SW critical seminar 3 fanon[1]

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  • Born in Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary; liberation of Algeria from France
    Two of his most well known books are Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) – these are key texts in post-colonial theory and criticism – he brings psychology and politics together
    Some key ideas about the psychology of colonisation include:
    Racist objectification - race is the essential determining quality of identity
    Colonising the mind – in the colonial position, cultural values are not one’s own; life occurs in a hostile environment; the message is consistently “de-value me and my culture”
    Cultural dissonance - dissonance between ego and culture, self and society
    Internalisation - external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
  • As in general social theory, the central problem of social work, is ‘structure and agency’.
    The international definition of social work attempts to refer to the “inbetween” of the subjective and the structural:
    The social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Utilising theories of human behaviour and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environments. IFSW, July 2000)
    In all-inclusion of theories social work is unable to define itself critically and adequately on the side of social justice and structural change. Its theory seems to comfortably straddle both ends of intersecting axes of the subjective/objective and the radical/regulatory (Payne, 2005:45).
    Burrel and Morgan (1979), cited by Payne (2005: 46) propose these philosophical positions about society as ranging from the subjective (humanist, postmodernist, constructionist) to the objective (modernist, positivist, scientific), as well as another dimension relating to the nature of order of society – whether these positions understand society as changing in a radical way, or as a regulated set of social interactions. However, a further schism or polarity is that of the social and political, arising from ‘the rise of the social’ during the 19th centrury (Riley, 1988, cited by Tamboukou, 2005:140).
  • The Post-colonial is misunderstood as the chronological period after the end of colonial rule – rather, it is a form of analysis exposing violence of colonialism; gulf between European moral philosophy and political practices (Mbembe, 2008)
    It is a critical perspective – relationship of domination/resistance that manifest when one culture ‘owns’ or controls another culture, even after the era of formalised colonisation has ended (Van Zyl, 1998)
    The racialisation of colonised subject guided by “I alone possess value. But I can only be of value, as myself, if others, as themselves, are without value.” (Mbembe, 2008)
    racism, denigration of indigenous ways, paternalism - Colonialism imposed enormous social changes on traditional societies, no responsibility for social costs of social disruption (Patel, 2005:67).
    The praxis of anticolonialism arises from postcolonial thinking – identify, resist all forms of domination and oppression (Dei, 2006:5)
    It attempts to understand the reproduction of dominance and subjugation of disempowered (Dei, 2006)
  • “Re-named as ‘Neoliberalism’, the historic crime in the concentration of privileges, wealth and impunities, democratizes misery and hopelessness.” (Subcommandante Marcos, 1996).
    Neoliberalism, with its belief that the free and unregulated market being the answer to global economic problems, produces an indefensible system of inequality and injustice. It is widely criticized (Sewpaul, 2006; Sewpaul and Holscher, 2004; Strier, Surkis and Biran, 2008; Fairclough, 2000; Ferguson, 2008).
    Neo-liberal capitalism relies on principles (known as the Washington consensus) of fiscal policy discipline; cutbacks in state expenditure; trade liberalization; privatization of state enterprises; security of private property rights (Sewpaul, 2006; Terreblanche, 2002). According to Pollack and Chadha (2004:4), describe the new global economy as a subtle continuation of historical colonialism which also includes a strong but largely hidden racist and ethnocentric undercurrent, demonstrated by global resource consumption and wealth distribution.
    Social work practices are at risk of supporting and extending the oppressive nature of this system if it does not .
