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Speech, Language and Communication Needs - CPD

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A series of CPL sessions on speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) - also designed to be used as a guidance booklet. The various resources mentioned (such as the vocab building templates) ...

A series of CPL sessions on speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) - also designed to be used as a guidance booklet. The various resources mentioned (such as the vocab building templates) have also been made available via my TES account, where possible.

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Speech, Language and Communication Needs - CPD Speech, Language and Communication Needs - CPD Presentation Transcript

  • Speech, Language and Communication Needs From a School Perspective © Matt Grant, 2013 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk
  • How much do you know about SLCN? Rate yourself! AwarenessofSLCN Understanding of SLCN
  • Intro - Context “The limits of my language are the limits of my world.” ‒Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosopher of Language
  • - Approximately 10% of children can be placed on a Speech, Language and Communication Needs ‘spectrum’. - This rises to 30% in areas of socio-economic deprivation. - 60%+ of children facing exclusion have a form of Speech, Language and Communication Need. A few statistics: Some lower-attainment / small supportive group classes will look like this.
  • Speech, Language and Communication Needs are part of a family of specific learning difficulties and developmental conditions. Dyspraxia Autism Dyslexia Sensory Impairment (HI, VI) ADD/ADHD Speech, Language and Communication needs MLD / Complex Needs SLCN or? SLCN and?
  • Speech, Language and Communication Needs cover three key areas. Three layers of SLCN: Form (also known as Syntax) – the conversion of thought into language. Pragmatics (also known as Use) – the framework of social skills that enables language-based communication. Semantics (also known as Content) – the translating of language into thought.
  • Part 1 - Theory “Language is the inventory of human experience.” ‒ L. W. Lockhart, Economist with Linguistics Specialism
  • Have ideas and decide what to say Choose words = semantics Choose appropriate sentence structure = syntax (grammar) Select the sounds = phonology Coordinate instructions to the speech muscles Articulate sounds Speak fluently Speak appropriately = pragmatically Self monitor Look / attend Interpret non-verbal communication Listen / Hear Remember = auditory memory Understand words = semantics Understand sentence structure = syntax Understand the meaning – literal and non-literal = Understanding Spoken Language / Receptive = Expressive Language is a complex process:
  • Language development – 5 key ideas: 2. Language development is dependent on interaction with others. 1. The human brain has a naturally built-in template ready for the learning of language. 4. Language develops intrinsically with other cognitive skills, such as processing, memory, reasoning, empathy, inference etc. 5. Language proficiency should not be viewed as a defining measure of intelligence, but as one of many types of intelligence. 3. Language learning is initiated and pushed forward through a response-reward system. Noam Chomsky Lev Vygotsky Jean Piaget Howard Gardner BF Skinner
  • Language development – according to Armstrong & Miller: Armstrong & Miller – The Origins of Small Talk
  • Each stage needs to be developed fully before the next stage can be fully developed. This occurs primarily within the first 7 year ‘window’ of development. How does speaking and listening develop? Looking and Listening – attending to someone. initiating communication, verbally and non-verbally. Understanding - development of a receptive vocabulary around everyday conversation, acquisition of 50 – 70 words leads to next stage. Talking – Putting words together to make phrases, use of expressive language – ‘chattering’. Accuracy & Scope – Refining expressive language in terms of accuracy in sound and use - continuing to extend vocabulary and grammatical awareness. Play – interacting with others through basic rule- based and/or imaginary games, engaging in shared attention. Prerequisites – eyesight, hearing, attachment, reasoning, sequencing, memory, motor skills.
  • Dyslexia or SLCN? Phonics Reading Decoding Spelling Reading Comprehension & Extended Writing Prerequisites – eyesight, hearing, attachment, reasoning, sequencing, memory, motor skills • Often, when a student is experiencing difficulties acquiring literacy, there is a tendency by teachers and parents to immediately query whether a dyslexia assessment is required. • Even when an identification of SLCN is made, there is still a tendency for adults, and self-identification, to describe the difficulties as ‘dyslexic’. This is because the term is better known and points to specific support. • However, the risk in doing this is the speech, language and communication needs become ignored.
