune system, leaving the body vulnerable to illnesses such as a cold. Source: Cohen et al. (1998).
  22. 22. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 11.3 Stress and Coronary Heart Disease The blue box on the left represents various sources of stress (Type A personality refers to someone who is ambitious, always working, and usually hostile). In addition to the physical reactions that accompany the stress reaction, an individual under stress may be more likely to engage in unhealthy behavior such as overeating, drinking alcohol or taking other kinds of drugs, avoiding exercise, and acting out in anger or frustration. This kind of behavior also contributes to an increased risk of coronary heart disease.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Cognitive Factors of Stress • Cognitive appraisal approach (Lazarus): how people think about a stressor determines, at least in part, how stressful that stressor will become LO 11.5 The Relationship between Stress and Cognitive and Personality Factors
  24. 24. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Cognitive Factors of Stress • Cognitive appraisal approach – primary appraisal: involves estimating the severity of a stressor and classifying it as either a threat or a challenge – secondary appraisal: involves estimating the resources available to the person for coping with the stressor LO 11.5 The Relationship between Stress and Cognitive and Personality Factors
  25. 25. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 11.4 Responses to a Stressor Lazarus’s Cognitive Appraisal Approach. According to this approach, there are two steps in cognitively determining the degree of stress created by a potential stressor. Primary appraisal involves determining if the potential stressor is a threat. If it is perceived as a threat, secondary appraisal occurs in addition to the bodily and emotional reactions. Secondary appraisal involves determining the resources one has to deal with the stress, such as time, money, physical ability, and so on. Inadequate resources lead to increased feelings of stress and the possibility of developing new resources to deal with the stress.
  26. 26. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress and Personality • Type A personality: – ambitious – time conscious – extremely hardworking – tends to have high levels of hostility and anger – easily annoyed • Type B personality – relaxed and laid-back – less driven and competitive than Type A – slow to anger LO 11.5 The Relationship between Stress and Cognitive and Personality Factors
  27. 27. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress and Personality • Type C personality – pleasant but repressed person – tends to internalize anger and anxiety – finds expressing emotions difficult – higher cancer rates LO 11.5 The Relationship between Stress and Cognitive and Personality Factors
  28. 28. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress and Personality • Hardy personality – seems to thrive on stress but lacks the anger and hostility of the Type A personality – deep sense of commitment to values – sense of control over their lives – view problems as challenges to be met and answered LO 11.5 The Relationship between Stress and Cognitive and Personality Factors
  29. 29. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 11.5 Personality and Coronary Heart Disease The two bars on the left represent men with Type A personalities. Notice that within the Type A men, there are more than twice as many who suffer from coronary heart disease as those who are healthy. The two bars on the right represent men with Type B personalities. Far more Type B personalities are healthy than are Type A personalities, and there are far fewer Type B personalities with coronary heart disease when compared to Type A personalities. Source: Miller et al. (1991, 1996).
  30. 30. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress and Personality • Explanatory styles – optimists: expect positive outcomes – pessimists: expect negative outcomes – optimists less likely to  develop learned helplessness  ignore their health  become depressed LO 11.5 The Relationship between Stress and Cognitive and Personality Factors
  31. 31. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress and Social Factors • Social factors increasing the effects of stress include: – poverty – stresses on the job or in the workplace – entering a majority culture that is different from one’s culture of origin • Burnout: negative changes in thoughts, emotions, and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustration LO 11.6 Social Factors and Stress Reactions
  32. 32. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress and Social Factors • Acculturative stress: results from the need to change and adapt to the majority culture – four methods of acculturation: 1. integration: maintaining a sense of original culture while forming positive relationship with majority culture 2. assimilation: giving up original cultural identity and adopting majority culture 3. separation: rejecting the majority culture’s ways 4. marginalization: maintaining no ties with original or majority cultures LO 11.6 Social Factors and Stress Reactions
  33. 33. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stress and Social Factors • Social-support system: the network of family, friends, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer support, comfort, or aid to a person in need LO 11.6 Social Factors and Stress Reactions
  34. 34. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Ways to Deal with Stress • Coping strategies: actions that people can take to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressors – problem-focused coping: one tries to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through direct actions – emotion-focused coping: one changes the impact of a stressor by changing the emotional reaction to the stressor LO 11.7 Coping with Stress
  35. 35. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Meditation • Meditation: mental exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trancelike state of consciousness and relaxation • Concentrative meditation: a person focuses the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus so that the mind can be cleared of disturbing thoughts and the body can experience relaxation LO 11.7 Coping with Stress
  36. 36. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Cultural Influences on Stress • Different cultures perceive stressors differently • Coping strategies will also vary from culture to culture LO 11.8 How Culture and Religion Help People Cope with Stress
  37. 37. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Religiosity and Stress • People with religious beliefs also have been found to cope better with stressful events LO 11.8 How Culture and Religion Help People Cope with Stress
  38. 38. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Become More Optimistic 1. When a bad mood strikes, stop and think about what just went through your head. 2. When you’ve recognized the negative statements, treat them as if they came from someone else—someone who is trying to make your life miserable. Think about the damage the statement is doing to you. 3. Argue with those thoughts. LO 11.9 Becoming More a More Optimistic Thinker
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