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Pe(basketball,volleyball and soccer)


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  • 1. Basketball<br />1. Defense<br />-Man to Man<br />Man-to-man defense is a type of defensive tactic used in basketball, in which each player is assigned to defend and follow the movements of a single player on offense. Often, a player guards his counterpart (e.g. center guarding center), but a player may be assigned to guard a different position. The strategy is not rigid however, and a player might switch assignment if needed, or leave his own assignment for a moment to double team an offensive player.<br />-Zone<br />Zone defense is a type of defense used in team sports, which is the alternative to man-to-man defense; instead of each player guarding a corresponding player on the other team, each defensive player is given an area, or a " zone" , to cover.<br />A zone defense can be used in virtually all sports where a defending team is present.<br />2. Offense<br />" 4-Out" This is a more simple, free-lance style of 4-out motion offense that uses the rules explained below under " General Rules" . Refer to the diagram to see the basic set-up for this offense. <br />With " 4-Out" , our post player moves as the ball moves, using the low blocks, anywhere up and down the lanes, paint area, elbows and high post (free-throw line area)... basically anywhere he/she can get open for a pass inside.When the ball is on top (O1 or O2), O5 should locate at high-post, ball-side elbow area. If the ball is passed to O5 at the high post, O3 and O4 should be thinking about a back-cut to the hoop if they are being denied the pass. O5 passes to the back-cutter for the easy lay-up.When the ball is on the low wing, corner (O3 or O4), then O5 should move down to the ball-side low post. <br />1-3-1 offense<br /> The one will pass the ball to the three and the four will cut to the sideline.<br /> The three passes the ball to the four and then cuts towards the basket. If the three is open, the four will bounce pass to them and the three will drive for a layup.As the three is cutting to the basket, the one takes the threes place and the two takes the ones place.The five follows after the three as a second option to the four making a pass.<br /> If there is no pass available to the three or five, the four passes the ball to the one to start a reversal of the basketball.The three continues through the lane to the other wing.The five is following through the lane as well.<br /> The one passes the ball to the two at the top of the key.The three makes her way to the other wing while the five makes her way to the elbow. <br /> <br />The two passes the ball to the three for the open jumper.The four runs the baseline to look for a pass if the open jumper isn't there.The five is back at the foul line looking for the ball if the open jumper is not there. <br /> The three takes the open jumper.If there isn't an open jumper, then the three passes to the four and cuts towards the hoop.The five and four crash the boards for the rebound if the shot is taken.The five follows the three through the lane if the pass is made instead of the shot, the two takes the threes place and the one takes the twos place, and the cycle starts again from the left side.If the rebound is there either put it back up or kick it back out to start the cycle over again.<br />Bibliography<br />
    • Lindsay, Ken. "How to Coach and Teach Team Basketball by Using Basketball Zone Pressure Defense." Guide to Coaching Youth Basketball Plays, Moves, Skills,Drills. 2008. Web. 01 Sept. 2010. <>.
    • 2. "Man to Man Defense: The Key to the Defensive Success of the Florida State Seminoles Men's Basketball Team - Tomahawk Nation." Tomahawk Nation - For Florida St. Seminoles Fans. 2009. Web. 01 Sept. 2010. <>.
    • 3. Basketball Offense 1-3-1: 1-3-1 Offense." Jes-Soft - Basketball, Football, Hockey, Soccer, Volleyball, Baseball and Water Polo Plays, Drills and Software. Web. 31 Aug. 2010. <>.
    • 4. Wright, By Jay. "Basketball Offense - 4-Out, 1-In Motion Offense, Coach's Clipboard Playbook." Basketball Coaching Playbook, Coach's Clipboard... Coaching Youth & High School Basketball. Web. 01 Sept. 2010. <>.
