Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
History and Development of Bovine
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

History and Development of Bovine

2,526

Published on

Published in: Education
2 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • nice job thanks
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Thanks for the historical reference! Very educational!
    Wav to mp3 converter http://wavtomp3converter.com/
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,526
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
70
Comments
2
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  1. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT
  2. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Modern domestic cattle all evolved from a single ancestor, the aurochs. It is believed that the last surviving auroch was killed in 1627 near Warsaw, Poland. The word "cattle" comes from the Old French word "chattle" which means possession. It is believed that cattle were first domesticated in Europe and Asia during the Stone Age. It is generally thought that cattle were domesticated after sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs. Remains of domesticated cattle dating to 6,500 B.C. have been found in Turkey and other sites in the near East. History and Development of Cattle
  3. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Evidence indicates that a type of cattle apparently closely related to the Brown Swiss dairy cattle of today existed during the Bronze Age in the area now known as Switzerland. When the Romans occupied southwestern England in 55 B.C., they recorded the red cattle occupying the area. The red Devon cattle from that area of England are considered one of the oldest beef breeds in existence today. History and Development of Cattle
  4. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT When the Saxons and Jutes, who lived in what is now known as Denmark, conquered Great Britain, they brought their skills as cattlemen with them. The Saxons liked to cook their beef on a pointed stick over a campfire. The word "steak" comes from the Saxon word "steik", which meant meat on a stick. History and Development of Cattle
  5. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Early cattle served three purposes: meat, milk, and labor. Eventually, they were replaced by horses - and later machinery - for labor in most parts of the world. Over time, cattle were developed to serve single purposes - meat production or milk production, although some breeds continue to serve as dual-purpose cattle for both meat and milk production. History and Development of Cattle
  6. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT One of the earliest recognized cattle breeds in the world is the Shorthorn breed, which was reported in England as early as the mid-1500's. Shorthorns were first imported to the United States in 1783. The Shorthorn cattle furnished milk, meat, and labor when they were introduced in Virginia. History and Development of Cattle
  7. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT One of the earliest recognized cattle breeds in the world is the Shorthorn breed, which was reported in England as early as the mid-1500's. Shorthorns were first imported to the United States in 1783. The Shorthorn cattle furnished milk, meat, and labor when they were introduced in Virginia. In 1623, two Devon heifers and a Devon bull were imported to the Plymouth Colony from Britain. These three cattle were probably the first purebred cattle to reach North America. Devon cattle were highly valued as oxen in the American Colonies. History and Development of Cattle
  8. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT The Texas Longhorn cattle breed stems from ancestors that were brought to the Americas by early explorers. Texas Longhorns survived as primitive cattle and occupied the Great Plains following the destruction of the buffalo herds. The Longhorn era ended when the open range was fenced in and imported cattle with earlier maturing characteristics were brought into the area. Other beef cattle breeds of today that were among the first to be imported into America are the Angus and Hereford breeds. History and Development of Cattle
  9. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Henry Clay of Kentucky imported the first Hereford cattle into the United States in 1817. Herefords were known for maturing at an early age. In 1881, the Hereford bull Anxiety 4 was imported into the United States. This bull is the common ancestor of nearly all the Hereford cattle in the United States today. History and Development of Cattle
  10. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Over 900 different breeds of cattle have been reported in the world. Breed associations maintain breed registrations for many of the individual breeds, with some cattle breeds being able to trace their ancestry back 600 years or more. Many of the beef cattle produced in the United States today are crossbred - combining the best traits of 2 or more breeds. History and Development of Cattle
  11. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Ethology is the science of animal behavior. Animal behavior is defined as the pattern of action observed in animals that occurs either voluntarily or involuntarily It is the interaction of inherited abilities and learned experiences. Inherited abilities or instincts are reflexes and behavior patterns present instantly from birth. Allelomimetic behavior is the primary basis of beef cattle behavior. Allelomimetic behavior is exhibited when animals do the same thing at the same time Behavior of cattle
  12. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT This type of behavior is useful to producers because the entire herd often eats and travels as a unit. In unconfined management systems, beef cattle herds will graze, ingest feed and salt, travel to water, ruminate, and rest. Therefore, the cattle are easily observed by producers. Estrus detection, calving, and ill animals are easily assessed by producers even on extensive cattle operations. Therefore, the allelomimetic behavior is an advantageous aspect of beef cattle social behavior. Behavior of cattle