  • Kevin presents, at surface level, as an enthusiastic learner and sociable member of the school community. Kevin enjoys music, rugby and football – these are his standout strengths. Kevin has a small group of close friendships who he spends most of his time with whilst in school. Kevin has relative strength in Maths and Design Technology. Kevin will listen carefully and will readily put his hand up in group discussion etc. During conversation he maintains eye contact but often he shouts over other students in his enthusiasm. Kevin presents with reading difficulties. He can read texts aloud but struggles with fluency. He also struggles with understanding subject-specific words in written instructions, including everyday academic terminology such as analysis, comparison, evidence etc. Kevin has a difficulty explaining his ideas and opinions about what he has read. Kevin appears to have ideas but will falter ‘mid flow’, appearing to lose his train of thought. On occasion he will be over-reliant on saying ’thingy’ which other students have noticed and will call out over him – although he will laugh this off, he does tend to blush and show signs of embarrassment. Kevin’s spelling is well below average. When Kevin arrived at the school, he was tested for his reading and spelling, achieving an age equivalent of 7:10 in reading and 5:04 in spelling. He was tested the following year with the same tests, achieving 9:02 in reading and 5:07 in spelling. As a result, he has undertaken intensive literacy intervention. At times his sentences can appear basic and repetitive in structure. Kevin self-describes as ‘dyslexic’ and has been subject to bullying with several incidences of him being called ‘stupid’, ‘thick’ and other derogatory remarks. This often occurs with his male friends with ‘banter’ escalating into name calling of this kind. Kevin naturally gets very upset about this. Parent is supportive of school but places great emphasis on dyslexia teaching as the solution to Kevin’s problems. Dyslexia or SLCN? A case study:
  • Kevin presents, at surface level, as an enthusiastic learner and sociable member of the school community. Kevin enjoys music, rugby and football – these are his standout strengths. Kevin has a small group of close friendships who he spends most of his time with whilst in school. Kevin has relative strength in Maths and Design Technology. Kevin will listen carefully and will readily put his hand up in group discussion etc. During conversation he maintains eye contact but often he shouts over other students in his enthusiasm. Kevin presents with reading difficulties. He can read texts aloud but struggles with fluency. He also struggles with understanding subject-specific words in written instructions, including everyday academic terminology such as analysis, comparison, evidence etc. Kevin has a difficulty explaining his ideas and opinions about what he has read. Kevin appears to have ideas but will falter ‘mid flow’, appearing to lose his train of thought. On occasion he will be over-reliant on saying ’thingy’ which other students have noticed and will call out over him – although he will laugh this off, he does tend to blush and show signs of embarrassment. Kevin’s spelling is well below average. When Kevin arrived at the school, he was tested for his reading and spelling, achieving an age equivalent of 7:10 in reading and 5:04 in spelling. He was tested the following year with the same tests, achieving 9:02 in reading and 5:07 in spelling. As a result, he has undertaken intensive literacy intervention. At times his sentences can appear basic and repetitive in structure. Kevin self-describes as ‘dyslexic’ and has been subject to bullying with several incidences of him being called ‘stupid’, ‘thick’ and other derogatory remarks. This often occurs with his male friends with ‘banter’ escalating into name calling of this kind. Kevin naturally gets very upset about this. Parent is supportive of school but places great emphasis on dyslexia teaching as the solution to Kevin’s problems. Dyslexia or SLCN? A case study:
  • Part 2 - Pragmatics “Two monologues do not make a dialogue.” ‒ Jeff Daly, Museum Design Consultant
  • Spotting pragmatic difficulties:  Difficulty in joining in a conversation at the right time.  Asking too many questions but not showing any interest in the answer.  Not giving adequate eye-contact during a conversation.  Not understanding body language or tone of voice.  Difficulty in concentrating in social situations.  Saying too much and not giving the listener a chance to talk.  Not checking whether the listener is interested in the conversation or understands what they are saying.  Going off on a tangent.
