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  • 14,578 Aboriginal Children (0-17 years) - 1.2% of the all children in the state\n >50% of the aboriginal population was under 19 years - in 2006\n 1/2 one parent families - compared to 1/5 all families (comparable to national data)\n
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  • half all young Aboriginal people identify with a clan, tribal or language group - cf 62% of their parents/guardians\n over half of young Aboriginal people recognise an area as their homelands/country - 3/4 of guardians/parents\n half participate in cultural events - same with parents/gaurdians\n almost all families speak English as their first language - 1/5 speak some words of Aboriginal language, 1/4 in adults\n
  • 2x did not have a family member outside of the household they could confide in - cf to non-Aboriginal parents/gaurdians (18.9% cf 8.6%)\n 2x did not have a friend outside the family household they could confide in - (23.6% cf 10.1%)\n 1/3 did not have any Aboriginal friends - 34.9% cf 4.3% friends of same ethnic background\n 1/3 Aboriginal children spent time with an Elder/leader - 12.3% did not know an Aboriginal Elder\n high proportion of parents/gaurdians and young can get the support they when needed - >92.3%\n young Aboriginal people have a lower chance to make decision at home about things that affect them - 50.2% cf 62.9%\n
  • 1/10 households need an extra bedroom\n 3x couple families had parents unemployed\n more likely to spend >30% of household income on housing\n 1/3 had days without money to pay for basic living expenses\n 1/5 households ran out of food and couldn’t afford to buy anymore\n
  • 1/4 parents/guardians had used illicit drugs - higher than national Aboriginal population\n 1/5 consumed alcohol during pregnancy; 1/2 smoked during pregnancy\n no difference at high risk alcohol intake (4.3%) but higher at medium risk levels (14.6% - cf 5.1%)\n 1/2 smokers (3x higher than non-Aboriginal parents), 1/5 never smoked (cf 56% nonAboriginal)\n 1/4 smokers smoked inside the house - 4x that of non-Aboriginal families\n
  • 2x likelihood of having low birth weight\n slightly higher birth defects\n neonatal and perinatal deaths are significantly high\n breast feeding rate are high (80%)\n immunisation rate are very high - only slightly lower than non-Aboriginal children\n asthma rates are higher -but admission rates to hospitals are the same\n oral health is poorer - decayed, missing, filled teeth - major cause of admission to hospital (double the rate)\n 2x hearing problems - no difference with sight problems\n
  • more likely need special health care needs\n more likely need assistance with core activities - disabilities\n exercise regularly - more likely to meet guidelines than non-Aboriginal\n 1/3 meet guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption - similar to non-Aboriginal population\n
  • parents are more likely to be concerned about their children's behaviour at school entry\n 1/10 young people experience high to very high levels of psychological stress - same for non-Aboriginal youth\n admissions for psychiatric problems increased and higher in Aboriginal youth \n
  • 1/5 young people (15-24) experienced physical violence\n 2x more likely to be a victim of assault\n 3x more likely to be processed by the police\n 10x more likely to be in youth justice system\n adult prisoners more likely to be a parent\n 10x more likely to be a victim of substantiated abuse, neglect or harm\n 11x more likely to be place in out of home care (more likely placed with relative or kin home based care)\n 6/10 in OOHC have been placed in accordance with the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle (national agreed standard - placed with child’s extended family, within child’s Aboriginal community, with other Aboriginal people) - low recruitment of carers due to underlying social financial barriers, unwillingness to be associated with welfare system, aging of the current pool of carers, impact of past removal policies on parenting\n
  • 60% has taken folate prior to or during pregnancy\n 90% had regular antenatal checks\n lower Maternal and Child Health Service participation - 20% points lower than the whole population 40.3% cf 62.8%\n 8/10 children 0-8 years had been read to by main carer (past week) - higher than national figures for the Aboriginal population\n 1/3 children 0-8 years and 6/10 9-14 years were assisted with their homework\n 80% of households experienced family stress (experienced by self, family or friends) - doubled non-indigenous population; mental illness, serious illness and alcohol and drug related programs were more likely than national figures for Aboriginal Australians\n
