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Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
Saundra K. Ciccarel...
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
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Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
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Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
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Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
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Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology, Third Edition
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Psychology, Third Edition
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Psychology, Third Edition
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Psychology, Third Edition
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Psychology, Third Edition
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Psychology, Third Edition
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  • Derived from Erikson, 1950
  • Derived from Erikson, 1950
  • Derived from Erikson, 1950
  • PSYC1101 - Chapter 8, 4th Edition PowerPoint

    1. 1. psychologypsychology fourth editionfourth edition Copyright ©2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Chapter 8 development across the life span
    2. 2. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Learning Objective Menu 8.1 What are some of the special research designs used to study development? 8.2 What is the relationship between heredity and environmental factors in determining development? 8.3 How do chromosomes, genes, and DNA determine a person’s characteristics or disorders? 8.4 What happens during conception and prenatal development and what are some prenatal hazards? 8.5 What kind of physical changes take place in infancy and childhood? 8.6 What are two ways of looking at cognitive development, how does language develop, and what is autism spectrum disorder? 8.7 How do infants and children develop personalities and form relationships with others, and what are Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development for children? 8.8 What are the physical, cognitive, and personality changes that occur in adolescence, including concepts of morality and Erikson’s search for identity? 8.9 What are the physical, cognitive, and personality changes that occur during adulthood and aging, including Erikson’s last three psychosocial stages, and patterns of parenting? 8.10 How do psychologists explain why aging occurs, and what are the stages of death and dying? 8.11 What are some cross-cultural differences in views of death and dying?
    3. 3. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
    4. 4. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Developmental Research Designs • Human development: the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death • Longitudinal design: research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time – cohort effect: impact on development when a group of people share common time period or life experience LO 8.1 Special Research Methods Used to Study Development
    5. 5. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Longitudinal Design Tested at 1 year (Time 1) Again at 4 years (Time 2) Again at 7 years (Time 3)
    6. 6. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Longitudinal Design Tested at 1 year (Time 1) Again at 4 years (Time 2) Again at 7 years (Time 3) Same Participants Different Times Different Times Different Times Compare Compare
    7. 7. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Developmental Research Designs • Cross-sectional design: research design in which several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time • Cross-sequential design: research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design but also followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years LO 8.1 Special Research Methods Used to Study Development
    8. 8. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Nature versus Nurture • Nature: the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions • Nurture: the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions • Behavioral genetics: focuses on nature vs. nurture LO 8.2 The Relationship between Heredity and Environmental Factors
    9. 9. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Genetics and Development • Genetics: the science of inherited traits – behavioral genetics • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism LO 8.3 Chromosomes, Genes, DNA, and Multiple Births
    10. 10. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 8.1 DNA Molecule In this model of a DNA molecule, the two strands making up the sides of the “twisted ladder” are composed of sugars and phosphates. The “rungs” of the ladder that link the two strands are amines. Amines contain the genetic codes for building the proteins that make up organic life.
    11. 11. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Genetics and Development • Gene: section of DNA having a certain pattern of chemical elements – dominant: referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait – recessive: referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene LO 8.3 Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA
    12. 12. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 8.2 Dominant and Recessive Genes and PKU This figure shows the variation of parents carrying one or two recessive genes and the result of this in their offspring. (a) If only one parent carries the PKU gene, their children might be carriers, but will not have PKU.
    13. 13. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 8.2 (continued) Dominant and Recessive Genes and PKU This figure shows the variation of parents carrying one or two recessive genes and the result of this in their offspring. (b) Only if both parents are carriers of PKU will a child have the 1 in 4 possibility of having PKU.
    14. 14. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Genetics and Development • Chromosome: tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA • Chromosome disorders include Down syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, and Turner’s syndrome • Genetic disorders include PKU, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Tay-Sachs disease LO 8.3 Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA
    15. 15. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Genetics and Development • Conception: the moment at which a female becomes pregnant • Ovum: the female sex cell, or egg • Fertilization: the union of the ovum and sperm • Zygote: cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm; divides into many cells, eventually forming the baby LO 8.3 Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA
    16. 16. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Conception and Twins • Monozygotic twins: identical twins – formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo • Dizygotic twins: often called fraternal twins – occur when two eggs get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in the development of two zygotes in the uterus at the same time LO 8.3 Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA
    17. 17. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 8.3 Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins Because identical twins come from one fertilized egg (zygote), they are called monozygotic. Fraternal twins, who come from two different fertilized eggs, are called dizygotic.
