Generalist Practice All Seminars

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Generalist Practice All Seminars

  1. 1. 2010 GENERALIST PRACTICE SOCIAL WORK 4003A SEMINAR 1
  2. 2. CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL WORK THEORY (Payne, 2005, p. 3 –23)   •  SW practice is a process of deciding action from a     variety of alternative positions •  We always have a theory that helps us decide why,     how to choose between alternatives, even if hidden      from ourselves •  SW’s need to have ideas that try to explain why and     how practice decisions are made •  Theory could include ‘models’; ‘perspectives’ and     ‘explanatory theory’  •  Disagreement about what social work is, and different     groups argue for, against different views
  3. 3. SOCIAL WORK AS SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION •social construction: reality is social knowledge - guides behaviour, but have different views of it •shared views of reality arise – organised by social processes of shared knowledge •share assumptions about how things are •behave according to social conventions based on shared knowledge, institutionalize these •understandings become legitimized through attached meaning •social understanding - product of human understanding •circular process - institutionalization and legitimation •constantly shifting influence and change spiral •critical of traditional positivist psychology •social construction creates theory politics + interest groups •how SW constructed - what SW’s do becomes SW
  4. 4. DISCOURSE OF POLITICS OF SOCIAL WORK THEORY  (Payne, 2005:8) Reflexive-therapeutic (therapeutic helping) Individualist-Reformist Socialist-Collectivist (maintenance of social order) (emancipatory or transformational)
  5. 5. MODERN AND POSTMODERN PERSPECTIVES (Payne, 2005:15) • SW is a product of modernism • modern as it refers to the current • postmodernism refers to how knowledge is created • decline in importance of religion during Enlightenment 1800’s • social problems and societies can be understood and rational action taken • how social ideas are constructed, changes • language is part of the politics of discourse • SW is ambiguous, contested and responds to cultural and social contexts
  6. 6. ARENAS OF SOCIAL WORK  (Payne, 2005:18) Client-worker-agency Political-social-ideological Agency-profession
  7. 7. SELECTION OR ECLECTICISM • we must each make our own definition of theory • problem with selection – the theory may not be best for specific circumstances • selection good in specialised agencies • general SW practice is eclectic • theories should not be used in internally inconsistent ways • being eclectic should be done consistently and planned • important to be aware of sources and methods of basic theories • work according to professional + agency expectations
  8. 8. CRITICAL THINKING AND REFLEXIVE PRACTICE • instrospection and intersubjective reflection • using reflexivity as social critique + deconstruction – examine power relations and taken-for-granted patterns of thinking • incorporate multiple perspectives in thinking • seeking to empower clients • situations of uncertainty - opportunities for creative practice • extend personal empowerment towards collective action • alert to the use of language and power • examining content and methods of making judgements • questioning ideology behind services and decisions • making sure all involved understand perspectives and context
  9. 9. FRAMEWORKS FOR ANALYSING THEORIES (Whittington and Holland, 1985 in Payne, 2005:45) Theories of radical change            Radical SW Marxist SW (‘raisers of consciousness’) (‘revolutionaries’) Subjective Objective Interactionist Traditional SW (‘seekers after meaning’) (‘fixers’) Theories of regulation
  10. 10. PERSPECTIVES AND MODELS • Psychodynamic perspectives • Crisis intervention and task-centred models • Cognitive-behavioural theories • Systems and ecological perspectives • Social psychology and social construction • Humanism, existentialism and spirituality • Social and community development • Radical to critical perspectives • Feminist perspectives • Anti-discrimination and cultural and ethnic sensitivity • Empowerment and advocacy
  11. 11. DEFINING GENERALIST PRACTICE “the application of an eclectic knowledge base, professional values, and a wide range of skills to target any size system for change within the context of four primary processes: 1) striving for client empowerment; 2) working in organizational structure under supervision; 3) assumption of wide range of professional roles; 4) application of critical thinking skills” (Kirst-Ashman, 2007:104)
  12. 12. LEVELS OF SERVICELEVELS OF SERVICE MICRO/MESO PRACTICE: FAMILY WORKMICRO/MESO PRACTICE: FAMILY WORK Work with families (small group) in context of the socialWork with families (small group) in context of the social network;network; Helping families function more competently while meetingHelping families function more competently while meeting developmental and emotional needs of all members;developmental and emotional needs of all members; Help families deal with crises and problems in externalHelp families deal with crises and problems in external environment;environment; Advocate for resourcesAdvocate for resources (Kirst-Ashman, 2007:136)(Kirst-Ashman, 2007:136)