  • Fleeting Attention, 0 – 1 years  Child cannot attend to what you say. Approx. 7 minutes concentration span. Rigid to Single Channelled Attention, 1 – 3 years  Child can attend to own choice of activity for a longer period of time but cuts self off from everything else. Approx. 9 minutes concentration span. (Based on Reynell Attention Scale) Focusing Attention, 3 - 4 years  Child can listen if he/she stops activity and looks at adult. Beginning of shared attention. Needs adult help to do this. Approx. 13 minutes concentration span. Two-Channelled Attention, 4 - 5 years  Child can shift attention from task to speaker or from speaker to speaker with familiar promptings. Approx. 15 minutes concentration span. Towards Integrated Attention, 6 years +  Child increasingly listens and attends well in large groups, working on an activity, making reasonable choices in prioritising one activity over another, remaining ‘in tune’ to those around them. Up to 60 minutes concentration span. Attention as a key aspect of pragmatic skills:
  • De-escalating interruptions: Drivers for interruption: - Power - Limited Awareness - Seeking Attention - Habit Subculture We are going to log on and… Mine won’t log… Sir…Sir… Can we use our headphones? …questions at the end… Why are you interrupting? Jimmy you’re always… or …questions at the end…
  • At the start of lesson: • Follow a known routine. • Use a timer and prize with starter activities – this can help ‘set the scene’ from the beginning in terms of establishing focus. • Provide students with the most limited attention with practical jobs. Use this an opportunity for praise rather than as a punishment. • When completing the register, set a listening challenge such as, “Name a classic fairytale character, make sure not to repeat another student’s answer…” - rather than casually saying ‘yes sir’ etc. they have to listen to one another carefully. During the lesson: • During teacher-talk some students will routinely place their hands in the air and then begin to call out if the teacher doesn’t respond immediately. This can cut the teacher off ‘mid-flow’, disrupt their train of thought and mean they have to start again. Establish a familiar non-verbal signal to acknowledge and instruct the student to wait. • Break down instructions • If the overall classroom volume is too loud, rather than attempting to talk over it to settle the classroom, instead stand in one place and deliberately speak quieter. At the end of lesson: • At the very end of the lesson, dismiss the students one-by-one or in pairs by setting another listening challenge such as, “Give me an example of an adverb, make sure not to repeat another student’s answer...” If a student or pair talk over another, they are ‘out’ and have to wait until the end. General reinforcement in the classroom:
  • Targeted reinforcement in the classroom:  Problem: Students in a small group of 12 were routinely talking over one another. This prevented the teacher from moving the discussion from closed questions to open questions. This also resulted in a lack of ‘thinking time’ as students compete to be simply heard first.  Aim: To reduce incidents of shouting out.  Action: The students were given a ‘behaviour for learning’ target at the beginning of the week: “This week, we are going to practise taking turns during group talk.” • The group then undertook a quiz of five questions in two teams of six students. • For the first two questions, one team had to remain silent and put up their hands whilst the others were allowed to shout out the answers – and vice versa. The teacher then asked students to think about the volume, how they felt etc. • On the 3rd question, turn taking was modelled ‘hands up, wait for the teacher’, then for the 4th and 5th it was enforced with students who shouted out being ignored, even if they had shouted out the correct answer. • From there, the students were initially given two rules for the week lessons: 1. Every time a student puts their hand up to speak in class discussion and gives an answer that relates to the question, they will earn a raffle ticket for an end of week prize draw. 2. Students who shout out, in group discussion and during independent work to gain attention, will be ignored! (this was presented with a degree of humour).
