Intercultural Teaching_TMT2013

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  • 1. TMT Supervisors Conference, 13th July 2013 Hung The Nguyen, hunguyen250369@gmail.comInterculturalTeaching
  • 2. “That’s because you are Aussie; it is harder for us. ”
  • 3. Can you see the glitches? The Matrix, 1999 from Tech Noir
  • 4. CULTURE in the teaching space is underestimated.
  • 5. An intercultural situation is one in which the cultural distance between the participants is significant enough to have an effect on interaction/ communication that is noticeable to at least one of the parties. - Spencer-Oatey and Franklin
  • 6. ➡ Multicultural Australia ➡ International Medical Graduates ➡ Overseas Students ➡ Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students TeachSPACE
  • 7. COMMUNICATION CULTURE TEACHING & LEARNING Modified from Cortazzi and Jin, 2002 TeachSPACE
  • 8. CULTURE
  • 9. Culture is a blueprint for action - Laksiri Jayasuriya Image from Μηχανικός1, Wikimedia Commons
  • 10. Culture works precisely because participants do not have to think about making it work, one simply does what is expected. Cortazzi and Jin, 2002
  • 11. Culture is complex but not chaotic.
  • 12. “Teachers come to class ill prepared. They are often lazy.” “Teachers won’t provide answers to questions in class. I don’t think they really know what they are talking about.” “Teachers don’t seem to know that I am having problems. They don’t seem to care about my progress.” “Teachers gets really annoyed with us asking questions or giving comments after class. They don’t respect us or value our opinions.” ➡ Explanation 1. People from some other nations/ cultures are stupid, lazy, amoral, and/or obstructionists.
  • 13. We perceive the values of our culture in moral terms and therefore we tend to view other peoples values as morally inferior.
  • 14. ➡ Explanation 2. People from some other nations/ cultures differ in cognition in ways that result in different perceptions, judgments, decision making and behaviours.
  • 15. People can only see their culture when they encounter a mismatch b/w their lifelong patterns of thinking and that of other people. Klein, 2004
  • 16. Klein, 2004 People cannot adjust mismatches by altering their underlying cognitive processes i.e. how they think about the world.
  • 17. The lens filters and organizes incoming information, makes sense of the information, structures planning and adaptation activities, and guides interactions and communication. Klein, 2004
  • 18. Cultural dimensions high vs low power distance short vs long term time orientation mastery vs fatalism masculinity vs femininity high vs low tolerance for uncertainty hypothetical vs concrete reasoning root cause vs systems approach individualist vs collectivist
  • 19. Individualism Collectivism Individualism
  • 20.
  • 21. cultureLEARNING
  • 22. Safe culturally White, 2009
  • 23. CultureLEARNING learning & teaching styles nature & function of assessment roles & expectations Learner
  • 24. Learning & Teaching styles Nature & function of assessment roles & expectations Teacher CultureLEARNING
  • 25. learning & teaching styles assessment roles & expectations Gap CultureLEARNING
  • 26. rolesEXPECTATIONS Student view of teacher roles Teacher view of teacher roles ★be authority, expert ★be a model: knowing and knowing how to ★be a parent, friend ★know students’ problems ★give answer, clear guidance: teach us what to do ✦be a facilitator, organiser ✦be a model of how to find out ✦be a friendly critic Cortazzi and Jin, 2002
  • 27. Student view of student roles Teacher view of student roles ★develop receptivity, collective harmony, apprenticeship, deductive reasoning ★respect teacher: learn by listening and reflection ★learn methods, technical advances ★focus on product, results ✦develop independence, individuality, creativity, inductive learning ✦participate: engage in dialogue ✦develop critical thinking ✦focus on process of learning, research skills ✦ask if there is a problem ✦find own answers ✦should know what to do or work it out rolesEXPECTATIONS
  • 28. learningSTYLE Learning style is an individual natural or habitual pattern of acquiring, processing and delivering information in teaching/ learning situations.
  • 29. learningSTYLE Learning style are influenced by personality, motivation, cultural preferences and the physical environments.
  • 30. learningSTYLE Sensory Learners concrete practical procedural They look for FACTS. Intuitive Learners conceptual innovative theoretical They look for MEANING. From Felder and Silverman’s Index of Learning Styles, 2002
  • 31. learningSTYLE Visual Learners graphs pictures diagrams They look forVISUAL representation of the information. Verbal Learners audio recordings lectures discussions They look for explanations with WORDS.