    Volleyball<br />You can serve a volleyball in two ways, a float serve and a jump serve. A float serve is performed with the volleyball tossed slightly into the air. In a jump serve, you toss the ball high in the air while striding forward and then hit while jumping up as the ball descends. This guide will discuss proper technique for both types of serves.<br />Learn to Jump Serve a Volleyball<br />1<br />Stand at the back line of the volleyball court. You will be taking three long strides forward before you serve the volleyball.<br />2<br />Take one large step forward, leading with your left leg.<br />3<br />Begin to step forward again, leading with your right leg. While stepping forward, toss the volleyball straight up into the air. You toss should be in front of you and quite high.<br />4<br />Stride forward one last time, and plant your right foot down and jump up to meet the ball.<br />5<br />Strike the ball with your hand as it is descending. Aim for the center of the ball near the top.<br />6<br />Follow through on your serve by landing at or over the service line. Your momentum should carry you towards the net.<br />7<br />Practice your jump serve frequently. Focus on maintaining your balance throughout the service process.<br />Practice the Float Volleyball Serve<br />1<br />Stand a few feet back from the net while holding a volleyball.<br />2<br />Arrange your stance so that your left foot is in front and pointed at the net--or the right foot forward if you are left-handed.<br />3<br />Shift your weight to your back foot.<br />4<br />Raise the volleyball, with your left hand supporting it from underneath. Your right hand should be resting lightly atop the ball.<br />5<br />Move your right hand to your ear, keeping your elbow high in the air. Your left arm still supports the volleyball in front of you.<br />6<br />Toss the ball into the air about two feet high and in front of your shoulder.<br />7<br />Shift your body weight to the front foot, and hit the back of the ball with your right hand. Do not follow through as you would with a jump serve.<br />Practice your float serve. The goal is to hit the ball straight across the net without much of an arch.<br /><br />Digging<br /> <br />The volleyball dig can keep your team in the game and is a key skill to develop. When the ball is attacked by your opponent, your job is to keep the ball from hitting the floor. A dig is a pass of a hard-driven ball from the other team. Like a pass, your arm position and platform remain the same. The difference is that the ball is coming from a high point above the net and hit in a downward trajectory. When passing the ball is coming from 30 feet away and usually below the height of the net. You must react quickly and adjust accordingly.<br />It is important to keep your knees bent and remain in a low stance for your ready position. You should be lower than you are to receive serve. Keep your weight balanced on your toes so you can spring forward or to the side to get the ball. Bend at the waist to put your shoulders over your knees and keep your arms out to the side just wider than your knees.<br />There are two volleyball-serving techniques. The first technique is ignoring where players are standing on the court and serve certain areas, not zones. If all you ever do is decide where to serve depending on how your opponent is lined up in serve receive, you often play right into their hands. Develop tough volleyball serving skills for hitting common areas of the court that are tough to pass (deep corners and short). The second technique is to analyze how your opponent lines up in serve receive. Much like a quarterback in football reads the defense when calling plays, a volleyball server can read the opponent's serve receive. No one knows your abilities to serve better than you do. Factor together what you know you can do, how you feel in that moment, with your opponent's vulnerabilities.  Things to look for are how tall the passers are, how well does the passer move to pass, how well does the passer pass the deep serve, how well does the passer pass the short serve? Short players have s tough time passing deep servers, taller players usually don’t like to be served short. Watch for how well a player passes when moving to the left or to the right. Many players are stronger passing when moving to one side compared to the other. Many passers have become comfortable using their hands to overhead pass the deep serve. Other players only try to pass this ball with their forearms. It can be much more difficult to get in position and pass the deep ball with the forearms, especially for shorter players. Often the best hitter on the team is also one of the best passers. Look to see if a hitter is lined up to help serve receive. You can use this to your advantage by serving them deep pushing them out of the offensive system. You will often discover players not wanting to forearm pass and take every ball with their hands. Serve players that like to take the serve with their hands short, forcing them to forearm pass the ball. Notice if any front row players have backed up to help out with serve receive. You can place your serves in the area of the court that forces the front row player to pass. Forcing front row players to pass can disrupt a teams offense because the front row player will then need to hit after they pass the ball.<br />Volleyball techniques for setting consists of the following steps… <br />322580024765Get to the target. The second ball is always the setters. Seeing as though they know this ahead of time, setters should be lined up properly and ready to move to the target. <br />Be ready to move from the target. If possible, take your first step directly to where the ball is being passed. <br />The better judgment the setter has, the better job they will do in moving straight to where the ball is going. <br />If they leave too early or they make a bad judgment, they’ll step in the wrong direction and not make it there as quickly. <br />Beat the ball to the spot. Setters should try anticipating where the ball is going to be passed. By paying attention to how tough the serve is and watching the way their passer is handling the ball, they may get a good read on the pass. <br />Stop and set. Everything done up until now dictates how well the setter is able to stop and set. <br />Bibliography<br />
    • "How to Serve a Volleyball |" EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles. Web. 12 Oct. 2010. <>.
