Italian Travel Guide
Published on Nov. 26th. 1599
BY SIMON SOHN
1. Cities in Italy p.1-2 6. Where to stay p.9
2. Transportation p.3 7. What to eat&drink p.10
3. Customs and Manners p.4-5 8. How to stay safe and
4. Costume p.6 9. Famous People p.12-13
5. What to see and do p.7-8 10. Works cited p.14-16
-Brief introduction about nowadays Italy
People began to try their mind since 14th century. People lost their belief to the church
and tried to focus on themselves. This changed mind is “called the humanisim”.
Humanism began in Florence and then spread to the other parts in Europe. This
change of people’s mind have aﬀected the arBst, humanist, and scienBst in Europe.
Since 14th century, Italy became a large important trade center for Europe and the
Middle East. Moreover, this trade have beneﬁted the people in Italy in wealth and
having new ideas. The despots and rulers of each city in Italy are compeBng to have
Welcome to Italy,
the place of beautiful artworks and diverse cultures!
You’re very lucky to visit Italy in this time.
1. Cities in Italy
As you can see in the map above, Italy is divided into many different city states. The three big
and developed city states are Rome(Papal States), Florence and Venice.
The great popes in recent decades- Sixtus IV,
Innocent VIII, Alexander VI, Julius II, Leo X,
Clement VII, and Paul III—was one of sensuous
splendor. They encouraged to art, music, classical
and archaeological studies, and the restoration of
ancient monuments, continued to make Rome a
center of world culture. Travelers who are interested
in art or music, it would be a nice choice to visit
Rome once. http://www.aboutroma.com/art-culture-
The popes of Rome are keep
encouraging the artist in Rome
Florence is located in northern Italy. This city state is a very rich state in Italy.
People in Florence raise money by the silk, cotton and wool industries. Trade also
has made people in Florence rich. Florence trades a lot of cloth materials with
other city states. Florence is also famous for the banking. Some people in Florence
raise their money by lending money and making interests to borrowers. Florence
was center of the European banking system. Florence people in this period don’t
really contribute in churches, not like the people in the middle ages. Since
Florence is a rich city, the prices of things in Florence would be very cheap.
Florence would be a very nice place for the travellers who are lacking money.
Two things Florence is famous for: texture industry and banking
Venice was built entirely on piles sunk into marshy surreyartists/ﬁne-art-prints/venice3.jpg
islands at the head of the Adriatic Sea. This city
has hundreds of canals, which function as roads
and highways. Venice is one of the developed
cities of the Italy. A lot of people are in living in
Venice of a population more than 150000 people.
All the citizens were at the mercy of the
government. Like Florence, Venice had many
artists who were patronized by wealthy
merchants. Venetians referred to their city as a
republic, which is a form of democracy. Therefore,
Venice has hundreds of canals and it
all people who are visiting Venice would be treated function as roads and highways.
fairly and equally.
People in Italy generally use 2 ways to move to other places;
either by land or by water.
-By land wagons could be very travelling. Therefore, I
Travelling by land is slow and bothersome. recommend travellers in
limited to local fair of Travelling by horseback Italy to travel on foot.
farmer’s market. Roads would be the fastest way P. S. Italy is not a
are usually rocky to travel on road, but it tremendous country and
is usually for only the travelling on foot could
pathways and travelling
make you healthier:
on the road could be wealthy people and it
dangerous with things would be cumbersome
such as bandits, landslip, to take care of it when
ﬂood and so on. Horses,
pack mules, wagons are
common vehicles for
travelling on land in
Italy. Travelling by
coaches is usually used
by the riches and it
could be very expensive.
The most usual and
efﬁcient way to travel on http://stagecoachfreightwagon.org/images/SC_MudWagon.jpg
land is on foot. Carts and The wagons are very vulnerable in mud.
As trade and exploration in Italy have
increased in recent decades and overseas
travelling became more popular. The travellers
by water are usually merchants, missionaries,
soldiers, students and pilgrims. Many people like
to travel by sea to explore new world in a long
distance, however it could be dangerous because
storms could easily sink a ship and pirates. http://i43.photobucket.com/albums/e352/
Everyone who want to visit Italy by sea, should You should be aware of the pirates when
take a nice weather to travel and beware of sea travelling by water
3. Customs and Manners
Customs and manners in Italy have changed slightly in recent decades
As Italy is organized with independent states, there are many different types
of government in nowadays Italy. Papal states around Rome are ruled by the
Pope, Naples is a monarchy, Venice is a republic city state and Florence is ruled
by Midici families and a group called ‘GUILDS’.
