Color blindness


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Color blindness

  1. 1. Humara Muqdes BITF08A003
  2. 2. The normal human retina contains two kinds of light sensitive cells: the rod cells (active only in low light) and the cone cells (active in normal daylight and responsible for color perception). Let there be light!!! The different kinds of inherited color blindness result from partial or complete loss of function of one or more of the different cone systems.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Normally, there are three kinds of </li></ul><ul><li>cones (each one sensitive to a </li></ul><ul><li>specific range of wavelengths): </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;red&quot; cones (64%) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;green&quot; cones (32%) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;blue&quot; cones (2%) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Monochromacy : occurs when two or all three of the cone pigments are missing and color and lightness vision is reduced to one dimension. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total color blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dichromacy : occurs when only one of the cone pigments is missing and color is reduced to two dimensions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial color blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red-green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blue-yellow </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Also known as rod monochromacy , complete achromatopsia , and </li></ul><ul><li>typical monochromacy . </li></ul><ul><li>A rare, non-progressive inability to distinguish any colors as a </li></ul><ul><li>result of absent or nonfunctioning retinal cones. </li></ul><ul><li>See everything as white, black, or some shade of gray </li></ul><ul><li>Typically caused by a missense mutation (a switched amino acid) </li></ul><ul><li>in the CNGB3 gene. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Color vision deficiency is usually detected using colored charts called the Ishihara Test Plates. The plates consist of gray and colored dots. The patient is asked to identify the number in the middle of the circle. After the patient has identified what they see, more testing may commence. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A digit pattern is then added which is defined by yellow/blue variation only. Since most people with red/green colorblindness can see yellow/blue they will be able to see the digit 5 in this test pattern. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Another digit pattern which is defined by red/green variation is added. Here is the pattern composed of the random brightness pattern and the red/green pattern. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Finally all three are added: People with red/green deficiency will not be able to see the red/green pattern and will see the 5. People with normal vision will see both the patterns, but since the red/green is stronger than the yellow/blue, the normal person will see the digit 6. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Most color-blind people see normally in all other aspects other than the color of their weakened cone. Color-blind people can usually learn by experience to associate certain colors with different sensations of brightness. Many victims of the defect are unaware that they are color-blind. </li></ul>Weak green cone Weak red cone
  11. 11. Unfortunately, there is nothing that can be done once diagnosed with color blindness. Color blindness is a life long condition that can exclude people from certain jobs such as a pilot or a job that would include electronics. If you suspect colorblindness, you can visit an ophthalmologist or your health care provider. Being aware of the disease is the best way to help someone overcome this disease.