  • Visual prompts: no voices room voices table voices Visual prompts such as a ‘Noisemeter’ can also help model desired behaviour.
  • Visual prompts: A clear routine, backed up with a poster reminder, can also help.
  • • Completing a ‘Pragmatic Skills Checklist’ can help identify the specific issues an individual student or small group of students present with. • From there, this can be used for a small group mentoring project or to evidence individual referrals to outside agencies. Going a step further – assessment:
  • Going a step further – ideas for intervention: Before we start… two principles… 1. We often run with an assumption that students can do certain things, and therefore in turn, when they cannot do it they are making a choice. With pragmatic skills, we are dealing with students who – for whatever reason – cannot. And if they cannot, then the solution is not sanctions-based working as a deterrent but through careful, patient intervention and incentives. 2. If you take away a behaviour, it needs replacing with another behaviour. The behaviour needs modelling and rehearsing away from the classroom – then positively reinforcing in the classroom. Look at real-life examples (good and bad) Introduce new mantra, routine, skill etc. Rehearse several times away from the classroom. Tie it back to the classroom with ‘mentor- teachers’.
  • Session Idea 1 Aim: To address low-level talking and off-topic interruptions. Activity: • Establish a group of five students. • One student is designated as the ‘expert’ and is given an answer sheet. • The two students either side are the ‘distracters’. Their job is to whisper in the ear of the ‘expert’ – they can be given example phrases to aid with this. • The two students opposite are designated as ‘quizzers’. They are each given a question sheet and take it in turns to ask questions. The ‘expert’ has to respond whilst ignoring the distractions. • To develop this further, one of the ‘quizzers’ can be given irrelevant (slightly or widely!) questions / interruptions. Take it further: • An intervention that similar models turn-taking is ‘Tech Teams’ (based on the ‘Lego Therapy’ model) whereby students are given similar designated, turn-taking roles to construct a model out of Lego, Mechano etc. Going a step further – ideas for intervention:
  • Session Idea 2 Aim: To raise awareness of how spoken communication can be misinterpreted. Activity: • Play a recorded scene from a TV soap such as Waterloo Road, Coronation Street or Eastenders. • Then provide a still image of the scene. • Use post-its, the students generate ideas around what the speaker is aiming at, such as informing, demanding, requesting help, expressing how you feel etc. • Using post-its (another colour if possible), the students then place emotion words around the listener to generate ideas about their feelings. • Then pose the question, “Has the speaker achieved their aim?” • Finally, the students watch again and decide what the speaker needs to change to achieve their aim better – content, tone, volume, body language etc. Take it further: • An intervention that follows a similar theme and method are ‘Comic Strip Conversations’ (devised originally by Carol Gray) which enable students to reflect on situations by mapping them out on a cartoon storyboard. Going a step further – ideas for intervention:
  • ‘Comic Strip Conversations’ Going a step further – ideas for intervention: • Comic Strip Conversations assist conversations about difficult topics, focusing on the emotional content and social dynamics of situations. Comic Strip Conversations can be used to reflect on the past, work through a present-day situation or plan for the future. • Comic Strip Conversations provide a process whereby a situation can be broken down into stages with an exploration of the interplay between feelings, thoughts, communication and actions. • Comic Strip Conversations are undertaken by drawing out a situation. A specific dictionary of symbols is used to ensure the meaning remains more or less the same each time. This allows for comparison across situations.
  • ‘Comic Strip Conversations’ Going a step further – ideas for intervention:
  • ‘Comic Strip Conversations’ Going a step further – ideas for intervention:
  • Going a step further – useful resources: Specific Resources Consolidation Games Practises turn-taking and listening. Practises turn-taking , listening and appropriate language. Practises non-verbal communication. Practises turn-taking and listening. Explores social norms & customs. Explores social dynamics.