  13. 13. MESO PRACTICE: SOCIAL WORK WITH GROUPS Treatment groups: helping individuals solve personal problems; change unwanted behaviours; cope with stress; improve quality of life Task groups: solve problems; develop ideas; formulate plans; achievegoals (Kirst-Ashman, 2007:138)
  14. 14. MACRO PRACTICE: SOCIAL WORK WITH ORGANISATIONS AND COMMUNITIES Community organisation: social action; social planning; locality development Organisational context Agency/social policies Projects in agency or community contexts Planning and implementing social service programmes (Kirst-Ashman, 2007:142)
  15. 15. STRENGTHS BASED GENERALIST PRACTICESTRENGTHS BASED GENERALIST PRACTICE GENERALIST SW PRACTICEGENERALIST SW PRACTICE Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  16. 16. Defining generalist practiceDefining generalist practice “the application of an eclectic knowledge base,“the application of an eclectic knowledge base, professional values, and a wide range of skillsprofessional values, and a wide range of skills to target any size system for changeto target any size system for change within the context of four primary processes.within the context of four primary processes. First, striving for client empowerment; second,First, striving for client empowerment; second, working in an organizational structure underworking in an organizational structure under supervision; requires the assumption of wide rangesupervision; requires the assumption of wide range of professional roles; involves the application ofof professional roles; involves the application of critical thinking skills”critical thinking skills” (Kirst-Ashman, 2007:104)(Kirst-Ashman, 2007:104) Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  17. 17. STRENGTHS BASED GENERALIST PRACTICE:STRENGTHS BASED GENERALIST PRACTICE: STRENGTHS PERSPECTIVESTRENGTHS PERSPECTIVE (Poulin, 2005:28)(Poulin, 2005:28) - dramatic departure from conventional practice- dramatic departure from conventional practice - everything predicated on helping discover, embellish,- everything predicated on helping discover, embellish, explore exploit clients strengths and resourcesexplore exploit clients strengths and resources - diagnosis, labels: distance, pessimism, obscures- diagnosis, labels: distance, pessimism, obscures capabilitiescapabilities - instead of focus on problems, focus on possibilities- instead of focus on problems, focus on possibilities - pathological approach searches past- pathological approach searches past - shift from past to present and future- shift from past to present and future - discover resources that can be used to change- discover resources that can be used to change - although past cannot be dismissed- although past cannot be dismissed - problems ordinary aspects of life- problems ordinary aspects of life - in 1940’s, social problems redefined as complex- in 1940’s, social problems redefined as complex intrapsychic pathological factorsintrapsychic pathological factors - different questions should be asked- different questions should be asked Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  18. 18. SIX PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTHS PERSPECTIVESIX PRINCIPLES OF STRENGTHS PERSPECTIVE i. “every individual, group, family community hasi. “every individual, group, family community has strengths”strengths” ii. “trauma, abuse, struggle may be injurious, but mayii. “trauma, abuse, struggle may be injurious, but may also be sources of challenge and opportunity”also be sources of challenge and opportunity” iii. “assume you do not know upper limits of capacity toiii. “assume you do not know upper limits of capacity to grow, change and take individual, group, communitygrow, change and take individual, group, community aspirations seriously”aspirations seriously” iv. “we best service clients by collaborating with them”iv. “we best service clients by collaborating with them” v. “every environment is full of resources”v. “every environment is full of resources” vi. “caring, caretaking and context are important”vi. “caring, caretaking and context are important” Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  19. 19. PLANNED CHANGE PROCESSPLANNED CHANGE PROCESS (Kirst-Ashman, 2007)(Kirst-Ashman, 2007) IntroductionIntroduction - development, implementation of strategy to improve,- development, implementation of strategy to improve, alter “specified condition, pattern of behaviour,alter “specified condition, pattern of behaviour, circumstances that affects social functioning”circumstances that affects social functioning” - problem solving (strengths – planed change)- problem solving (strengths – planed change) - problems in interpersonal relationships; lack of- problems in interpersonal relationships; lack of resources; discriminationresources; discrimination - regardless of problem, planned change same course of- regardless of problem, planned change same course of actionaction EngagementEngagement - orientation, communication, relationship- orientation, communication, relationship - nonverbal communication- nonverbal communication - attention to cultural variations- attention to cultural variations