    • 5. Oden, By Beverly. "Volleyball Dig - How to Make a Volleyball Dig." Volleyball. Web. 12 Oct. 2010. <>.
    • 6. "Volleyball Serving Strategies, Why Volleyball Serve Is So Important." Best Conditioning Volleyball Drills, Skills, Strategies with Rules. Web. 12 Oct. 2010. <>.
    • 7. "Volleyball Techniques for Improving Volleyball Skills." Best Conditioning Volleyball Drills, Skills, Strategies with Rules. Web. 12 Oct. 2010. <>.
    Soccer<br />History of Soccer<br />During the second part of the 19th century in England, rugby as well as most sports experienced a massive surge in popularity. This was mostly an effect of the Industrial Revolution, which drew people in cities and factories, depriving them from the typical outdoor activities of rural life. Recreation became common and people turned to sport on Sundays, in addition to their religious activities. British traders, sailors and workers spread sport and football all over the globe through their web of colonies.<br />Soccer positions<br />Teaching Soccer Positions is complicated by the fact that, except for Fullbacks at young ages, players often move around the field and don't stay in one place. So, the positions are " relative" to each other. Generally, when on Defense, the " left" side players should stay on the left side of the field, the " right" side players on the right side of the field (left and right are as you face the opposing Goalkeeper), Fullbacks should be closer to their Goalkeeper than their Midfielders are, and Midfielders should be closer to their Goalkeeper than their Forwards are. These guidelines also apply to a degree when a team is on offense, but not as strictly. Offense is more creative than defense and players often need to move to " open space" or work together and be opportunistic in order to score; this is particularly true with Midfielders and Forwards, because most coaches may want their Fullbacks to be conservative and stay in a defensive position in case there is a counterattack by the opponent. <br />Soccer Rules<br />Freekick-A soccer freekick is a great scoring opportunity. It is often occurred when one of your opponents commits a foul on either you or one of your teammates (for example; pushing, tripping or missing a slide tackle). The referee may also reward your team with a free kick if one of your opponents touches the ball with his hands.<br />The number of players-According to the official soccer rules, a team can have 10 outfield players and one goalie on the field. The amount of substitutions may vary but in official competition games there are only 3 substitutions allowed per team. In other type of games like friendly games or inside soccer the coach is usually allowed to perform an unlimited amount of substitutions. In youth games there are generally 6 outfield players and a goalie. The field and goals are also smaller than the regular ones.<br />Duration of the game-The duration of the match is different and depends on what competition you are participating in. If you play a regular soccer game (11 vs. 11), the time is 45 minutes per half plus overtime. However, in a cup there can also be extra time, 30 minutes (15 minutes per half). However, if you are playing an inside game the time is usually much shorter (about 12 minutes in futsal). <br />Method of Scoring-In order to score a goal you need to send the whole ball over the goal line, between the goalposts and also under the crossbar. If not, then the referee might not approve the goal. If your team scores more goals then your opponents, the victory will be yours. However, if the game ends without goals or if both teams score an equal number of goals, then the match will end as draw. In some competitions, the soccer rules are little different as a game cannot end as a draw. Instead, an extra time is added. If the game ends as a draw even after the extra time a penalty shootout is used to determine the winner of the game.