Like the past, slaves are used again in Italy now. However, their life became a
little more comfortable than before. They usually work in a house as cleaners,
maids and cooks.
There are ﬁve social classes in
Italy. The top class is old-nobility
and merchants. Right below them
are the riches(usually businessmen
and bankers). Below them are the
not as rich people and below them
are the poor people. The lowest class
are the slaves.
old-nobility and Soldier slavery Nobles
The lower your class is, the harder you work. Women stay at home doing the
housework and men work outside.
You should not spit on the table.
You should not dip meat directly into the salt dish.
You should not pick one’s teeth with a ﬁnger or knife.
You would be introduced fork and plate in Italy.
People left the Catholic Church. Rather than going to
church and showing respect to the God, people in Italy
began to believe Humanism which is focused on
themselves, the human. Humanists believed education is
very important and a lot of schools and educational
facilities were built in recent period. Students study a
variety of things such as morals, medicine, art and so on.
-> people got interested in human’s
body and developed the medicine http://gcsehistory.wikispaces.com/ﬁle/view/
Unfortunately death is a very common thing to happen in Italy and due to the
development of humanism, ideas about human’s death became complicated.
(Frequent wars have killed a lot of people in Italy)
People in Italy normally cannot dress however they
want because of the law called “sumptuary laws”.
As you are a traveller in Italy, it
There are some would be good to wear a simple cloth.
sumptuary laws in Costume with a lot of accessories
Italy and it regulates would be very bothersome when you
speciﬁc items of dress are traveling. Unless you are in very
throughout Italy. Low high class, you wouldn’t wear a red
(picture above is
necklines are cloth because the color red is for the
prohibited in Genoa, Milan, and Rome nobles.
and it also restricts zibellini(sable furs
carried as fashion accessories) in
Men in Italy usually wear boots,
Bologna and Milan
pants, a shirt, a vest and a hat. You
can see women wearing shoes, an
over and under skirt, a shirt, a
bodice, and a hat or snood(net hat).
They generally braid their hair.
People in Italy believe that curly hair
is a mark of beauty. Moreover,
people in Italy believe that
voluptuary is also a mark of beauty
As you see the picture above, this
is a typical hair style in Italy. The
hair bound to the head with
ribbon, tape or Banda(long silk hair
band for wrapping the hair.). This
way of binding a hair is really
comfortable because the weight of http://karenswhimsy.com/public-domain-
hair is evenly distributed over the images/renaissance-clothing/images/
head and the ribbons is very soft
Women’s usual clothing in nowadays Italy
5. What to see and do
As you are travelling here in Italy, you must see the art and the architecture
in Italy because those are the things that have been signiﬁcantly developed
in the this period. Medicine have also developed in nowadays Italy but I
don’t think you would enjoy watching the dead bodies.
Brief introduction about art and architecture in Italy:
Italy’s patrons want art to show joy in human beauty and life’s pleasure. Therefore, many artists,
nowadays, are studying perspective, or the differences in the way things look. The depth in paintings is a
result of the artists’ purpose of showing theses differences.
Nowadays, Italian architecture belongs to classical Greece and Rome. Italian architecture is symmetrical
What to see
First place: Sistine Chapel ceiling
Sistine Chapel is the best-known chapel in the
Apostolic Palace. Amazingly, the ceiling of this
chapel was painted by one of the most famous
artists, Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512.
Michelangelo have made a lot of perspiration on
making this ceiling; his waist was harden because
he lied down to pain this ceiling and he got eye
disease due to the paints falling down from the
ceiling. Travellers who are interested in art can
get a lot of inspiration from this artwork. The
Sistine Chapel is located in Rome. http://www.rense.com/general86/chapel.jpg
Second place: Florence Cathedral
Florence Cathedral is one of the
architectural and artistic wonders of the
world. It is located in Florence. This
architecture took a very long time to
complete building it. It is very huge, yet it’s
also overwhelming in its intricacy and ﬁne
detail. It is also one of the largest cathedrals
in the world. In addition, as a cathedral, is
one of the oldest architectural structures
still well-preserved and intact. No matter
you are religious or not, you would enjoy
watching this great architecture.
