PSYC1101 - Chapter 7, 4th Edition PowerPoint

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PSYC1101 - Chapter 7, 4th Edition PowerPoint

  1. 1. psychologypsychology fourth editionfourth edition Copyright ©2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Chapter 7 cognition
  2. 2. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Learning Objectives 7.1 How are mental images and concepts involved in the process of thinking? 7.2 What are the methods people use to solve problems and make decisions? 7.3 Why does problem solving sometimes fail, and what is meant by creative thinking? 7.4 How do psychologists define intelligence, and how do various theories of intelligence differ? 7.5 How is intelligence measured, how are intelligence tests constructed, and what role do these tests play in neuropsychology? 7.6 What is intellectual disability and what are its causes? 7.7 What defines giftedness, and how are giftedness and emotional intelligence related to success in life? 7.8 What is the influence of heredity and environment on the development of intelligence? 7.9 How is language defined, and what are its different elements and structure? 7.10 Does language influence the way people think, and are animals capable of learning language? 7.11 What are some ways to improve thinking?
  3. 3. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Thinking and Mental Images • Thinking (cognition): mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is processing information – processing includes organizing, understanding, and communicating information to others • Mental images: mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality LO 7.1 Mental Images and Concepts in Thinking
  4. 4. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Concepts • Concepts: ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities • Formal concepts: concepts that are defined by specific rules or features • Natural concepts: concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world – a platypus is a “fuzzy” natural concept (a mammal that lays eggs and has bird-like webbed feet) LO 7.1 Mental Images and Concepts in Thinking
  5. 5. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Concepts • Prototype: a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of that concept – prototypes develop according to the exposure a person has to objects in that category LO 7.1 Mental Images and Concepts in Thinking
  6. 6. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Problem Solving • Problem solving: occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways • Decision making: identifying, evaluating, and choosing between alternatives LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions
  7. 7. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Problem Solving • Trial and error (mechanical solution): problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found • Algorithms: very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems – will always result in a correct solution if one exists to be found  e.g., mathematical formulas LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions
  8. 8. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Problem Solving • Heuristic: educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem; also known as a “rule of thumb” – representative heuristic: assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions
  9. 9. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Problem Solving • Heuristics (cont’d) – availability heuristic: estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is to think of related examples – working backward from the goal is a useful heuristic – break a goal down into subgoals, so that as each subgoal is achieved, the final solution is that much closer LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions
  10. 10. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Problem Solving • Insight: sudden perception of a solution to a problem – “aha!” moment – problem may be recognized as similar to another previously solved, for example LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions
  11. 11. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Problem-Solving Barriers • Functional fixedness: a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects only in terms of their typical functions • Mental set: the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past LO 7.3 Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking
  12. 12. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Problem-Solving Barriers • Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for evidence that fits one’s beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs LO 7.3 Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking
  13. 13. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 7.2 The String Problem How do you tie the two strings together if you cannot reach them both at the same time?
  14. 14. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 7.2 (continued) Solution to the String Problem The solution to the string problem is to use the pliers as a pendulum to swing the second string closer to you.
  15. 15. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 7.3 The Dot Problem Can you draw four straight lines so that they pass through all nine dots without lifting your pencil from the page and without touching any dot more than once?
  16. 16. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 7.3 (continued) Solution to the Dot Problem When people try to solve this problem, a mental set causes them to think of the dots as representing a box, and they try to draw the line while staying in the box. The only way to connect all nine dots without lifting the pencil from the paper is to draw the lines so they extend out of the box of dots—literally “thinking outside the box.”
  17. 17. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Creativity • Creativity: the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways LO 7.3 Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking
  18. 18. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Creativity • Creativity (cont’d) – convergent thinking: a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to (converge on) that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic – divergent thinking: a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point (a kind of creativity) LO 7.3 Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking
  19. 19. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  20. 20. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Intelligence • Intelligence: the ability to learn from one’s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence
  21. 21. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Theories of Intelligence • Spearman’s Theory – g factor: the ability to reason and solve problems; general intelligence – s factor: the ability to excel in certain areas; specific intelligence LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence
  22. 22. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Theories of Intelligence • Gardner’s multiple intelligences LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence
  23. 23. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Gardner’s Theory • According to Gardner, what kind of intelligence is being shown here? Movement LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence
  24. 24. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Gardner’s Theory • According to Gardner, what kind of intelligence is being shown here? Logical/Mathematical Albert Einstein LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence
  25. 25. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Gardner’s Theory • According to Gardner, what kind of intelligence is being shown here? Visual/Spatial LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence
  26. 26. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Gardner’s Theory • According to Gardner, what kind of intelligence is being shown here? Musical LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence
  27. 27. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Theories of Intelligence • Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence: there are three kinds of intelligences 1.analytical, 2.creative 3.practical LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence
  28. 28. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Theories of Intelligence • Triarchic theory of intelligence (cont’d) – analytical intelligence: the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving – creative intelligence: the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems – practical intelligence: the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful; “street smarts” LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence
  29. 29. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White IQ Tests • Intelligence quotient (IQ): a number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one’s mental age by one’s chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100 – Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales yield an IQ score – allows testers to compare intelligence levels of people from different age groups LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed
  30. 30. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  31. 31. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White IQ Tests • Wechsler Intelligence Tests yield a verbal score and a performance score, as well as an overall score of intelligence LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed
  32. 32. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White
  33. 33. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Development of IQ Tests • Reliability: the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people • Validity: the degree to which a test actually measures what it’s supposed to measure LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed
  34. 34. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Unreliable and Invalid TEST Construct (i.e., “intelligence”) Scores on test Menu LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed
  35. 35. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Reliable but Invalid TEST Construct (i.e., “intelligence”) Scores on test Test can be RELIABLE but still be INVALID! Menu LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed
  36. 36. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Reliable and Valid TEST Construct (i.e., “intelligence) Scores on test Test MUST be RELIABLE to be VALID! Menu LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed
  37. 37. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Development of IQ Tests • Standardization: the process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test is designed – norms: scores from the standardization group – most intelligence tests follow a normal curve LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed
  38. 38. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 7.4 The Normal Curve The percentages under each section of the normal curve represent the percentage of scores falling within that section for each standard deviation (SD) from the mean. Scores on intelligence tests are typically represented by the normal curve. The dotted vertical lines each represent one standard deviation from the mean, which is always set at 100. For example, an IQ of 115 on the Wechsler represents one standard deviation above the mean, and the area under the curve indicates that 34.13 percent of the population falls between 100 and 115 on this test. Note: The figure shows the mean and standard deviation for the Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition (Stanford-Binet 4). The Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition was published in 2003 and now has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 for composite scores.
  39. 39. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Development of IQ Tests • Deviation IQ scores: a measure of intelligence that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15 – IQ of 130 would be two standard deviations above the mean – IQ of 70 would be two standard deviations below the mean LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed
  40. 40. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Development of IQ Tests • Cultural bias – Cultural free tests • Usefulness of IQ tests – IQ tests are generally valid for predicting academic success and job performance – Neuropsychology  Head injury, learning disabilities, neuropsychological disorders LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed
  41. 41. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Intellectual Disability • Intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder): a person exhibits deficits in mental ability and adaptive behavior – IQ falls below 70 – adaptive behavior is severely deficient for a person of a particular chronological age – formerly known as mental retardation or developmentally delayed LO 7.6 Intellectual Disability and Its Causes
  42. 42. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Intellectual Disability • Intellectual disability can vary from mild to profound • Causes of developmental delay include deprived environments, as well as chromosome and genetic disorders, alcohol, dietary deficiencies and toxins in the environemts LO 7.6 Intellectual Disability and Its Causes
  43. 43. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Giftedness • Gifted: the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above • Does giftedness guarantee success? LO 7.7 Giftedness and Does Giftedness Guarantee Success
  44. 44. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Giftedness • Terman conducted a longitudinal study that demonstrated that gifted children grow up to be successful adults, for the most part. – Terman’s study has been criticized for a lack of objectivity, because he became too involved in the lives of his “Termites”, even to the point of interfering on their behalf. LO 7.7 Giftedness and Does Giftedness Guarantee Success
  45. 45. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Giftedness • Emotional intelligence: awareness of and ability to manage one’s own emotions, as well as the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled – viewed as a powerful influence on success in life LO 7.7 Giftedness and Does Giftedness Guarantee Success
  46. 46. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence • Stronger correlations are found between IQ scores as genetic relatedness increases • Heritability of IQ is estimated at 0.50 • Flynn effect: IQ scores steadily increasing over time in modernized countries • The Bell Curve: a book that made widely criticized claims about the heritability of intelligence – stereotype threat LO 7.8 The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Intelligence
  47. 47. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 7.5 Correlations Between IQ Scores of Persons With Various Relationships In the graph on the left, the degree of genetic relatedness seems to determine the agreement (correlation) between IQ scores of the various comparisons. For example, identical twins, who share 100 percent of their genes, are more similar in IQ than fraternal twins, who share only about 50 percent of their genes, even when raised in the same environment.
  48. 48. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 7.5 (continued) Correlations Between IQ Scores of Persons With Various Relationships In the graph on the right, identical twins are still more similar to each other in IQ than are other types of comparisons, but being raised in the same environment increases the similarity considerably.
  49. 49. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Language • Language: a system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others LO 7.9 Language, Its Different Elements, and the Structure of Language
  50. 50. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Elements and Structure of Language • Grammar: the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language • Phonemes: the basic units of sound in a language • Morphemes: the smallest units of meaning within a language LO 7.9 Language, Its Different Elements, and the Structure of Language
  51. 51. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Elements and Structure of Language • Syntax: the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences • Semantics: rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences • Pragmatics: aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social niceties of language LO 7.9 Language, Its Different Elements, and the Structure of Language
  52. 52. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Language and Cognition • Linguistic relativity hypothesis: the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language • Cognitive universalism: theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language LO 7.10 Language, Thinking, and Are Animals Able to Learn Language
  53. 53. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Animal Studies in Language • Studies have been somewhat successful in demonstrating that animals can develop a basic kind of language, including some abstract ideas. • Controversy exists over the lack of evidence that animals can learn syntax, which some feel means that animals are not truly learning and using language. LO 7.10 Language, Thinking, and Are Animals Able to Learn Language
  54. 54. Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Ways to Improve Thinking • Mental activities that require creativity and the use of memory abilities can help keep the brain fit: – crossword puzzles – reading books LO 7.11 Ways to Improve Thinking

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