  • Born in Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary; liberation of Algeria from France
    Two of his most well known books are Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) – these are key texts in post-colonial theory and criticism – he brings psychology and politics together
    Some key ideas about the psychology of colonisation include:
    Racist objectification - race is the essential determining quality of identity
    Colonising the mind – in the colonial position, cultural values are not one’s own; life occurs in a hostile environment; the message is consistently “de-value me and my culture”
    Cultural dissonance - dissonance between ego and culture, self and society
    Internalisation - external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
  • Born in Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary; liberation of Algeria from France
    Two of his most well known books are Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) – these are key texts in post-colonial theory and criticism – he brings psychology and politics together
    Some key ideas about the psychology of colonisation include:
    Racist objectification - race is the essential determining quality of identity
    Colonising the mind – in the colonial position, cultural values are not one’s own; life occurs in a hostile environment; the message is consistently “de-value me and my culture”
    Cultural dissonance - dissonance between ego and culture, self and society
    Internalisation - external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
  • Born in Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary; liberation of Algeria from France
    Two of his most well known books are Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) – these are key texts in post-colonial theory and criticism – he brings psychology and politics together
    Some key ideas about the psychology of colonisation include:
    Racist objectification - race is the essential determining quality of identity
    Colonising the mind – in the colonial position, cultural values are not one’s own; life occurs in a hostile environment; the message is consistently “de-value me and my culture”
    Cultural dissonance - dissonance between ego and culture, self and society
    Internalisation - external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
  • Born in Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary; liberation of Algeria from France
    Two of his most well known books are Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) – these are key texts in post-colonial theory and criticism – he brings psychology and politics together
    Some key ideas about the psychology of colonisation include:
    Racist objectification - race is the essential determining quality of identity
    Colonising the mind – in the colonial position, cultural values are not one’s own; life occurs in a hostile environment; the message is consistently “de-value me and my culture”
    Cultural dissonance - dissonance between ego and culture, self and society
    Internalisation - external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
  • Born in Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary; liberation of Algeria from France
    Two of his most well known books are Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) – these are key texts in post-colonial theory and criticism – he brings psychology and politics together
    Some key ideas about the psychology of colonisation include:
    Racist objectification - race is the essential determining quality of identity
    Colonising the mind – in the colonial position, cultural values are not one’s own; life occurs in a hostile environment; the message is consistently “de-value me and my culture”
    Cultural dissonance - dissonance between ego and culture, self and society
    Internalisation - external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
  • Born in Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary; liberation of Algeria from France
    Two of his most well known books are Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) – these are key texts in post-colonial theory and criticism – he brings psychology and politics together
    Some key ideas about the psychology of colonisation include:
    Racist objectification - race is the essential determining quality of identity
    Colonising the mind – in the colonial position, cultural values are not one’s own; life occurs in a hostile environment; the message is consistently “de-value me and my culture”
    Cultural dissonance - dissonance between ego and culture, self and society
    Internalisation - external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
  • Born in Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary; liberation of Algeria from France
    Two of his most well known books are Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) – these are key texts in post-colonial theory and criticism – he brings psychology and politics together
    Some key ideas about the psychology of colonisation include:
    Racist objectification - race is the essential determining quality of identity
    Colonising the mind – in the colonial position, cultural values are not one’s own; life occurs in a hostile environment; the message is consistently “de-value me and my culture”
    Cultural dissonance - dissonance between ego and culture, self and society
    Internalisation - external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
  • Born in Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary; liberation of Algeria from France
    Two of his most well known books are Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) – these are key texts in post-colonial theory and criticism – he brings psychology and politics together
    Some key ideas about the psychology of colonisation include:
    Racist objectification - race is the essential determining quality of identity
    Colonising the mind – in the colonial position, cultural values are not one’s own; life occurs in a hostile environment; the message is consistently “de-value me and my culture”
    Cultural dissonance - dissonance between ego and culture, self and society
    Internalisation - external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
  • So, critical discourse in our context of postcolonialsm and neoliberalism, requires courage – I want to end with a statement by Edward Said, a founding contributor to postcolonial thought:
    “Nothing in my view is more reprehensible than those habits of mind in the intellectual that induce avoidance, that characteristic turning away from a difficult of principled position which you know to be the right one, but which you decide not to take.” (Said, 1994:74)
  • SW critical seminar 3 fanon[1]

    1. 1. Franz Fanon 1925-1961
    2. 2. Franz Fanon Born Martinique, psychiatrist, revolutionary, liberation of Algeria from France • Black skins white masks (1952); Wretched of the earth (1961) key text in post-colonial theory and criticism brings psychology and politics together • Racist objectification race essential determining quality • Colonising the mind cultural values not one’s own; hostile; consistently “de-value me and my culture” • Cultural dissonance dissonance between ego and culture, self and society • Internalisation external socio-historical reality assimilated into subjective reality intrapsychic violence