What to do
Swordsmanship and horsemanship contest
There are swordsmanship and horsemanship
contest in Italy. These contests were organized due
to the frequent wars. People wanted to learn the
good techniques and movement in order to
survive in the wars. A lot of men in Italy are
practicing to use sword and ride horse to be the
best swordsman and horseman in Italy. The prizes
for the winners in these contests are the great
sword and fast horse. Travellers who are media/historic/italian14thc_Fol96.jpg
interested in any of these, it would be a great Illustration of people competing with swords
experience to participate in these contests. For the
detailed informations, go to the blue building next
to the colosseum in Rome.
The card game was newly introduced in
recent decades. The rule of this game is
not complicated. You only need the
people and deck of cards to play this
game. It is very fun to bet something for
winning this card game. The cost of the
cards are not really cheap but it is very
joyful. People who think that they are
lucky or smart should play this game
because this game requires some luck
and brain. You can ask pressing house to
People playing card game
get the source to buy this cards.
"Calcio Fiorentino", Florence(Sports)
This sports is very popular in Italy. It is played
in teams of 27, using both feet and hands. You
can score goals by throwing the ball to the
designated spot. The ﬁeld of this sports sand.
Moreover, there are main referee, six linesmen
and a ﬁeld master. This sports requires good
tactics and teamwork. I think this is a very
well-organized sports. Therefore, you should http://rugbipensador.ﬁles.wordpress.com/2008/06/
try this sports whenever you visit Florence. calcio_ﬁorentino_1688.jpg
Illustration of the Calcio Fiorentino
6. Where to stay
For staying a night in Italy, you have two choices; either staying with the
locals, staying at inn or staying at monastery
In the countryside, you’d better stay a night
with the locals because there are few inns in
countryside. Most of the locals would
welcome you to stay at their house because
they like to get information about what’s
happening in the world. Don’t expect to stay
in the large houses, which is made of wood,
mud and thatch. Those houses would be the
barn, unless you would enjoy staying a night
with pigs and chicken. However, don’t go to
the house in shacks with roofs that let the rain and wind in. Poor people would
live in that kind of house. The local houses in city are at least better than those in
countryside. Moreover, if you were lucky to stay with the riches. They would
have several rooms in their house and they would have ﬁreplace in their dining
You can also stay at a
monastery, a place where live.
The clergy at the monastery
offer free shelter and a meal to
travelers. You can meet many
travelers there. However, don’t
forget to donate money to
(<- you many meet other travelers at monastery)
Inns locate outside the city gates and some parts of the city. As inns compete each
other, inn works may meet you on the orad and offer to carry your bags to their inn.
The sign of the inns are usually very colorful. You can look for the colorful mark when
you have trouble with ﬁnding the inn. Another tip is that don’t plan to arrive city late
at night. As there is words “He who comes late has a poor supper and a worse bed”
that locals say, innkeepers may regard you as a strange person.
7. What to eat&drink
During this period, many explorers went to “the new world” and have
brought a variety of new ingredients from there. Of course, the food in Italy
have also became diverse.
-Food and drinks
From the end of the Middle Ages to the early
1600s, the food of the Italy has continued to
develop. Nobleman and women eat roasted
animals and fowl are often made to look as
lifelike as possible—birds are cooked,
reassembled, and presented with their
feathers artfully arranged. A celebration
would call for a feast consisting of every type
of meat and fowl imaginable. Italian people https://ssl109.webhosting.optonline.net/on-the-go-gourmet.com/
ordinarily drink wine or other alcohol drinks
like beer or ale because the water is not clean People in Italy try to eat roasted animals as life
like as possible.
enough to drink. Wine is generally made of
fruits imported from the continent and it is
also made of honey.
