Goals for this topic What are emotions? Affect? Mood? Theoretical approaches to emotions Effects of emotions on attitudes and behavior Affect as information Mere exposure Moral emotions Information processing and stereotyping Expression of emotion Cultural differences
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Ellen Tony Linda Martin
What is Emotion? Emotion – conscious evaluative reaction to some event “Biologically-based patterns of perception, experience, physiology, action and communication” (Keltner & Gross, 1999). Mood – feeling state not clearly linked to some event Affect – automatic response that something is good or bad
Theoretical approaches to emotion James-Lange Canon-Bard Shachter and Singer Functional
Theoretical Approaches How do we know what emotion we’re experiencing?
How do people experience emotions? First, Think about the last time you were very angry about something. How does it physically feel when you are…Angry?
How do people experience emotions? Now, Think about the last time you were very excited about something. How does it physically feel when you are… excited?
Theoretical Approaches Physical component: James-Lange theory
Misattribution of Arousal Dutton & Aron (1974) N=45 males, 18-45 years old Independent variable: Scary or normal bridge Dependent variable: Calls back to female experimenter TAT for Sexual Content
Scary bridge Normal bridge Misattribution of Arousal
Misattribution of Arousal
Functional Approaches Why do we have emotions? Emotions not endpoints. Motivate behavior Affect attention, learning, memory, regulatory variables, goal priorities, social interactions
Functional Approaches What is the purpose of each of these emotions? Anger Fear Happiness Disgust Think about how these emotions affect how you think and behave. How do they affect how others behave toward you?
Functions of Emotions Anger: implies someone has experienced loss/injustice and deserves redress, intimidates, increases intensity of response (sometimes aggression)
Functions of emotions Fear: interrupts current activity, heightens attention to threatening information, motivates fight/flight response
Functions of emotions Happiness: communicates that it’s ok for others to approach, activated by gain/reward
Functions of emotions Disgust: avoid/reject noxious stimulus, protective (sometimes from violations of cultural norms)
Effects of emotions Affect as Information: Emotions provide information about the environment. Should you stop/continue what you’re doing. Affect transfer and attitude.
Affect as informationSchwartz & Clore (1983)
How happy do you feel with your life right now?
How satisfied/dissatisfied to you feel with your life?
Affect as informationSchwartz & Clore (1983) How happy are you with your life?
Affect as informationSchwartz & Clore (1983) Other IVs: Write about a life event that made you feel good/bad. Attribution manipulation: Other participants have reported this room makes them tense/elated or control condition. DVs: How happy/satisfied are you with your life right now? (Control = 5.5)
A7 D3 B3 C6
Mere exposure Tendency to develop an emotional preference for the familiar over the unfamiliar. Frequency of exposure Songs? People?
Mere ExposureZajonc (1986) Chinese characters, Turkish words Saw/pronounced 1-25 times
Mere Exposure Moreland & Beach (1992): women coming into class; the more they came to class, the more other students liked her
Mere Exposure Why does this happen? How might the mere exposure effect be adaptive?
Moral Emotions Julie and Mark are brother and sister. They are traveling together in France on summer vacation from college. One night they are staying alone in a cabin near the beach. They decide that it would be interesting and fun if they tried making love. At very least it would be a new experience for each of them. Julie was already taking birth control pills, but Mark uses a condom too, just to be safe. They both enjoy making love, but they decide not to do it again. They keep that night as a special secret, which makes them feel even closer to each other. What do you think about that, was it OK for them to make love?
Moral Emotions A woman is cleaning out her closet and she finds her old American flag. She doesn’t want the flag anymore, so she cuts it up into pieces and uses the rags to clean her bathroom. Is this ok? Why or why not? A family’s dog was killed by a car in front of their house. They had heard that dog meat was delicious, so they cut up the dog’s body and cooked it and ate it for dinner. Is this ok? Why or why not?
Moral Emotions 30 Rock
Moral Emotions What emotions are most relevant for moral judgments? Anger Disgust Guilt/Shame/Embarrassment Contempt Sympathy/Compassion
Moral emotions Intuitionist Model Situation Emotion/ Intuition Judgment Reasoning
Moral EmotionsSchnall, Haidt, Clore, & Jordan (2008) DV: Severity of moral judgment Moderator variable: Private Body Consciousness
Moral emotions We base our moral judgments on the gut-level emotional reactions we have to an event/action. Individual differences in Private Body Self- Consciousness and Disgust Sensitivity
Emotions, Information Processing and Stereotyping Which emotions do you think make people stereotype more? Use System 1? Use System 2?
Emotions, Information Processing and Stereotyping Q: Does mood affect whether you process information heuristically or systematically? Message: Should it be ok to drill for oil off the SW coast of the U.S.? IVs: strong vs. weak argument Happy Neutral Sad
Emotions, Information Processing and Stereotyping Two part study: Part 1) Happiness induction and control Part 2) Judgment on student disciplinary court Case: Allegation of assault or cheating on exam Manipulation: Stereotype activation: Student is a well-known track-and-field athlete or no mention Bodenhausen, Kramer, & Susser (1994)
Emotions, Information Processing and Stereotyping
Emotions, Information Processing and Stereotyping Bodenhausen, Sheppard, & Kramer (1994)
Emotions, Information Processing and Stereotyping Emotions that increase System 1 Happiness, Anger, Disgust, Surprise Emotions that increase System 2 Sadness, Worry/Anxiety
Are Emotions Different Across Cultures? Six basic emotions Happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust People in many different cultures can identify facial expression of these emotions
Cultural Differences in Emotion What differences in expression of emotion do you think might exist across cultures?
Cultural Differences in Emotion Asian Americans place greater emphasis on emotional moderation than European Americans Presence of Duchenne smiles
Cultural Differences in Emotion Collectivist cultural emotion based more on assessment of social worth, outer world, self-other relationships (e.g., sympathy, shame) Individualistic: more ego focused emotions; more intense and longer-lasting emotions Cultural difference in amount of concealment of emotion
Summary Emotional experience influenced by physiology and cognitive appraisals. Different theoretical approaches Emotions serve important functions Comprise powerful and important feedback Guide thinking and learning Decisions, social judgments Promote belongingness Cultural differences in expression