  13. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Without human intervention, cattle are naturally herd animals. Herd animals maintain a minimal social distance and participate in group defense During a breeding season, aggressive behavior is prevalent when males are in close proximity of other males. Each male group may have as few as three individuals due to competition Behavior of cattle
  14. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Herd behavior is a major part of how cattle minimize adverse weather conditions. In cold weather, cattle crowd together in appropriate social groups. They share warmth and decrease the surface area exposed to chilling winds and snow. In hot and rainy conditions, the entire or a fragment of the social group may seek shelter. In hot weather, a shaded area may be sought for rest and rumination. Behavior of cattle
  15. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT In rainy conditions, cattle may seek a covered area such as a tree or shed. Understanding the bovine response to adverse weather conditions allows a producer to construct a cattle management system to suit the climate and weather patterns of the environment as well as the social comfort of the cattle. Behavior of cattle
  16. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Cattle are herbivores and are strictly grazing animals without human intervention. Beef cattle have an instinctive drive to graze. They typically graze four to nine hours per day The hours per day spent grazing varies due to weather, pasture quality, pasture quantity, and the nutritional needs of the cattle. The main effects of these variables dictate the amount of time cattle must spend eating Behavior of cattle
  17. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Cattle are crepuscular. A crepuscular animal is most active at sunrise and sunset. Therefore, cattle graze primarily in the early morning and just before nightfall. Animals that ingest the proper nutritional requirements exhibit optimal growth performance. ingestive behavior of beef cattle is an important aspect of efficient production. during the production of cattle, branding, ear tagging, and various medical procedures occur. Cattle move in a relaxed manner if they are within a herd or even other cattle. individual cattle exhibit immense anxiety if they are sorted away from the herd. Behavior of cattle
  18. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Beef cattle are raised for their meat. Cattle farms are very important to the world. We get veal, beef, hamburger, and hot dogs from beef cattle. Veal comes from calves and beef comes from older cattle. We also get leather, glue, soap, and medicine from them. the bones and hooves are used to make: Gelatin, jelly, Marshmellows, jelly beans, etc. The Bones can be used for strong materials and even dinner wear. The unwanted parts are often used in pet food or as dog treats. Importance of cattle
  19. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Dairy cattle (dairy cows) are cattle cows (adult females) bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made. Dairy cows generally are of the species Bos taurus. On average, a cow will produce 6-7 gallons of milk each day. Importance of cattle
  20. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT The great American bison is a truly magnificent animal. It is the largest land mammal found in North America since the end of the Ice Age. This so-called American Buffalo is a descendant of ancient animals that crossed the Bering land bridge some 300,000 years ago. Technically they are Bison, bison (genus, species). They are not buffalo, as are the African Cape buffalo or the southeast Asian Water buffalo. They have virtually no relatives other than the Wisent, a species of this shaggy animal that lives in north-central Europe and of which there are a limited number. History and Development of Buffalo
  21. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT The modern buffalo descended from Bison latifrons, an enormous, shaggy, European herbivore that crossed the land bridge that once connected Asia and North America. The crossing took place between 200,000 and 800,000 years ago and not long thereafter the land bridge submerged and North American Bison latifrons was isolated from the old world forever. History and Development of Buffalo
  22. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT The ancestor of the buffalo that we know was left to evolve on the North American continent during a time of climate warming. About 120,000 years ago that species died out and was replaced by two new forms. Bison antiquus was closely associated with early man in North America and became extinct about 10,000 years ago. But the second descendant of the first buffalo, Bison occidentalis survives to this day. History and Development of Buffalo
  23. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Though still a huge herbivore, it is smaller than its predecessors and its horns angle back rather than protrude outward like the ancient buffalo's. As the years passed, Bison occidentalis learned to utilize the main ecosystems of North America and, in doing so, evolved into two distinct races: the plains buffalo, Bison bison and the mountain or wood buffalo, Bison athabascae. These two races still exist and make up what is now known as the North American buffalo or bison. History and Development of Buffalo
  24. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT These two races of buffalo spread to most North America. Bison athbabascae inhabited the mountains and forests in moderate numbers and Bison bison filled the prairie niche. It was on the Great Plains in the center of the continent that Bison bison found the perfect habitat and it is there that they thrived. When Europeans arrived, they found buffalo on the plains in awesome numbers at least 30,000,000. History and Development of Buffalo
  25. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Lewis and Clark recorded thousands of buffalo early in their journals but when they reached the heart of buffalo country, they exclaimed that one herd held more buffalo "than we had ever seen at one time before at one time; and if it be not impossible to calculate the moving multitude, that darkened the whole plains, we are convinced that twenty thousand would not be an exaggeration." History and Development of Buffalo