  20. 20. PLANNED CHANGE PROCESS (Cont)PLANNED CHANGE PROCESS (Cont) AssessmentAssessment - differential, individualised, accurate identification and- differential, individualised, accurate identification and evaluationevaluation -- problems, people, situations and interrelationsproblems, people, situations and interrelations - basis for differential helping intervention- basis for differential helping intervention - investigation, determination of variables affecting- investigation, determination of variables affecting identified problem or issue fromidentified problem or issue from micro, mezzo, macromicro, mezzo, macro perspectivesperspectives - crucial to look beyond individual to environment at all 3- crucial to look beyond individual to environment at all 3 levelslevels - also assess client’s strengths- also assess client’s strengths - significance of human diversity- significance of human diversity
  21. 21. PLANNED CHANGE PROCESSPLANNED CHANGE PROCESS (Kirst-Ashman, 2007)(Kirst-Ashman, 2007) PlanningPlanning - specifies what should be done- specifies what should be done - collaborate, work- collaborate, work withwith clientclient -- prioritiseprioritise problemsproblems - identify- identify strengthsstrengths to provide guidanceto provide guidance - identify alternative interventions –- identify alternative interventions – micro, mezzo,micro, mezzo, macromacro -- evaluate advantages and disadvantages of actionevaluate advantages and disadvantages of action - develop- develop goalsgoals - establish- establish contractcontract Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  22. 22. PLANNED CHANGE PROCESSPLANNED CHANGE PROCESS (Kirst-Ashman, 2007)(Kirst-Ashman, 2007) ImplementationImplementation - process whereby worker and client follow plan to- process whereby worker and client follow plan to achieve goalsachieve goals -- doingdoing of the planof the plan - involving any size system -- involving any size system - micro, mezzo, macromicro, mezzo, macro Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  23. 23. PLANNED CHANGE PROCESSPLANNED CHANGE PROCESS (Kirst-Ashman, 2007)(Kirst-Ashman, 2007) EvaluationEvaluation -- was change effort worthwhile?was change effort worthwhile? - extent to which plan was successful- extent to which plan was successful - need for accountability- need for accountability - each goal should be evaluated- each goal should be evaluated - essential in micro, mezzo and macro practice- essential in micro, mezzo and macro practice - programme evaluation systematic examination of- programme evaluation systematic examination of successes, effectiveness and efficiencysuccesses, effectiveness and efficiency TerminationTermination - end of professional social worker- client relationship- end of professional social worker- client relationship - specific skills and techniques- specific skills and techniques - timing; preparation of client; identify progress made- timing; preparation of client; identify progress made See www.socialwork.wadsworth.com/kirstashman-intro2eSee www.socialwork.wadsworth.com/kirstashman-intro2e Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  24. 24. COLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICECOLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICE (Poulin, 2005:72-98)(Poulin, 2005:72-98) - clients often mistrustful due to previous experiences- clients often mistrustful due to previous experiences - assumes most oppressed, disadvantaged clients reluctant- assumes most oppressed, disadvantaged clients reluctant each component designed to build trusteach component designed to build trust - time limited model- time limited model - helping length determined by problem and other factors- helping length determined by problem and other factors - relationship very important- relationship very important - three practice principles: client strengths; client- three practice principles: client strengths; client empowerment; evaluation and feedback (ongoing)empowerment; evaluation and feedback (ongoing) - maximises client engagement; promote client strengths;- maximises client engagement; promote client strengths; empowermentempowerment - tasks in the collaborative model (Poulin 2005:60)- tasks in the collaborative model (Poulin 2005:60) study;study; ask; listen; clarify; articulate; perservere; solidifyask; listen; clarify; articulate; perservere; solidify -- HRI tool for assessing helping relationship (HelpingHRI tool for assessing helping relationship (Helping Relationship Inventory) (Poulin, 2005:61-64)Relationship Inventory) (Poulin, 2005:61-64)Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  25. 25. COLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICECOLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICE (Poulin, 2005:72-98)(Poulin, 2005:72-98) Phases : Pre-EngagementPhases : Pre-Engagement - client in contemplation stage- client in contemplation stage - critical in helping relationship- critical in helping relationship - clients most likely to drop out- clients most likely to drop out - approximately session 1-3- approximately session 1-3 Phases: EngagementPhases: Engagement - clients in preparation or action stage- clients in preparation or action stage - acknowledged commitment- acknowledged commitment - sessions 4-8- sessions 4-8 Phases: DisengagementPhases: Disengagement - final phase; maintenance phase- final phase; maintenance phase - focus on preventing relapse; consolidating gains achieved- focus on preventing relapse; consolidating gains achieved - in 10 session intervention, last 2-3 weeks- in 10 session intervention, last 2-3 weeks Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  26. 26. COLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICECOLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICE Generalist practice interventionsGeneralist practice interventions (Poulin, 2005:197-229)(Poulin, 2005:197-229) ……supportive counsellingsupportive counselling ……cognitive restructuringcognitive restructuring - accept self-statements, assumptions, beliefs mediate- accept self-statements, assumptions, beliefs mediate emotional reactionsemotional reactions - identify dysfunctional beliefs, thought patterns underlying- identify dysfunctional beliefs, thought patterns underlying problemsproblems - identify situations engender dysfunctional cognitions- identify situations engender dysfunctional cognitions - substitute functional for self-defeating self-statements- substitute functional for self-defeating self-statements ……problem solving therapyproblem solving therapy ……education and trainingeducation and training ……service co-ordination, negotiationservice co-ordination, negotiation ……resource mobilisationresource mobilisation Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  27. 27. COLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICECOLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICE Evaluating progress (Poulin, 2005: 232-266)Evaluating progress (Poulin, 2005: 232-266) Measurement guidelinesMeasurement guidelines -- specify problems and goals clearly; multiple measuresspecify problems and goals clearly; multiple measures - relevant information, collect early; good and accurate- relevant information, collect early; good and accurate measuresmeasures - organise the data- organise the data - obtain co-operation and consent- obtain co-operation and consent Measurement toolsMeasurement tools -- client logsclient logs - behavioural observations- behavioural observations - rating scales- rating scales - goal attainment scales- goal attainment scales - standardised measurement- standardised measurement Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  28. 28. COLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICECOLLABORATIVE MODEL OF GENERALIST PRACTICE Designing the evaluation: single system designsDesigning the evaluation: single system designs - specify target problem- specify target problem - develop quantitative measures of target problem- develop quantitative measures of target problem - establish baseline measures of target problem before- establish baseline measures of target problem before interventionintervention - measure the target problem repeatedly throughout the- measure the target problem repeatedly throughout the interventionintervention - display data on graph and make comparisons across- display data on graph and make comparisons across phasesphases Linda Smith 2008 University of the Witwatersrand
  29. 29. Seminar 3 INTRODUCTION • tension between conflicting paradigms • strengths perspective and bio-psycho-socio- spiritual environment vs dominant medical model • broad inclusive perspective is necessary • lexicon of strengths, “as wrong to deny the possible as it is to deny the problem” (Saleeby, 1996) • premise - people do better when identify and use strengths/resources in selves and environment
  30. 30. Goroff (1983) cited by Saleeby (2002:96) claims that social work is a political activity and that “the attribution of individual deficiencies as the cause of human problems is a politically conservative process that supports the status quo”. Critically discuss a framework of assessment which revolves around two axes, namely the strengths/deficits (obstacles) axis and the environmental/client factors axis, in order to avoid placing the focus of attention only on individual deficits, rather than the oppressive social system.
  31. 31. PERSPECTIVES (THEORETICAL “MAPS”) (Milner and O’Byrne, 1998:48) • select theoretical perspective • assessment continuing process - improves • avoid use of “pathologising discourse” oppressive • constructionist approach respects unique complexity • assessments not “the truth”, find “working truths” • able to shift from one perspective to another • extra-personal (e.g. structural approaches) • intrapersonal (psychodynamic approaches; behavioural; cognitive; solutions focused work) • interpersonal (task centred; family; systems)
  32. 32. ASSESSING STRENGTHS (Saleebey, Chap 6 2006) Deficit, disease, dysfunction Assessment as political activity Strengths and empowerment Resistance to oppression Guidelines for strengths assessment: •Document the story •Support, validate the story •Honour self determination •Give preeminence to the story •Discover what is needed •Move the assessment toward strengths •Discover uniqueness •Reach mutual agreement •Avoid blame •Assess, but do not label
  33. 33. ASSESSING STRENGTHS (Saleebey, Chap 6 2006) ASSESMENT PROCESS: COMPONENT ONE DEFINE THE PROBLEM • Elicit a story about the problem situation • Seek to understand what is wanted • What would life be like if resolved • Discover who is involved and what happens QUESTIONS FOR THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS (Saleebey, 2006:107)
  34. 34. ASSESSING STRENGTHS (Saleebey, Chap 6 2006) ASSESMENT PROCESS: COMPONENT TWO FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSMENT (Saleebey, 2006:109)

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