    3. 3. Post-colonial Theory and Relevance to Social Work THE SUBJECT AND STRUCTURE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL AGENCY AND STRUCTURE As in general social theory, the central problem of social work, is ‘structure and agency’ International definition of SW refers to the “inbetween” of the subjective and the structural: …social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environments… Post-colonial is misunderstood - not the chronological period after end of colonial rule but form of analysis exposing violence of colonialism; gulf between European moral philosophy and political practices (Mbembe, 2008)
    4. 4. POST AND ANTICOLONIAL THOUGHT Critical perspective – relationship of domination/resistance that manifests when one culture ‘owns’/controls another culture, even after end formalised colonisation (Van Zyl, 1998) Racialisation of colonised subject guided by “I alone possess value. But I can only be of value, as myself, if others, as themselves, are without value” (Mbembe, 2008) Racism, denigration of indigenous ways, paternalism - Colonialism imposed enormous social changes on traditional societies, no responsibility for social costs of social disruption (Patel, 2005) Praxis of anticolonialism arises from postcolonial thinking – identify, resist all forms of domination and oppression (Dei, 2006, p.5) Understand reproduction of dominance and subjugation of disempowered (Dei, 2006)
    5. 5. NEOLIBERALISM “Re-named as ‘Neoliberalism’, the historic crime in the concentration of privileges, wealth and impunities, democratizes misery and hopelessness.” (Subcommandante Marcos, 1996). Belief that free, unregulated market answer to global economic problems Indefensible system of inequality and injustice, widely criticized principles (Washington consensus) of fiscal policy discipline; cutbacks in state expenditure; trade liberalization; privatization of state enterprises; security of private property rights Subtle continuation of historical colonialism and strong, hidden racist and ethnocentric undercurrent, demonstrated by global resource consumption and wealth distribution (Pollack and Chadha, 2004:4) SW practices are at risk of supporting oppressive nature of this system if not critical and radical in its resistance
    6. 6. Franz Fanon “Among the contribution of Fanon was the obligation placed on Western scientists to consider their role in the creation, perpetuation, and consequences of racism and colonialisation.” (Pierce, 1985, in Bulhan, 1985:vii)
    7. 7. Franz Fanon Fanon carefully documents the manner in which colonialism distorts the colonial subject’s psyche. He provocatively proclaims that the ‘black man is not a man’, that colonisation dehumanises and objectifies the colonised, rendering them incapable of being human (Ahluwaliah and Zegeye, 2001)
    8. 8. Franz Fanon Definition of concept of racism: “the generalisation, institutionalisation and assignment of values to real or imaginary differences between people in order to justify a state of privilege, aggression and/or violence (not just cognitive or affective content of prejudice, racism is expressed behaviourally, institutionally and culturally). Ideas or actions of a person, the goals or practices of an institution, and the symbols, myths or structure of a society are racist if (a) imaginary or real differences of race are accentuated; (b) these differences are assumed absolute and considered in terms of superior and inferior; and (c) these are used to justify inequity, exclusion or domination.” (Bulhan, 1985:13)
    9. 9. Franz Fanon The central principles of Fanon's psychological and psychiatric thoughts are as follows: 1. In colonized countries, members of the indigenous populations are made to feel inferior if they do not conform to the cultural norms of the colonizers so that they become dependent upon the colonizers for a sense of self-esteem (Fanon 1986) 2. The object of therapy for the feelings of inferiority and despair caused by colonial domination should not be to promote adaptation to the status quo, but to put the distressed person in a position to choose between passivity and action in response to colonial domination (Fanon 1986)
    10. 10. Franz Fanon 3. The pathology of mental distress and the response to therapy are related to political and cultural environment (Fanon & Azoulay 1954) 4. The obsessions, contradictions and anxieties which are experienced by a distressed person are the internalizations of social conflict and imposed limitations on liberty 5. When persons feel that the validity of their own cultural and/or philosophical belief is being deemed they characteristically become resentful and withdrawn (Fanon 1989)
    11. 11. Franz Fanon 6. Any form of resistance to colonial oppression invests the characters of oppressed persons with positive and creative qualities. Such activity frees them from feelings of inferiority and despair and engenders self-respect (Fanon 1990) 7. There are three phases in the discovery of one's own individual identity assimulation (when the cultural values promoted by others are adopted uncritically), the reaction against these imposed cultural values, and commitment towards radical change (Fanon 1990) 8. The doctor-patient relationship is a microcosm of power relationships in wider society, and within oppressive societies mental institutions are places of coercion and not of healing (Fanon 1967, cited in Bulhan 1985)
    12. 12. Franz Fanon Fanon's psychology is concerned with anti-racism and anti-colonialism - central themes can be re-worked as more general theory of relationship between social, economic and/or political oppression and mental health (Hopton, 1995) Fanon’s psychology locates origins of mental distress in social injustice and oppression Therapy should be orientated to helping distressed persons identify oppressive forces operating in their lives and develop strategies for direct action against whoever or whatever causing their distress
    13. 13. Franz Fanon Dynamics of oppression extremely complex and involve interaction of historical, structural, ideological and interpersonal factors Unlike traditional approaches orientated towards individual action by clients, Fanonist model of mental health nursing is orientated to challenging socio- political status quo Involves practical political activity by nurses in society where social relations influenced by market forces of capitalism, institutionalized racism, sexism, heterosexism Part of role of mental health nurses to act as role models to clients through active participation - individually and collectively — in organizations challenging oppression
    14. 14. “Nothing in my view is more reprehensible than those habits of mind in the intellectual that induce avoidance, that characteristic turning away from a difficult of principled position which you know to be the right one, but which you decide not to take.” (Said, 1994, p.74)

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