    18. 18. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Periods of Pregnancy • Germinal period: first two weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining – embryo is the name for the developing organism from two weeks to eight weeks after fertilization LO 8.4 Germinal, Embryonic, and Fetal Periods of Pregnancy
    19. 19. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Periods of Pregnancy • Embryonic period: the period from two to eight weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop – critical periods: times during which certain environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant – teratogen: any factor that can cause a birth defect LO 8.4 Germinal, Embryonic, and Fetal Periods of Pregnancy
    20. 20. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
    21. 21. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Periods of Pregnancy • Fetal period: the time from about eight weeks after conception until the birth of the child – fetus: name for the developing organism from eight weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby – viability: the point at which it is possible for an infant to survive outside the womb, usually about 22-26 weeks LO 8.4 Germinal, Embryonic, and Fetal Periods of Pregnancy
    22. 22. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood • Infants are born with reflexes that help them survive – grasping – Moro (startle) – rooting – stepping – sucking LO 8.5 Physical Changes in Infancy and Childhood
    23. 23. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 8.4 Five Infant Reflexes Shown here are (a) grasping reflex; (b) startle reflex (also known as the Moro reflex); (c) rooting reflex (when you touch a baby‘s cheek it will turn toward your hand, open its mouth, and search for the nipple);
    24. 24. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 8.4 (continued) Five Infant Reflexes (d) stepping reflex; and (e) sucking reflex. These infant reflexes can be used to check the health of an infant’s nervous system. If a reflex is absent or abnormal, it may indicate brain damage or some other neurological problem.
    25. 25. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 8.6 Six Motor Milestones Shown here are (a) raising head and chest—2 to 4 months, (b) rolling over—2 to 5 months, (c) sitting up with support— 4 to 6 months,
    26. 26. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 8.6 (continued) Six Motor Milestones (d) sitting up without support—6 to 7 months, (e) crawling—7 to 8 months, and (f) walking—8 to 18 months. The motor milestones develop as the infant gains greater voluntary control over the muscles in its body, typically from the top of the body downward. This pattern is seen in the early control of the neck muscles and the much later development of control of the legs and feet.
    27. 27. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood • The senses, except for vision, are fairly well developed at birth • Brain development – synaptic pruning: unused synaptic connections and nerve cells are cleared away to make way for functioning connections and cells LO 8.5 Physical Changes in Infancy and Childhood
    28. 28. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Cognitive Development • Cognitive development: the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory • Jean Piaget: developed a four-stage theory of cognitive development based on observation of infants and children – schemes: mental concepts formed by children as they experience new situations and events LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    29. 29. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
    30. 30. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Piaget’s Stage Theory • Sensorimotor stage: Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment – object permanence: the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    31. 31. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Piaget’s Stage Theory • Preoperational stage: Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world – egocentrism: the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes – centration: in Piaget’s theory, the tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    32. 32. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Piaget’s Stage Theory • Preoperational Stage (cont’d) – conservation: in Piaget’s theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object’s nature – irreversibility: in Piaget’s theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    33. 33. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 8.7 Conservation Experiment A typical conservation task consists of pouring equal amounts of water into two glasses of the same size and shape. When the water from one of these glasses is poured into a taller, narrower glass, children who cannot yet conserve tend to focus (centrate) on the height of the water in the second glass, assuming that the second glass now has more water than the first one. In the second example, pennies are laid out in two equal lines. When the pennies in the top line are spaced out, the child who cannot yet conserve will centrate on the top line and assume that there are actually more pennies in that line.
    34. 34. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Piaget’s Stage Theory • Concrete operations stage: third stage of cognitive development, in which the school-aged child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking • Formal operations: Piaget’s last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    35. 35. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Vygotsky’s Theory • Scaffolding: process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, then reduces the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    36. 36. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Vygotsky’s Theory • Zone of proximal development (ZPD): the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher – private speech: Vygotsky viewed this as a way for a child to “think out loud” and advance cognitively LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    37. 37. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Language Development • Language development allows children to: – think in words rather than images – ask questions – communicate their needs – form concepts • Child-directed speech: children attend to higher-pitched, repetitious, sing-song speech LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    38. 38. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stages of Language Development • Cooing • Babbling • One-Word Speech (Holophrases) • Telegraphic Speech • Whole sentences LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    39. 39. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Autism Spectrum Disorder • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): developmental disorder encompassing a range of problems in thinking, feeling, language, and social skills – myths relating ASD and vaccines have been debunked LO 8.6 Looking at Cognitive Development and How Language Develops
    40. 40. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Temperament • Temperament: behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth – easy: regular, adaptable, and happy – difficult: irregular, nonadaptable, and irritable – slow to warm up: need to adjust gradually to change LO 8.7 Developing Personalities, Forming Relationships, and Erikson’s First Four Stages of Psychosocial Development
    41. 41. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Attachment • Attachment: the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver – secure: willing to explore; upset when mother departs, but easily soothed upon her return – avoidant: unattached; explores without “touching base” LO 8.7 Developing Personalities, Forming Relationships, and Erikson’s First Four Stages of Psychosocial Development
