Heartworm

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Heartworm

  1. 1. Heartworm
  2. 2. Heartworm   <ul><li>Causative agent: ( Dirofilaria immitis ) </li></ul><ul><li>is a  parasitic   roundworm  that is spread from  host  to host through the bites of  mosquitoes . </li></ul><ul><li>The heartworm is a type of  filaria , a small thread-like worm. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hosts of  Dirofilaria immitis   <ul><li>dog </li></ul><ul><li>cat </li></ul><ul><li>wolf </li></ul><ul><li>coyote </li></ul><ul><li>fox </li></ul><ul><li>ferret </li></ul><ul><li>sea lion </li></ul><ul><li>African Leopard  Panthera pardus pardus </li></ul><ul><li>human - rarely. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Clinical signs of infection <ul><li>no indication of heartworm infection during the 6-month- </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely, migrating heartworm larvae get &quot;lost&quot; and end up in unusual sites such as the eye, brain, or an artery in the leg, </li></ul><ul><li>blindness, </li></ul><ul><li>  seizures </li></ul><ul><li>  lameness . </li></ul><ul><li>But normally, until the larvae mature and congregate inside the heart, they produce no symptoms or signs of illness. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Early signs <ul><li>cough, especially on exercise and early exhaustion upon exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>severe weight loss,  </li></ul><ul><li>fainting, </li></ul><ul><li>coughing up blood </li></ul><ul><li>finally, congestive heart failure. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Diagnosis <ul><li>Three methods can be used for the diagnosis: </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilarial detection. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  direct blood smear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antigen test. In most practices, microfilarial detection has been supplanted by or supplemented with antigen testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiography.  X-rays  are used to evaluate the amount of lung damage caused by the presence of heartworms. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Treatment <ul><ul><li>melarsomine dihydrochloride , is marketed under the brand name  Immiticide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It has a greater efficiency and fewer side effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( thiacetarsamide sodium , sold as  Caparsolate ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>safer alternative for dogs with late-stage infections. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(restricted exercise) for several weeks </li></ul><ul><li>urgical removal of the adult heartworms  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prevention <ul><li>Long term monthly administration of  ivermectin  year round at three times the dose </li></ul><ul><li>  milbemycin </li></ul><ul><li>moxidectin  ( ProHeart ) administered as pills or chewable tablets.  </li></ul><ul><li>Selamectin  ( Revolution ), is a topical preventive that is likewise administered monthly and also controls  fleas , ticks , and  mites . </li></ul>
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