  • Hayley is a Y10 student with a history of social and learning difficulties. She arrived in Y7 with a reading decoding age of 8:11 and a spelling age of 7:06. She undertook a twice-weekly phonics programme throughout Y7. From there she attended group reading sessions at the start of Y8 but was passive and withdrawn in them - instead she was placed on a 1-1 computer-based literacy programme at registration times. During Y7 and Y8 she made rapid gains - by the middle of Year 8 she achieved 10:06+ in reading decoding and 9:11 in spelling. It is worth noting that Hayley also undertook a reading comprehension test at the start of Y7 and achieved a standardised score of 74. She was tested again at the start of Y10, in preparation for an application for exam concessions, and she achieved a standardised score 78. Hayley also undertook a vocabulary test at this point and achieved a score of 63 – she struggled with words like delighted, grieving and collision. Looking back on Hayley’s attainment history, it is worth noting that she finished Y9 with a Level 5c in Maths, a Level 4a in Science and a Level 3a in English. A relative strength appears to be Home Tech where she achieved a level 5a and PE where she achieved a 6c. A relative weakness appears to History and RE where she achieved Level 3c. Hayley says History is her favourite subject and she enjoys the stories about people. Both her English and History teachers say she struggles to infer and interpret – in particular, struggling to explain things from another point of view. Hayley is a looked-after child and is described as bubbly and sociable but ‘vulnerable’ by the pastoral team. When questioned about relationships, they say she has regular, albeit temporary fall outs with close friends. When asked to describe her feelings, Hayley tends to give short, basic answers. In group conversation she will often go quiet or attempt to interrupt with statements that are not relevant to the conversation. Hayley is also reported to have developed a fixation with a boy in her year group – this emerged in Y8 and has continued throughout school. The boy is clearly uncomfortable in her presence but Hayley does not seem to recognise this. Autism or SLCN? A case study:
  • Hayley is a Y10 student with a history of social and learning difficulties. She arrived in Y7 with a reading decoding age of 8:11 and a spelling age of 7:06. She undertook a twice-weekly phonics programme throughout Y7. From there she attended group reading sessions at the start of Y8 but was passive and withdrawn in them - instead she was placed on a 1-1 computer-based literacy programme at registration times. During Y7 and Y8 she made rapid gains - by the middle of Year 8 she achieved 10:06+ in reading decoding and 9:11 in spelling. It is worth noting that Hayley also undertook a reading comprehension test at the start of Y7 and achieved a standardised score of 74. She was tested again at the start of Y10, in preparation for an application for exam concessions, and she achieved a standardised score 78. Hayley also undertook a vocabulary test at this point and achieved a score of 63 – she struggled with words like delighted, grieving and collision. Looking back on Hayley’s attainment history, it is worth noting that she finished Y9 with a Level 5c in Maths, a Level 4a in Science and a Level 3a in English. A relative strength appears to be Home Tech where she achieved a level 5a and PE where she achieved a 6c. A relative weakness appears to be History and RE where she achieved Level 3c. Hayley says History is her favourite subject and she enjoys the stories about people. Both her English and History teachers say she struggles to infer and interpret – in particular, struggling to explain things from another point of view. Hayley is a looked-after child and is described as bubbly and sociable but ‘vulnerable’ by the pastoral team. When questioned about relationships, they say she has regular, albeit temporary fall outs with close friends. When asked to describe her feelings, Hayley tends to give short, basic answers. In group conversation she will often go quiet or attempt to interrupt with statements that are not relevant to the conversation. Hayley is also reported to have developed a fixation with a boy in her year group – this emerged in Y8 and has continued throughout school. The boy is clearly uncomfortable in her presence but Hayley does not seem to recognisethis. Autism or SLCN? A case study:
  • Part 3 - Semantics “It's a strange world of language in which skating on thin ice can get you into hot water.” ‒Franklin P. Jones, Reporter and Columnist
  • Spotting semantic difficulties: •Difficulty in following questions and instructions. •Using phrases or words that they have heard on many occasions, but often out of place. •Lack of imagination evident in written work. •Difficulty in working out some of the things that we ‘infer’ in what we say (but do not actually put into words).  For instance a student might say: “Can I go to the toilet?” and the teacher says, “Well it’s nearly break time…”. What the teacher means is that the student can wait, so the answer is “No” because of this. The student may find it hard to ‘infer’ what is meant from what is actually said and as a result, may ask again or simply become frustrated. •Reading skills may be ahead of their understanding – average to high average score on a reading decoding test, below average or well below average score on a reading comprehension test.