  26. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Before northern Europeans settled North America, there were an estimated 30-70 million bison ranging across the continent, from Alaska to at least the northern tier of Mexican states. The oldest herd fossils remaining in the lower 48 states are more than 100,000 years old. History and Development of Buffalo
  27. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT But the consumptive traditions of Europeans and Americans could not tolerate such abundance and had no sense of conservation. By the 1870's an industry had developed to exploit the wild American buffalo. Tens of thousands were slaughtered yearly for their meat, hides, and bones and for senseless sport. It was a blood bath like no other known to the Planet. By 1894, when President Grover Cleveland made it illegal to kill buffalo, there were little more than 300 left. Imagine: From perhaps as many as 60,000,000 to 300 in a quarter century. History and Development of Buffalo
  28. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT An important archaeological site in New Mexico, the Folsom Site, revolutionized American archaeology. It was the first time that irrefutable evidence of human tools and Ice Age animals were found together. The site proved to be a bison kill, or bison jump, where Paleo Indians killed and butchered 23 bison nearly 10,000 years ago. Once the mighty herds stretched in numbers beyond the horizon. To the American Indians, before the arrival of Europeans, these animals provided an unending supply of food and raw material for tools, clothing and other products. Additionally, the bison were considered spiritual beings that sustained the spirit as well as physical life. History and Development of Buffalo
  29. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT According to pioneer journals and scientific guesstimates, bison moved in herds that varied from 500-animals to more than 500,000-animals. To the early European explorers, the bison represented boundless wealth and potential for personal profit and freedom. That great wealth was almost completely wasted within a few decades by careless slaughter for fun and sport, and excessively exploitative hunting of bison for hides and tongues. History and Development of Buffalo
  30. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT But the consumptive traditions of Europeans and Americans could not tolerate such abundance and had no sense of conservation. By the 1870's an industry had developed to exploit the wild American buffalo. Tens of thousands were slaughtered yearly for their meat, hides, and bones and for senseless sport. It was a blood bath like no other known to the Planet. By 1894, when President Grover Cleveland made it illegal to kill buffalo, there were little more than 300 left. Imagine: From perhaps as many as 60,000,000 to 300 in a quarter century. History and Development of Buffalo
  31. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT By 1889, less than 1,000 were left and those were saved by the combined efforts of William Hornaday (Director of the Bronx Zoo) and a small group of ranchers. In 1905, the American Bison Society was formed to save the bison and protect rangeland for the animals. Today, those efforts are carried on by the National Bison Association and the Canadian Bison Association. The bison herds of today number in excess of 350,000 and are growing. History and Development of Buffalo
  32. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Only when Americans began to realize that buffalo are a fine source of healthy red meat did the herds began to grow in earnest. It was also discovered that these native herbivores can not only thrive, unaided, year around on the plains but, perhaps more importantly, do not damage the ecosystem the way cattle can. Conservationists have begun to see them as a tool to help restore the Great Plains to its former glory. Water buffalo have been domesticated for 5,000 years and have become economically important animals History and Development of Buffalo
  33. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Buffalo are extremely adaptable animals, being able to occupy open grasslands, wooded savanna and thickets. Highly gregarious animals, Buffalo associate in herds of up to 1000 or more individuals. Despite being very aggressive, and extremely dangerous animals, Buffalo are very peaceful amongst themselves. The dominant bull, normally is the oldest bull in the herd. Both sexes have horns, but those of males are are more robust and heavier. Males can attain a mass of about 800 Kg., and they have a life-span of approximately 20 years Behavior of Buffalo
  34. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Buffalo are exclusively grazers. These animals eat in the morning and in the evening. They rest during the day. American buffaloes live in groups. There are 3 types of groups: matriarchal, bull (though some bulls are solitary), and breeding (a combination between the first two groups). Behavior of Buffalo
  35. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT They )water buffalo_ provide more than 5 % of the world’s milk supply and 20 % to 30 % of the farm power in Southeast Asia. Milk from these animals is used by many human populations, and is the traditional raw material for mozzarella cheese and curd due to its higher fat content. In Africa and other locations, water buffalo milk is used for yogurt, as in Vermont, USA. The chief dairy breed of buffalo is the Murrah breed. Importance of Buffalo
  36. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Buffalo meat, sometimes called "carabeef", is often passed off as beef in certain regions, and is also a major source of export revenue for India, which has the largest population of buffalo in the world. In many Asian regions, buffalo meat is less preferred due to its toughness. however, recipes have evolved (Rendang for example) where the slow cooking process and spices not only makes the meat palatable, but also preserves it, an important factor in hot climates where refrigeration is not always available. Importance of Buffalo
  37. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT Importance of Buffalo
  38. RUMINANT HERD HEALTH MANAGEMENT

×