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Lecture2

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Manufacturing processes

Manufacturing processes

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  • 1. MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 2.830J / 6.780J / ESD.63J Control of Manufacturing Processes (SMA 6303) Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.
  • 2. Control of Manufacturing Processes Subject 2.830/6.780/ESD.63 Spring 2008 Lecture #2 Semiconductor Process Variation February 7, 2008 Manufacturing 1
  • 3. Agenda • The Semiconductor Fabrication Process – Manufacturing process control • Types of Variation in Microfabrication – Defects vs. parametric variations – Temporal variations: wafer to wafer (run to run) – Spatial variations: wafer, chip, and feature level • Preview of manufacturing control techniques – Statistical detection/analysis of variations – Characterization/modeling of processes & variation – Process optimization & robust design – Feedback control of process variation Manufacturing 2
  • 4. Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 1 R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement,” pp. 470-471, SIAM, 1997. Manufacturing Courtesy of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Used with permission. 3
  • 5. Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 2 R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement,” pp. 470-471, SIAM, 1997. Manufacturing Courtesy of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Used with permission. 4
  • 6. Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 3 R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement,” pp. 470-471, SIAM, 1997. Manufacturing Courtesy of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Used with permission. 5
  • 7. Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 4 R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement,” pp. 470-471, SIAM, 1997. Manufacturing Courtesy of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Used with permission. 6
  • 8. (Semiconductor) Manufacturing Process Control Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Fig. 26 in Boning, D. S., et al. “A General Semiconductor Process Modeling Framework.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 5 (November 1992): 266-280. Manufacturing 7
  • 9. Agenda • The Semiconductor Fabrication Process – Manufacturing process control • Types of Variation in Microfabrication – Defects vs. parametric variations – Temporal variations: wafer to wafer (run to run) – Spatial variations: wafer, chip, and feature level • Preview of manufacturing control techniques – Statistical detection/analysis of variations – Characterization/modeling of processes & variation – Process optimization & robust design – Feedback control of process variation Manufacturing 8
  • 10. Defect vs. Parametric Variation Manufacturing 9
  • 11. Yield & Variation from Defects • Electrical test – measure shorts in test structures for different spacings between patterned lines (at or near the “design rule” or DR feature size) – measure opens in other test structures Images removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see: Hess, Christopher. "Test Structures for Circuit Yield Assessment and Modeling." IEEE International Symposium on Quality Electronics Design, 2003. Manufacturing Hess, ISQED 2003 Tutorial 10
  • 12. Manufacturing 11
  • 13. Manufacturing 12
  • 14. Temporal Variation Manufacturing 13
  • 15. Manufacturing 14
  • 16. Manufacturing 15
  • 17. Spatial Variation • Wafer scale • Chip scale • Feature scale Manufacturing 16
  • 18. Manufacturing 17
  • 19. Manufacturing 18
  • 20. Manufacturing 19
  • 21. Manufacturing 20
  • 22. Manufacturing 21
  • 23. Manufacturing 22
  • 24. Manufacturing 23
  • 25. Manufacturing 24
  • 26. Manufacturing 25
  • 27. Manufacturing 26
  • 28. Manufacturing 27
  • 29. Modeling of Processes and Variation • Empirical modeling • Physical modeling Manufacturing 28
  • 30. Manufacturing 29
  • 31. Manufacturing 30
  • 32. Manufacturing 31
  • 33. Manufacturing 32
  • 34. Manufacturing 33
  • 35. Manufacturing 34
  • 36. Manufacturing 35
  • 37. Manufacturing 36
  • 38. Manufacturing 37
  • 39. Manufacturing 38
  • 40. Manufacturing 39
  • 41. Process Optimization & Robust Design Manufacturing 40
  • 42. Manufacturing 41
  • 43. Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Fig. 7 in Lakshminarayanan, S., et al. “Design Rule Methodology to Improve the Manufacturability of the Copper CMP Process.” Proceedings of the IEEE International Interconnect Technology Conference (2002): 99-101. Manufacturing 42
  • 44. Feedback Control of Variation Manufacturing 43
  • 45. The General Process Control Problem Desired Product Product CONTROLLER CONTROLLER EQUIPMENT MATERIAL Equipment loop Material loop Process output loop Control of Equipment: Control of Material Control of Product: Forces, Strains Geometry Velocities Stresses and Temperatures, ... Temperatures, Properties Pressures, ... Manufacturing 44
  • 46. Manufacturing 45
  • 47. Manufacturing 46
  • 48. Manufacturing 47
  • 49. Manufacturing 48
  • 50. Manufacturing 49
  • 51. Manufacturing 50
  • 52. Manufacturing 51
  • 53. Manufacturing 52
  • 54. Manufacturing 53
  • 55. Manufacturing 54
  • 56. Summary • The Semiconductor Fabrication Process – Manufacturing process control • Types of Variation in Microfabrication – Defects vs. parametric variations – Temporal variations: wafer to wafer (run to run) – Spatial variations: wafer, chip, and feature level • Preview of manufacturing control techniques – Statistical detection/analysis of variations – Characterization/modeling of processes & variation – Process optimization & robust design – Feedback control of process variation Manufacturing 55

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