  • Short-Term Memory Information is received, is carried for a short period, and then repeated in the same (or very nearly the same) form. Capacity is 5 - 9 items / chunks of information for approx. 20 - 60 seconds. Working Memory Information is first received to the short term memory - then interpreted, edited or merged with other information – and then re-expressed in an adapted / changed form. Long-Term Memory Following repeated use via working memory, information is gradually filtered and then stored thematically (semantically) and episodically. It is then carried for a long period – being subject to recall, re-processing and re-expression at various intervals over time. The information is likely to degrade somewhat over time, depending on use. Capacity is unknown. Working memory as a cause of semantic difficulties:
  • General guidance for teaching vocabulary: 1. Keep the focus on the most important vocab students need to discuss the topic. Grade the language to assist with differentiation. 2. Plan into your schemes time for actively pre-teaching and recap of vocab. 3. The key to any pre-teaching and recap activity is for the student to visualize the word – what picture the word creates in the mind’s eye, what the written word looks like…
  • Grading vocabulary: Core Words: Describing Words: Specialised Words:
  • Grading vocabulary: Core Words: Describing Words: Specialised Words: ‘Talk about the first 10 minutes of Batman Begins’ buildings, tunnels, alleyways, underground, gangsters, police, skyscrapers, camera, costume, actor, character derelict, gothic, claustrophobic, lighting, tense, dangerous, rundown, hopeless, acting, genre, mise-en-scene, characterisation, dialogue, style
  • Level 1 - naming and labelling Level 2 –parts, properties, categories, recount narrative, refinement of detail Level 3 – causation, predictive narrative, reordering Level 4 – problem solving, reasoning Blank Model of Verbal Reasoning concrete abstract Grading language:
  • Actively teaching vocabulary – Word Banks: Object Names Action Words Concepts Sights Sounds Feelings For practical tasks… For imaginative tasks… Preparing for the use of higher-level vocab in speaking and writing…
  • Actively teaching vocabulary – Word Banks: Object Names Action Words Concepts motor thread interaction sensor affix durability battery connect adaptability circuit test efficiency casing aesthetics Sights Sounds Feelings antenna chattering curious piston rumbling terrified sphere deafening confused creatures roar eerie fluorescent For practical tasks… For imaginative tasks… Preparing for the use of higher-level vocab in speaking and writing…
  • Actively teaching vocabulary – Word Webs: Tudors protestant catholic reformation pope monarchy religion divine right conflict persecution rebellion Henry VII Armada civil war sectarian geopolitical societymerchant noble priest yeoman Henry VIII Edward VI Elizabeth I Mary I Jane Grey Broadening topic vocab through association…
  • Actively teaching vocabulary – Word Profile 1: broken down words in the family mind’s eye meaning topics it comes under in a nutshell Deepening understanding of specialist vocab…
  • Actively teaching vocabulary – Word Profile 1: metamorphosis meta-morph-o-sis egg larva chrysalis adult broken down words in the family life cycles reproduction mind’s eye meaning topics it comes under in a nutshell big changes that happen to animals Deepening understanding of specialist vocab…
  • Actively teaching vocabulary – Word Profile 2: Break down the word into chunks. Think of a sentence for the word. Think of other words with a similar meaning. Think of other words with an opposite meaning. Think of a picture to go with the word. Think of a short, snappy definition. Deepening understanding of specialist vocab…
  • Synonyms: Actively teaching vocabulary – Word Profile 3: Definition: Word in 3 Sentences: 1) 2) 3) Picture/s: Antonyms: Word Deepening understanding of specialist vocab…
  • Thisishowwehearwhatis beingsaidtous.Weputth egapsinbetweenwordsino urselvesasweprocessand makesenseofwhatweare hearing. Ifyouarenotprocessing andunderstandingthen youstartputting theg a psin thew rongpla ces. Chunking instructions:
  • Telling – and showing:  The use of a visualizer can assist in showing what to do as well as telling what to do– keeping the order of action consistent with order of instruction.  To take the strategy further students could be recruited as helpers to demonstrate / model what is required as the teacher speaks the instructions – this could help increase engagement and confidence of students most prone to becoming off-task.