    42. 42. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Attachment • Attachment (cont’d) – ambivalent: insecurely attached; upset when mother leaves and then angry with mother upon her return – disorganized-disoriented: insecurely attached and sometimes abused or neglected; child seems fearful, dazed, and depressed LO 8.7 Developing Personalities, Forming Relationships, and Erikson’s First Four Stages of Psychosocial Development
    43. 43. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Attachment • Harlow monkey experiment – In this experiment The wire surrogate “mother” provides the food for this infant rhesus monkey. But the infant spends all its time with the soft, cloth-covered surrogate. According to Harlow, this demonstrates the importance of contact comfort in attachment. LO 8.7 Developing Personalities, Forming Relationships, and Erikson’s First Four Stages of Psychosocial Development
    44. 44. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Self-Concept • Self-concept is the image you have of yourself – based on your interactions with the important people in your life. LO 8.7 Developing Personalities, Forming Relationships, and Erikson’s First Four Stages of Psychosocial Development
    45. 45. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Erikson’s First Four Stages • Trust versus mistrust: first stage of personality development – the infant’s basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care • Autonomy versus shame and doubt: second stage of personality development – the toddler strives for physical independence LO 8.7 Developing Personalities, Forming Relationships, and Erikson’s First Four Stages of Psychosocial Development
    46. 46. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Erikson’s First Four Stages • Initiative versus guilt: third stage of personality development – the preschool-aged child strives for emotional and psychological independence and attempts to satisfy curiosity about the world • Industry versus inferiority: fourth stage of personality development – the adolescent strives for a sense of competence and self-esteem LO 8.7 Developing Personalities, Forming Relationships, and Erikson’s First Four Stages of Psychosocial Development
    47. 47. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
    48. 48. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Puberty and Adolescence • Adolescence: the period of life from about age thirteen to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult • Puberty: the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak – period of about four years LO 8.8 Changes of Adolescence, Concepts of Morality, and Erikson’s Search for Identity
    49. 49. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Egocentric Thinking • Formal operations may begin to emerge – Piaget’s final stage – thinking of hypothetical situations – egocentric thought remains LO 8.8 Changes of Adolescence, Concepts of Morality, and Erikson’s Search for Identity
    50. 50. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Egocentric Thinking • Personal fable: young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm • Imaginary audience: young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent’s thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are LO 8.8 Changes of Adolescence, Concepts of Morality, and Erikson’s Search for Identity
    51. 51. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Kohlberg’s Levels of Morality 1. Preconventional morality: behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior 2. Conventional morality: behavior is governed by conforming to society’s norms of behavior 3. Postconventional morality: behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual – may be in disagreement with accepted social norms LO 8.8 Changes of Adolescence, Concepts of Morality, and Erikson’s Search for Identity
    52. 52. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
    53. 53. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Erikson’s Fifth Stage • Identity versus role confusion: fifth stage of personality development – the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self • Parent–teen conflict LO 8.8 Changes of Adolescence, Concepts of Morality, and Erikson’s Search for Identity
    54. 54. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White LO 8.8 Changes of Adolescence, Concepts of Morality, and Erikson’s Search for Identity
    55. 55. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Physical Changes and Aging • Adulthood begins in the early twenties and ends with old age and death – divided into young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood – emerging adulthood, time from late adolescence through the 20s LO 8.9 Physical and Cognitive Changes during Adulthood and Aging
    56. 56. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Physical Changes and Aging • Women experience a physical decline in the reproductive system called the climacteric – ends at about age fifty with menopause: the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman’s reproductive capability • Andropause: gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of males LO 8.9 Physical and Cognitive Changes during Adulthood and Aging
    57. 57. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Physical Changes and Aging • Increase in health problems • Decrease in reaction time • Challenges in memory most likely caused by stress and high volumes of information to maintain LO 8.9 Physical and Cognitive Changes during Adulthood and Aging
    58. 58. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Erikson’s Last Three Stages • Intimacy versus isolation : an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self LO 8.9 LO 8.9 Physical and Cognitive Changes during Adulthood and Aging
    59. 59. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Erikson’s Last Three Stages • Generativity versus stagnation : providing guidance to one’s children or the next generation, or contributing to the well- being of the next generation through career or volunteering – parenting styles LO 8.9 LO 8.9 Physical and Cognitive Changes during Adulthood and Aging
    60. 60. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Erikson’s Last Three Stages • Ego integrity versus despair : sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego LO 8.9 Physical and Cognitive Changes during Adulthood and Aging
    61. 61. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White LO 8.9 Physical and Cognitive Changes during Adulthood and Aging
    62. 62. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Theories of Aging • Cellular clock theory: based on the idea that cells only have so many times that they can reproduce – once that limit is reached, damaged cells begin to accumulate • Wear-and-tear theory: as time goes by, repeated use and abuse of the body’s tissues cause it to be unable to repair all the damage LO 8.10 Theories of Why Aging Occurs and Stages of Death and Dying
    63. 63. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Theories of Aging • Free radical theory: oxygen molecules with an unstable electron move around the cell, damaging cell structures as they go • Activity theory: theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby LO 8.10 Theories of Why Aging Occurs and Stages of Death and Dying
    64. 64. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Stages of Death and Dying • Denial • Anger • Bargaining • Depression • Acceptance LO 8.10 Theories of Why Aging Occurs and Stages of Death and Dying
    65. 65. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Cross-Cultural Views on Death • While Westerners see a person as either dead or alive, in some cultures a person who, by Western standards is clearly alive, is mourned as already dead—as is the case in many Native American cultures. LO 8.11 Some Cross-Cultural Differences in Views of Death and Dying
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