  • 6/10 use childcare - more likely to be informal care\n 2x vulnerable on >1 health and wellbeing domain of the Australian early Development Index (AEDI)\n fare less well in numeracy and literacy by 20% point at year 9 level\n 94% attend school (4-14 years)\n 40% aspired to attend university (12-17 years) - cf 70% in non-Aboriginal populations\n rate of bullying on a daily basis higher (12-17 years)\n
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  • Incomplete immunisation 24%\nAbnormal vision screen 30%\nAbnormal hearing test 28%\nDental problems 30%\nFailed dev screen60%\nSpeech delay 33%\nAbnormal growth 14%\nInfections 12%\nBehavioural/emotional problems 54%\n
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  • Transcript

    • 1. The Health of Koori Children in Victoria Hung The Nguyen Hung.nguyen@monash.edu 1
    • 2. ➡Overview of IndigenousChild Health in Victoria➡Mandatory reportingrequirements 2
    • 3. Background• 14,578 Aboriginal Children (0-17 years)• >50% of the aboriginal population was under 19 years• 1/2 one parent families 3
    • 4. What is ‘health’? Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health means not just the physical wellbeing of an individual, but also refers to the social, emotional and cultural wellbeing of the Text whole community in which each individual is able to achieve their full potential as a human being.! - NACCHO, 2006 4
    • 5. Physical healthParental Social health network CulturalSEWB connection Home and Development environment 5
    • 6. Connection to culture and community• half all young Aboriginal people identify with a clan, tribal or language group• over half of young Aboriginal people recognise an area as their homelands/ country• half participate in cultural events• almost all families speak English 6
    • 7. Social network• 2x did not have a family member outside of the household they could confide in• 2x did not have a friend outside the family household they could confide in• 1/3 did not have any Aboriginal friends• 1/3 Aboriginal children spent time with an Elder/leader• high proportion of parents/guardians and young can get the support they when needed• young Aboriginal people have a lower chance to make decision at home about things that affect them 7
    • 8. Home and Environment• 1/10 households need an extra bedroom• 3x couple family household had both parents unemployed• more likely to spend >30% of household income on housing• 1/3 household had days without money to pay for basic living expenses• 1/5 households ran out of food and couldn’t afford to buy anymore 8
    • 9. Parental health• 1/4 parents/guardians had used illicit drugs• 1/5 consumed alcohol during pregnancy; 1/2 smoked during pregnancy• no difference at high risk alcohol intake (4.3%) but higher at medium risk levels (14.6%)• 1/2 parents are smokers, 1/5 never smoked• 1/4 smokers smoked inside the house 9
    • 10. Children’s health• 2x likelihood of having low birth weight• slightly higher birth defects• neonatal and perinatal deaths are high• breast feeding rate are high (80%)• immunisation rate are very high• asthma rates are higher• oral health is poorer• 2x hearing problems 10
    • 11. Children’s Health• more likely need special health care needs• more likely need assistance with core activities - disabilities• exercise regularly• 1/3 meet guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption 11
    • 12. Social and emotional wellbeing• parents are more likely to be concerned about their childrens behaviour at school entry• 1/10 young people experience high to very high levels of psychological stress• admissions for psychiatric problems increased and higher in Aboriginal youth 12
    • 13. Safety• 1/5 young people (15-24) experienced physical violence• 2x more likely to be a victim of assault• 3x more likely to be processed by the police• 10x more likely to be in youth justice system• adult prisoners more likely to be a parent• 10x more likely to be a victim of substantiated abuse, neglect or harm• 11x more likely to be place in out of home care• 6/10 in OOHC have been placed in accordance with the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle 13
    • 14. Child development• 60% has taken folate prior to or during pregnancy• 90% had regular antenatal checks• lower Maternal and Child Health Service participation• 8/10 children 0-8 years had been read to by main carer• 1/3 children 0-8 years and 6/10 9-14 years were assisted with their homework• 80% of households experienced family stress 14
    • 15. Development and Learning• 6/10 use childcare - more likely to be informal care• 2x vulnerable on >1 health and wellbeing domain of the Australian early Development Index (AEDI)• fare less well in numeracy and literacy by 20% point at year 9 level• 94% 4-14 yo attend school• 40% 12-17 yo aspired to attend university• rate of being bullied on a daily basis higher 15