  • Checklists: A checklist breaks down instructions into easier-to- process chunks. A checklist is there to refer to for the whole lesson, unlike spoken language.
  • Flapjack Instructions: 1.Put the butter, sugar and honey in a saucepan. Turn on the heat. 2. Stir until the butter has melted. 3. Add the oats and fruit. Mix them well. 4. Pour them into your cake tin. 5.Smooth the surface with the back of your spoon. 6.Put them in the oven for 20mins –already heated to 180C. 20mins 180c Checklists:
  • Group Discussion – Recap & Reflect: What I can see… What I already know about this picture… What I want to find out… Trigger Image
  • Group Discussion – Create & Construct: What I can see… What the message might be… What the impact might be on the audience… Trigger Image
  • Group Discussion – Analyse & Infer: What I can see… What happened before… What might happen next… Trigger Image
  • Part 4 - Form “There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside of you.” ‒ Maya Angelou, Afro-American Author and Activist
  • Development of form: Causes of Form Difficulties: • Hearing Impairment • Cleft Lip and Palate • Neurological Issues - such as Cerebral Palsy • Coordination Disorders - such as Dysarthria and Dyspraxia
  • Students with form difficulties will usually be in receipt of speech and language therapy – and school staff may be asked to support any intervention put in place by specialists. In addition to this, there are general strategies: • Give students time to ‘have their say’ rather than interrupting with corrections. • Encourage participation in extra-curricular sports activities to improve relaxation, coordination and breathing – Yoga, climbing, swimming and martial arts can all prove beneficial. • Encourage participation in singing / choir to improve pace, timing and breathing. • When practising reading with them on a 1-1 or small group basis, draw attention to how punctuation can regulate breathing. • Repeatedly model sentence structures. • Simply encourage conversation! Supporting form:
  • RALLI Campaign - videos  www.tes.co.uk/mypublicprofile.aspx?uc=2941238 Elklan Training  www.elklan.co.uk Speech & Language Therapy Blog  www.languageisheartosay.com The Communication Trust  www.thecommunicationtrust.org.uk Talking Point  www.talkingpoint.org.uk Wolverhampton Speech & Language  www.royalwolverhamptonhospitals.nhs.uk/salt/children.asp Heather’s Speech Therapy  www.heatherspeechtherapy.com Further info:
  • How much do you know now? Rate yourself again… AwarenessofSLCN Understanding of SLCN
  • Copyright , Matt Grant, July 2013 All rights reserved. Permission to present this material and distribute freely for non-commercial purposes is granted, provided this copyright notice and those in the slides remain intact and is included in the distribution. If you modify this work, please note where you have modified it, as I want neither credit nor responsibility for your work. Modification for the purpose of taking credit for my work or otherwise circumventing the spirit of this license is not allowed, and will be considered a copyright violation. Any suggestions and corrections are appreciated and may be incorporated into future versions of this work, and credited as appropriate. If you believe I have infringed copyright, please contact me via the above website and I will promptly credit , amend or remove the material in question. For further resources or to contact the author, please visit: www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk