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2.830J / 6.780J / ESD.63J Control of Manufacturing Processes (SMA 6303)
Spring 2...
Control of Manufacturing 

           Processes

                Subject 2.830/6.780/ESD.63

                        Sprin...
Agenda
• The Semiconductor Fabrication Process
   – Manufacturing process control

• Types of Variation in Microfabricatio...
Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 1 





                  R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial...
Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 2 





                  R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial...
Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 3 





                  R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial...
Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 4 





                  R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial...
(Semiconductor) Manufacturing 

                 Process Control




                 Image removed due to copyright restr...
Agenda
• The Semiconductor Fabrication Process
   – Manufacturing process control

• Types of Variation in Microfabricatio...
Defect vs. Parametric Variation





 Manufacturing                     9
Yield & Variation from Defects

•	 Electrical test
    –	 measure shorts in test 

       structures for different spacing...
Manufacturing   11
Manufacturing   12
Temporal Variation





Manufacturing                         13
Manufacturing   14
Manufacturing   15
Spatial Variation

• Wafer scale
• Chip scale
• Feature scale



 Manufacturing                       16
Manufacturing   17
Manufacturing   18
Manufacturing   19
Manufacturing   20
Manufacturing   21
Manufacturing   22
Manufacturing   23
Manufacturing   24
Manufacturing   25
Manufacturing   26
Manufacturing   27
Modeling of Processes 

                    and Variation


• Empirical modeling
• Physical modeling


 Manufacturing     ...
Manufacturing   29
Manufacturing   30
Manufacturing   31
Manufacturing   32
Manufacturing   33
Manufacturing   34
Manufacturing   35
Manufacturing   36
Manufacturing   37
Manufacturing   38
Manufacturing   39
Process Optimization &

                Robust Design





Manufacturing                         40
Manufacturing   41
Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Fig. 7 in
                Lakshminarayanan, S., et al. “Design Rul...
Feedback Control of Variation





Manufacturing                    43
The General Process Control Problem

Desired
Product                                                               Product...
Manufacturing   45
Manufacturing   46
Manufacturing   47
Manufacturing   48
Manufacturing   49
Manufacturing   50
Manufacturing   51
Manufacturing   52
Manufacturing   53
Manufacturing   54
Summary
• The Semiconductor Fabrication Process
   – Manufacturing process control

• Types of Variation in Microfabricati...
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Lecture2

  1. 1. MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 2.830J / 6.780J / ESD.63J Control of Manufacturing Processes (SMA 6303) Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.
  2. 2. Control of Manufacturing Processes Subject 2.830/6.780/ESD.63 Spring 2008 Lecture #2 Semiconductor Process Variation February 7, 2008 Manufacturing 1
  3. 3. Agenda • The Semiconductor Fabrication Process – Manufacturing process control • Types of Variation in Microfabrication – Defects vs. parametric variations – Temporal variations: wafer to wafer (run to run) – Spatial variations: wafer, chip, and feature level • Preview of manufacturing control techniques – Statistical detection/analysis of variations – Characterization/modeling of processes & variation – Process optimization & robust design – Feedback control of process variation Manufacturing 2
  4. 4. Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 1 R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement,” pp. 470-471, SIAM, 1997. Manufacturing Courtesy of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Used with permission. 3
  5. 5. Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 2 R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement,” pp. 470-471, SIAM, 1997. Manufacturing Courtesy of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Used with permission. 4
  6. 6. Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 3 R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement,” pp. 470-471, SIAM, 1997. Manufacturing Courtesy of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Used with permission. 5
  7. 7. Semiconductor Fabrication Process, Part 4 R. J. Shutz, in “Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement,” pp. 470-471, SIAM, 1997. Manufacturing Courtesy of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Used with permission. 6
  8. 8. (Semiconductor) Manufacturing Process Control Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Fig. 26 in Boning, D. S., et al. “A General Semiconductor Process Modeling Framework.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 5 (November 1992): 266-280. Manufacturing 7
  9. 9. Agenda • The Semiconductor Fabrication Process – Manufacturing process control • Types of Variation in Microfabrication – Defects vs. parametric variations – Temporal variations: wafer to wafer (run to run) – Spatial variations: wafer, chip, and feature level • Preview of manufacturing control techniques – Statistical detection/analysis of variations – Characterization/modeling of processes & variation – Process optimization & robust design – Feedback control of process variation Manufacturing 8
  10. 10. Defect vs. Parametric Variation Manufacturing 9
  11. 11. Yield & Variation from Defects • Electrical test – measure shorts in test structures for different spacings between patterned lines (at or near the “design rule” or DR feature size) – measure opens in other test structures Images removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see: Hess, Christopher. "Test Structures for Circuit Yield Assessment and Modeling." IEEE International Symposium on Quality Electronics Design, 2003. Manufacturing Hess, ISQED 2003 Tutorial 10
  12. 12. Manufacturing 11
  13. 13. Manufacturing 12
  14. 14. Temporal Variation Manufacturing 13
  15. 15. Manufacturing 14
  16. 16. Manufacturing 15
  17. 17. Spatial Variation • Wafer scale • Chip scale • Feature scale Manufacturing 16
  18. 18. Manufacturing 17
  19. 19. Manufacturing 18
  20. 20. Manufacturing 19
  21. 21. Manufacturing 20
  22. 22. Manufacturing 21
  23. 23. Manufacturing 22
  24. 24. Manufacturing 23
  25. 25. Manufacturing 24
  26. 26. Manufacturing 25
  27. 27. Manufacturing 26
  28. 28. Manufacturing 27
  29. 29. Modeling of Processes and Variation • Empirical modeling • Physical modeling Manufacturing 28
  30. 30. Manufacturing 29
  31. 31. Manufacturing 30
  32. 32. Manufacturing 31
  33. 33. Manufacturing 32
  34. 34. Manufacturing 33
  35. 35. Manufacturing 34
  36. 36. Manufacturing 35
  37. 37. Manufacturing 36
  38. 38. Manufacturing 37
  39. 39. Manufacturing 38
  40. 40. Manufacturing 39
  41. 41. Process Optimization & Robust Design Manufacturing 40
  42. 42. Manufacturing 41
  43. 43. Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Fig. 7 in Lakshminarayanan, S., et al. “Design Rule Methodology to Improve the Manufacturability of the Copper CMP Process.” Proceedings of the IEEE International Interconnect Technology Conference (2002): 99-101. Manufacturing 42
  44. 44. Feedback Control of Variation Manufacturing 43
  45. 45. The General Process Control Problem Desired Product Product CONTROLLER CONTROLLER EQUIPMENT MATERIAL Equipment loop Material loop Process output loop Control of Equipment: Control of Material Control of Product: Forces, Strains Geometry Velocities Stresses and Temperatures, ... Temperatures, Properties Pressures, ... Manufacturing 44
  46. 46. Manufacturing 45
  47. 47. Manufacturing 46
  48. 48. Manufacturing 47
  49. 49. Manufacturing 48
  50. 50. Manufacturing 49
  51. 51. Manufacturing 50
  52. 52. Manufacturing 51
  53. 53. Manufacturing 52
  54. 54. Manufacturing 53
  55. 55. Manufacturing 54
  56. 56. Summary • The Semiconductor Fabrication Process – Manufacturing process control • Types of Variation in Microfabrication – Defects vs. parametric variations – Temporal variations: wafer to wafer (run to run) – Spatial variations: wafer, chip, and feature level • Preview of manufacturing control techniques – Statistical detection/analysis of variations – Characterization/modeling of processes & variation – Process optimization & robust design – Feedback control of process variation Manufacturing 55

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