<br />The Offside-Many people see the offiside rule in soccer as something very complicated and hard to understand. However, I ensure that it is not more harder to learn than any other of the soccer rules presented in this guide. So, let me give you some examples on some common offside situations. You will be in offside if you are nearer your opponent’s goal line than your second last opponent and the ball. However, you will not be in offside if you are nearer your own half, in level with the second and also in level with the last two opponents. <br />Fouls and Misconduct-According to the official soccer rules of FIFA, you will be cautioned and the referee will show you the yellow card if you commit any of the following offences; You are delaying the restart of play. The referee found you guilty for unsporting behavior. You are throwing or kicking the ball away after the referee blows his whistle. You are entering or re entering a game without referees permission. Leaving the field without referee’s permission will also get you a yellow card. There are more things that may give you a yellow card but the above mentioned are the most common things players are punished for.<br />The Penalty Kick-right0The soccer penalty kick rule is a type of kick that is taken from twelve yards (about 11 meters) out from the goal line of your opponents. The goal kick taker, keeper and the referee are allowed to stand inside the 18 yard box. However, all other players must remain outside the 18 yard box until the ball is kicked. A player is allowed to kick the ball another time if the ball rebounds back to him. However, during a penalty shootout this rule is not available. <br />Dimensions of a Soccer Field<br />Dribbling<br />Before you can take on defenders, you must learn the proper mechanics of dribbling. Dribbling can be done with the inside, outside, instep, and sole of the foot. You should be able to run with the ball or change direction, while keeping it under your control. When you want to pick up speed, do not kick the ball farther away. Instead, move your feet quicker thus pushing the ball more frequently. When dribbling into space, don't just fix your eyes on the ball. Learn to simultaneously dribble and scan the field around you.<br />Kicking<br />There are two general types of kicks based on the position of the ball, ground kicks and volleys.<br />Ground kicks-In order to produce a quality kick you'll need balance and composure. The placement of your supporting foot is just as important as your other, kicking foot. To control the height of your shot or pass, be aware of where your supporting foot is, in relation to the ball. By placing your supporting foot in line with the ball, you will achieve power while keeping your kick low. By placing it slightly behind, you will produce a rising or lofted ball. Your upper body also plays a role when kicking the ball. When you lean back, the ball will rise and if you lean forward your kick remain low and hard.<br />In order to get the maximum power from a strike, the knee of your kicking leg has to be above or in line with the ball at the exact moment you make contact. Follow-through in a sweeping motion in direction of your target. If you have trouble understanding this concept, try landing on your kicking foot after you strike the ball.<br />Volleys-When striking the ball in the air, proper balance is essential. Therefore, you need to adapt to the path of the ball by making quick adjustments in your footing. You are ready to swing only after you have positioned yourself at a proper distance from the ball. You should not attempt a volley, if you feel that you are reaching out too far or when the ball is too close to your body for a good swing.<br />Some situations may require jumping and volleying at the same time. Stay composed and concentrate on timing your leap.<br />Bibliography<br /> " Basic Soccer Rules Guide." Soccer Training Guide. ExpertFootball, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <>. <br /> Darrell. " Soccer Dribbling Moves." Soccer Community and Portal for aspiring players. ExpertFootball, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <>. <br /> " Soccer History." Soccer Community and Portal for aspiring players. ExpertFootball, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <>. <br /> " Soccer Positions." Soccer Positions., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <>. <br /> " Soccer Training - Kicking the Ball." Soccer Community and Portal for aspiring players. ExpertFootball, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <>. <br /> " soccer-field-layout." soccer-field-layout.jpg., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2010. <>. <br />