Wine prehistory


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Wine prehistory

  1. 1. Before Birth of Human race ~ Roman Age Written by Sunny Park WSC5.05 Introduction to Wine Business
  2. 2. Intro..  Definition of prehistory - Before history which had written as records  Prehistory of wine - Record of grape and wine has been left as not only literature but also illustrations since Egyptian Age.  Common in Sense of Ancient Wine – Wine during B.C (Before Christ).  Therefore, wine prehistory can include history of Georgian to Roman wine.
  3. 3. Once Upon a time long ago..  Grape had been existed since 6 million years ago  First human race was born 2 million years ago  First contact was taken 4 million years later after birth of grape
  4. 4.  Grapes felled down automatically when they were ripen  Some locations where were sunken made grape ponds.
  5. 5.  First drink – The man inspired by addictive flavours  Wine might have lead the man to Agrarian Society  Insignificant relationship between man and wine at first time, but getting more and more important.
  6. 6. Derivation of Viticulture & Viniculture  Viti + culture  = grape + cultivation  = grapegrowing  = viticulture  The method which can plant grape and take care them for making wine  Vini + culture  = wine + cultivation  = winemaking  The method which use grape from vineyard to make wine
  7. 7. Georgian Wine Fertile foothill on South of Mountain Caucasus Georgian Map from Wiki map
  8. 8.  Georgia Kingdom - First country of winemaking and viticulture, and one of the oldest wine regions. Around 6000 B.C.  Location - Between two great rivers, Euphrates and Tigris. South of the Mountain Caucasus. Ease to transport to other places and Persian gulf near Egypt.  Climate - Long subtropical summer which is meant arid, soften air, mild fog and hot afternoon  Grapevines - Grown everywhere on the hills  Winemaking – Near grapevines
  9. 9. Noah’s Wine  Noah’s Hypothesis- Winemaking and Grapegrowing on his vineyard before Flood  Ninth chapter of genesis tells how wine has been stored in the Ark’s cargo
  10. 10. Egyptian Wine  First writers with painting about viticulture and oenology  Warehouse of legacies “Tombs” – According to paintings, wine was treated as important technology.  Grape was harvested when it were fully ripen and honey- sweet  Wine was run from the press into the fermenting jars, another called Amphora
  11. 11. Tutankhamun’s Tomb  36 jars – Varieties, year, viney ard, owner, and head vintner on the lable  Example below Date HAt sp 5 Year 5 Classification + irp nDm n Sweet wine of Institution pr itn n qArt the Estate of Aton of qArt Responsible official Hry kAmw ra-ms Vineyard Supervisor Ramose Tut 12 (12, Černý 1965: 22)
  12. 12. Greek & Roman Wine  Transportation - From Mesophotamia to Greek and Roman  Greek countries – Importor  The first golden age of wine – Greek consumed a lot of wine not only quantitative but also qualitative  Wine was not just beverage, it was always accompanied with poet, harmony and discussion between philosophers
  13. 13. Symposium & Krater  At the moment, people diluted wine into “Krater” which was big pot, about 1,000L quantity (Wonbok, 2006) with water before drank.  Symposium which is derieved from Greek συμπόσιον symposion, from συμπίνειν sympinein, which means “to drink together”.  Dilution fact - Many philosophers discussed and communicated with wine all night long, which means that it would be impossible unless wine was diluted.
  14. 14. Roman Empire  Distribution – Roman wine merchants  Higher demand of wine – Merchant spread across Roman Empire from Italy to Spain and North Africa  In order to regular production – Calculation cheaper labour  Slave  Roman – Main consumer  Port Pompeii - Important commercial city until eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, and left a lot of detailed evidence
  15. 15. Flow of Wine  Wine flow from Mesophotamia to Modern Europe countries  From 4 to 6 – Roman Empire spread
  16. 16. General Type of Ancient Wine Type Detail Mustum A low quality grape juice, mixed with vinegar and drank fresh after pressing. Mulsum A common class wine, generally sweetened with honey and served to plebes and the lower classes at public events. Lora (vinumoperarium) A bitter wine made from the grape skin husks, seeds and any other product left over from the pressing process. Fermented by soaking in water, it was generally served to slaves, though some lower classes, and even soldiers may have had access to wines that were hardly any better. Varro, however claimed that it was the drink of old women. Today these excess grape products are used in distilling the liquor grappa. Posca A sour vinegar like wine (acetum) mixed with water to reduce the bitterness and generally available to soldiers and lower classes. Vinumpraeliganeum Manufactured from inferior and half-ripe fruit gathered before the regular harvest period. Perhaps also used in the production of ciders and similar drinks Vinumdulce A sweet wholesome wine, made from dried grapes that were pressed in the heat of the day. Vinumdiachytum Similar to vinumdulce but grapes were allowed to dry in the sun for longer periods of time. The wine was described as more 'luscious' than the vinumdulce Passum Raisin wine. Obviously made from nearly completely dried grapes. It's most prized variety was imported from crete Vinummarrubii, scillites, absinthiates, myrtites Example of wines used for medicinal purposes. Marrubii for coughs, scillites for digestion and as a tonic, absinthiates roughly corresponding to modern vermouth and myrtites as a general medicine aiding many ailments
  17. 17. Development of Amphora  Firstly, jar neck had become narrower and narrower for appropriate closure with olive oil or resin.  Secondly, the vase has an elongated shape, with a pointed base, which could be deposited wine sediments easily at the bottom
  18. 18. Conclusion  Prehistory of Wine – Veiled despite evidences, such as painting in cave and tomb, and written by writer since Egyptian Age.  Ancient wine technology - Even modern wineries and vineyards are derived from ancient age. To be sum up, prehistory about wine has been described, and expression a sentence of wine history would be intimately associated to human culture from Euphrates and Tigris Culture through Egyptian to Roman.
  19. 19. References  Hugh Johnson, (2006). Hugh Johnson's TheStory of Wine. London. Mitchell Beazley  Hugh Johnson, Jancis Robinson, (2007). World Atlas of Wine(6thed). London. Mitchell Beazley  Jancis Robinson, (2006). The Oxford Companion to Wine(3rded). London. Oxford University Press  Mcgovern, P.E. (2003). Ancient wine: the Search for the Origins of Viniculture. Princeton University Press: New Jersey  Wonbok Rhie, (2007). World of Wine, Wine of World. Seoul, Korea. Gimmyoungsa  Georgian Wine, (2013). Retrieved from  Eva-Lena Wahlberg, (2012). The Wine Jars speak; Text Study. Uppsala, Sweden. Uppsala University.
  20. 20.  Maria Rosaria Belgiorno, (2009). Cinyra, Cyprus and the notes of music, of Wine and Perfumes. Retrieved from  Types of Ancient Wine, (n.d). Retrieved from  Beginning of Viticulture, (n.d). Retrieved from  James Owen, (January 10, 2011). Earliest Known Winery found in Armenian Cave. National Geographic News. Retrieved from  Roman Empire. Retrieved from  See Wikipedia,  See Wikipedia