• A repeating of an element within a
composition or section of composition
• Examples: Repeated shapes within a quilt;
repeated arch ways on the façade of a
building; strips or spots on an animal
*Many animals have many
different patterns on their body
created by stripes and/or spots
• Balance in visual art can be formal,
informal and radial.
• Formal balance places equal or very
similar objects on either side of a central
• In radial balance, equal or similar
objects radiate from a central point.
• Informal balance is a balance of unlike
• Emphasis is used to create dominance
and focus in an artwork
• Artists can emphasize color, value,
shapes, or other art elements to achieve
• Various kinds of contrast can be used to
emphasize a center of interest
• Contrast refers to differences in
values, colors, textures, shapes, and
• Contrasts create visual excitement
and add interest to the work
• If all the art elements are the same, the
result is unexciting and boring to the
• Unity provides the cohesive quality that
makes an artwork feel complete and
• Unity is achieved when all the elements in
a work look as though they belong
• One way to do this is by clustering
elements together within an artwork
• What Elements
make these Unified
Let’s point out all or as many Principles of Design as
possible in Leonardo Da Vinci’s Last Supper.
Pattern, Balance, Movement, Rhythm, Emphasis, Contrast,
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