-Changes in recipe
The return of explorers from the New World
during the 1500s brought corn, tomatoes, Try to eat roasted food
peppers, sweet potatoes, yams, vanilla, and Many new kinds of food were found
turkey. At ﬁrst, corn was used as an in recent decades.
ornamental, but it rapidly became a food of Explorers from the New World
the poor, who were always eager to try new brought them.
foods. Corn became so plentiful that it was (Examples: corn, tomatoes,
ground into meal and eventually became peppers, sweet potatoes, yams,
synonymous with polenta. By the late 1800s,
more than 300 varieties of peppers were
cultivated in Italy, and tomatoes were a staple
in Italian cooking—not just as a sauce, but also in
soups, and stuffed, roasted, and baked.
8. How to stay safe and healthy
There was a terrible disease called “the black plague” that had killed and
feared a lot of people in the middle ages. The wars that is now affecting the
people in Italy are the “crusades” and the war between city states in Italy.
http://www.mindfully.org/GE/GE3/Bubonic-Plague- -Diseases and dangers
The Black Death(also called the black plague)
happened in the end of the middle Ages.
However, it still affects the people in Italy now.
Since the Black Death had killed and frightened
a lot of people during the middle ages, people in
recent decades are more interested in medicine
and developed the medicine technology. The
incidence of this disease has decreased
The rat was the cause of the black nowadays, but there is still a possibility of
plague. It has wiped out hundreds of getting this disease. You’d better be aware of
millions people world-wide, including
one-third of Europe's population in the sanitation.
-The wars that affects the people in Italy
The past war that affects the people in Italy is the
crusade. The biggest reason why this war is still
affecting the Italian people is that this war
initiated because of the pope, who had the biggest
power in the time of the middle ages. However,
the war failed and put a lot of people into fear
and death. Therefore, many people lost their faith
to church and change their mind to be interested
in themselves, the human, not a church. You
shouldn’t make any comments praising the
Crusade because the most people in Italy are negative about it.
The constant war between the Italian city states
Italian city states have been constantly at war with their rivals. The war wasn’t
really serious in the beginning. However, in the ﬁfteenth century, warfare have
became very serious. Since Italy was invaded by the French, Italy hired many
engineers and designers to develop the technology for defence and attack. If war
between states started, you’d be better to stay in buildings in order to avoid the bad
(from the textbook)
9. Famous people
The famous people of Italy that I want to introduce are Leonardo Da Vinci,
Shakespeare, Michelangelo and Medici. Those people have played an
important role in this period.
Leonardo Da Vinci(1452-1519)
He was one of the most famous artists in Italy. His
most well known artwork is Mona Lisa. His
general job was an artist. How ever, he loved
experimenting and had anticipated in many later
discoveries in anatomy, aeronautics, and several
other ﬁelds. Therefore, we can call him as an
inventor, an artist, draftsman, caricaturist, engineer
and architect. He loved his artworks when he was
alive, so we should respect his artworks.
“Mona Lisa” by Shakespeare
Leonardo Da Vinci
“To be or not to be”
One of the most famous
artworks of Leonardo
written work of
He is known as one of the famous men in
the this period. He have written a variety
of plays from comedy to romance. His
plays are not very religious or related to
church and that tells you that he follows
the humanism. Shakespeare is truly a
talented and inspirational man. However,
he hates to get disturbed when he is
writing a play. Therefore, you should visit
him when he is not writing any plays.
“Pietà” sculpted by “Michelangelo”
Michelangeloʼs very famous artwork.
An important work as it balances the renaissance ideals of
classical beauty with naturalism.
Michelangelo was also the one of the famous
artists of the Italy. His talent interested Lorenzo de
Medici when he was very young and he was
brought up in the Medici palace. He created some
of the most famous works in the Renaissance such
as “the Peieta”, and he had painted the walls and
ceilings of the Sistine Chapel. His artworks are
very valuable and some of those are kept by
Lorenzo de Medici(1449-1492)
He was Cosimo’s grandson. He lived more
elegantly than Cosimo and enjoyed the
spotlight of power immensely. Because of
him, the Florentine economy expanded
signiﬁcantly and the lower class could enjoy
the better comfort and protection than it had
before. During the period of Lorenzo’s rule,
from 14468 to 1492, Florence became the
most important city-state in Italy and the
most beautiful city. You would get things
relatively cheap in Florence and it’s because
http://courses.cit.cornell.edu/hist151/Images/LMedici.jpg of him.
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Everything is from the prints that Mr. V gave to
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