    • 16. Health of children in OOHC 16
    • 17. Health of children in OOHC➡ Negative effects of health issues on quality of life – comparable to cystic fibrosis, asthma, juvenile diabetes 16
    • 18. Health of children in OOHC➡ High levels of chronic and complex health needs➡ Negative effects of health issues on quality of life – comparable to cystic fibrosis, asthma, juvenile diabetes 16
    • 19. KARI (Aboriginal) SCHincomplete immunisation 24 34abnormal vision screen 30 35abnormal hearing test 28 44dental problems 30 36speech delay 33 66abnormal growth 14behavioural/emotional 54 45problemsinfections 12 17
    • 20. Child protection - reporting•Doctors and nurses are mandated reporters inVictoria.Responsibilities of a mandated reporter:•You are legally obliged to make a report to ChildProtection if you believe on reasonable grounds that achild is in need of protection.•You must make a report without delay.•You are required to make a report each time youbecome aware of any further grounds for your belief.•You don’t have to prove that the abuse has occurred. 18
    • 21. Child protection - reporting• It is your responsibility to report your belief – it is notthe responsibility of your boss, supervisor, principal• In instances where the supervisor directs you not tomake a report even where they believe that abuse isoccurring, you are still legally required to make areport.• Mandatory reporting requirements take precedenceover professional codes of practice whereconfidentiality or client privilege is claimed. 19
    • 22. Child protection - reporting• A report does not constitute unprofessionalconduct or a breach of professional ethics, nordoes it subject the person to any liability if made ingood faith.• Ringing Child Protection: 1300 655 795• After hours: 131 278• Email queries: queries.childprotection@dhs.vic.gov.au 20
    • 23. The Aboriginal context 21
    • 24. A step-by-step guide to making a report to Child Protection or Child FIRST Protective concerns At all times remember to: You are concerned about a child because you have: • record your observations • received a disclosure from a child about abuse or neglect • follow appropriate protocols • observed indicators of abuse or neglect • consult notes and records • been made aware of possible harm via your involvement • consult with appropriate colleagues if necessary in the community external to your professional role. • consult with other support agencies if necessarySTEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 FORMING A BELIEF ON MAKING A REFERRAL TO MAKE A REPORT TO CHILD RESPONDING TO CONCERNS REASONABLE GROUNDS Child FIRST PROTECTION1. If your concerns relate to a child in 1. Consider the level of immediate Child Wellbeing Referral Mandatory/Protective Report* need of immediate protection; or danger to the child. 1. Contact your local Child FIRST 1. Contact your local Child Protection you have formed a belief that a child Ask yourself: provider. Intake provider immediately. is at significant risk of harm*. a) Have I formed a belief that the Go to Step 4 • See over for contact list for • See over for contact list for child has suffered or is at risk of local Child FIRST phone local Child Protection phone2. If you have significant concerns suffering significant harm? numbers. numbers. that a child and their family need YES / NO a referral to Child FIRST for family 2. Have notes ready with your • For After Hours Child and observations and child and Protection Emergency services. b) Am I in doubt about the child’s family details. Services, call Go to Step 3 safety and the parent’s ability to 131 278.3. In all other situations protect the child? Go to Step 2. 2. Have notes ready with your YES / NO observations and child and 2. If you answered yes to a) or b) family details. Go to Step 4 * Non-mandated staff members who * Refer to Appendix 2: Definitions of 3. If you have significant concerns believe on reasonable grounds that a child abuse and indicators of harm in that a child and their family need child is in need of protection are able to the Protocol – Protecting the safety and a referral to Child FIRST for family report their concerns to Child Protection wellbeing of children and young people services. Go to Step 3 22 For further information refer to Protecting the safety and wellbeing of children and young people – A joint protocol of the Department of Human Services Child Protection, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Licensed Children’s Services and Victorian Schools
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