  • 32. learningSTYLE Active Learners manipulate experiment explore They look for SMALL GROUP DIRECTED activities. Reflective Learners think evaluate analyse/ synthesise They look for SELF- DIRECTED activities.
  • 33. learningSTYLE Sequential Learners order linear They look for ORDER in the details to formulate the big picture. Global Learners systematic holistic They look for the BIG PICTURE and then fill in the details.
  • 34. learningSTYLE Everyone has a mix of learning styles. ➡Bring your learning (teaching) style into balance.
  • 35. learningSTYLE Learning styles are not fixed. ➡Expand the way you learn (teach).
  • 36. NatureASSESSMENT “This exam is racist. ” overseas student reflecting on the OSCE
  • 37. NatureASSESSMENT Exam time pressure Language panic Cultural preferences skill of estimation
  • 38. time pressure Language panic Cultural preferences kill of estimation ‣misread words, instructions, questions, tasks ‣language mixed up ‣only communicate points they can express in English ‣attempt all questions in a hurry or ‣answer only some questions properly ‣skills and attitudes to guess, estimate, try out possible solutions and ideas, make judgements about possible alternatives or not Ballard & Clanchy, 1991
  • 39. FunctionASSESSMENT Feedback Giving Receiving
  • 40. Feedback Giving ✓ Timely ✓ Expected ✓ Specific ✓ Honest and direct ✓ Descriptive ✓ Relevant ✓ Right level ✓ Focused ✓ Informative ✓ Balanced ✓ Actionable
  • 41. Feedback Receiving Help them: ๏ be explicit of the kind of feedback they want ๏ be aware of their reaction emotionally and intellectually ๏ actively listen ๏ seek clarification ๏ summarise what they are hearing ๏ reflect and evaluate the information provided ๏ explore possible actions for change ๏ embrace feedback
  • 42. learning & teaching styles assessment roles & expectations Gap CultureLEARNING
  • 43. cultureCOMMUNICATION
  • 44. ➡ Rapport is the relative harmony and smoothness of relations between people ➡ Rapport management is the management (or mismanagement) of relations between people. Spencer-Oatey, 2005 ManagingRAPPORT
  • 45. ➡ Rapport orientations: ✓enhancement (strengthen) ✓maintenance (protect) ‣ neglect (lack interest or concern) ‣ challenge (impair) Spencer-Oatey, 2005 ManagingRAPPORT
  • 46. Spencer-Oatey, 2008 Interactional goals Face sensitivities Role expectations Bases of rapport ManagingRAPPORT
  • 47. FACE ➡concerned with people sense of worth, dignity and identity ➡associated with concerns for respect, honour, status, reputation and competence Spencer-Oatey, 2005 ManagingRAPPORT Face
  • 48. FACE ➡self as an individual - abilities, appearance, ethics, confidence ➡self as a group member - family, ethnic, professional, national, religious ➡self in relation to others - father, doctor, teacher, leader Spencer-Oatey, 2005 ManagingRAPPORT Face
  • 49. ROLE EXPECTATIONS (rights and obligations) ➡equity - entitled to be treated fairly: that we are not unduly imposed upon (reciprocity), that we are not unfairly ordered about (autonomy), and that we are not taken advantage of or exploited (cost- benefit) ➡associative - entitled to social involvement with others, in keeping with the type of relationship that we have with them (respect, empathy, involvement) Spencer-Oatey, 2008 ManagingRAPPORT Role
  • 50. Interactional goals ➡transactional = achieving specific tasks ➡relational = effective relationship management Spencer-Oatey, 2008 ManagingRAPPORT Goals
  • 51. Managing rapport: ๏understanding domains of politeness ๏handling speech acts ๏degree of (in)directness ๏type and frequency of down/up-graders ๏understanding authority and respect in teaching space ๏using wait time Spencer-Oatey, 2008 ManagingRAPPORT
  • 52. Spencer-Oatey, 2008 Interactional goals Face sensitivities Role expectations Bases of rapport activity type number of participants context -power -distance rapport orientation cultural dimensions pragmalinguistic conventions
  • 53. COMMUNICATION CULTURE TEACHING & LEARNING Intercultural teaching space Intercultural competence Self-awareness Cultural lens tools Orientation (roles & expectations) Teaching methods Learning styles Feedback Assessment Language Managing rapport Communication skills
  • 54. Can you see the glitches? The Matrix, 1999 from Tech Noir